Symbolics refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer Symbolics, Inc. and a held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system. The symbolics.com domain was registered on March 15, 1985, making it the first.com-domain in the world. In August 2009, it was sold to napkin.com Investments. Symbolics, Inc. was a computer manufacturer headquartered in Cambridge, in Concord, with manufacturing facilities in Chatsworth, California. Its first CEO, founder was Russell Noftsker. Symbolics designed and manufactured a line of Lisp machines, single-user computers optimized to run the Lisp programming language. Symbolics made significant advances in software technology, offered one of the premier software development environments of the 1980s and 1990s, now sold commercially as Open Genera for Tru64 UNIX on the HP Alpha; the Lisp Machine was the first commercially available "workstation".
Symbolics was a spinoff from the MIT AI Lab, one of two companies to be founded by AI Lab staffers and associated hackers for the purpose of manufacturing Lisp machines. The other was Lisp Machines, Inc. although Symbolics attracted most of the hackers, more funding. Symbolics' initial product, the LM-2, was a repackaged version of the MIT CADR Lisp machine design; the operating system and software development environment, over 500,000 lines, was written in Lisp from the microcode up, based on MIT's Lisp Machine Lisp. The software bundle was renamed ZetaLisp, to distinguish the Symbolics' product from other vendors who had licensed the MIT software. Symbolics' Zmacs text editor, a variant of Emacs, was implemented in a text-processing package named "ZWEI", an acronym for "Zwei was Eine initially", with "Eine" being an acronym for "Eine Is Not Emacs". Both are recursive acronyms and puns on the German words for "One" and "Two"; the Lisp Machine system software was copyrighted by MIT, was licensed to both Symbolics and LMI.
Until 1981, Symbolics shared all its copyrighted enhancements to the source code with MIT and kept it on an MIT server. According to Richard Stallman, Symbolics engaged in a business tactic in which it forced MIT to make all Symbolics' copyrighted fixes and improvements to the Lisp Machine OS available only to Symbolics, thereby choke off its competitor LMI, which at that time had insufficient resources to independently maintain or develop the OS and environment. Symbolics felt. At that point, Symbolics began using their own copy of the software, located on their company servers—while Stallman says that Symbolics did that to prevent its Lisp improvements from flowing to Lisp Machines, Inc. From that base, Symbolics made extensive improvements to every part of the software, continued to deliver all the source code to their customers. However, the policy prohibited MIT staff from distributing the Symbolics version of the software to others. With the end of open collaboration came the end of the MIT hacker community.
As a reaction to this, Stallman initiated the GNU project to make a new community. Copyleft and the GNU General Public License would ensure that a hacker's software could remain free software. In this way Symbolics played a key, albeit adversarial, role in instigating the free software movement. In 1983, a year than planned, Symbolics introduced the 3600 family of Lisp machines. Code-named the "L-machine" internally, the 3600 family was an innovative new design, inspired by the CADR architecture but sharing few of its implementation details; the main processor had a 36-bit word. Memory words were the additional 8 bits being used for error-correcting code; the instruction set was that of a stack machine. The 3600 architecture provided 4,096 hardware registers, of which half were used as a cache for the top of the control stack. Hardware support was provided for virtual memory, common for machines in its class, for garbage collection, unique; the original 3600 processor was a microprogrammed design like the CADR, was built on several large circuit boards from standard TTL integrated circuits, both features being common for commercial computers in its class at the time.
CPU clock speed varied depending on the particular instruction being executed, but was around 5 MHz. Many Lisp primitives could be executed in a single clock cycle. Disk I/O was handled by multitasking at the microcode level. A 68000 processor started the main computer up, handled the slower peripherals during normal operation. An Ethernet interface was standard equipment, replacing the Chaosnet interface of the LM-2; the 3600 was the size of a household refrigerator. This was due to the size of the processor – the cards were spaced to allow wire-wrap prototype cards to fit without interference—and due to the limitations of the disk drive technology in the early 1980s. At the 3600's introduction, the smallest disk that could support the ZetaLisp software was 14 inches across; the 3670 and 3675 were shorter in height, but were the same machine packed a little tighter. The advent of 8 inches (2
The Hewlett-Packard Company or Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government and education sectors; the company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and David Packard, produced a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world's leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, at which time Lenovo ranked ahead of HP. HP specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP directly marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors.
HP had services and consulting business around its products and partner products. Hewlett-Packard company events included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. Hewlett-Packard spun off its enterprise products and services business as Hewlett Packard Enterprise on November 1, 2015. Hewlett-Packard held onto the PC and printer businesses, was renamed to HP Inc. Bill Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935; the company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression.
They considered Terman a mentor in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1938, Packard and Hewlett begin part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. In 1939 Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership, they tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, went public on November 6, 1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their first financially successful product, was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A, their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued production until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.
One of the company's earliest customers was Walt Disney Productions, which bought eight Model 200B oscillators for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia. They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard to be exempt from the draft. HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "traitorous eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices. During the 1960s, HP partnered with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products; the products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan.
HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment; the name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo "dy" of the new company. Dynac changed to Dymec, was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers; these had a simple accumulator-based design, with two accumulator registers and, in the HP 1000 models, two index registers. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers; the HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server redesigned with RISC technology.
The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, introduced screen labeled functio
Peter H. Salus
Peter H. Salus is a linguist, computer scientist, historian of technology, author in many fields, an editor of books and journals, he has conducted research in germanistics, language acquisition, computer languages. He has a 1963 PhD in Linguistics from New York University. After serving as professor and dean at several universities, he is now retired, he has been Executive Director of both the USENIX Association and the Sun User Group, Vice President of the Free Software Foundation. From 1987 to 1996, he was Managing Editor of the technical journal Computing Systems, he is best known for his books on the history of computing A Quarter Century of UNIX and Casting The Net. Völuspá: The Song of the Sybil On Language Plato to Humboldt For W. H. Auden, 21 February 1972 A Quarter Century of UNIX Casting the Net Packet Communication Handbook of Programming Languages Big Book of IPv6 Addressing RFCs The Complete April Fools' Day RFCs The Daemon, the Gnu & the Penguin — serialised on the Groklaw website The ARPANET Sourcebook: The Unpublished Foundations of the Internet
C++ is a general-purpose programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C language, or "C with Classes". It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation, it is always implemented as a compiled language, many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Intel, IBM, so it is available on many platforms. C++ was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained software and large systems, with performance and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ has been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications and performance-critical applications. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2017 as ISO/IEC 14882:2017.
The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, amended by the C++03, C++11 and C++14 standards. The current C++ 17 standard supersedes these with an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language. C++20 is the next planned standard, keeping with the current trend of a new version every three years. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "C with Classes", the predecessor to C++; the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development; when Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing.
Remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast and used; as well as C and Simula's influences, other languages influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML. Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added features to the C compiler, including classes, derived classes, strong typing and default arguments. In 1983, "C with Classes" was renamed to "C++", adding new features that included virtual functions, function name and operator overloading, constants, type-safe free-store memory allocation, improved type checking, BCPL style single-line comments with two forward slashes. Furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive reference for the language, as there was not yet an official standard; the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.
In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published; this work became the basis for the future standard. Feature additions included templates, namespaces, new casts, a boolean type. After the 2.0 update, C++ evolved slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 standard was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions were introduced in C++17, further changes planned for 2020; as of 2017, C++ remains the third most popular programming language, behind Java and C. On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".
According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C". This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983; when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program. During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes" before acquiring its final name. Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles: It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful in real world programs; every feature should be implementable. Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, that style should be supported by C++. Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++, it should provide facilities for organising programs into separate, well-defined parts, provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations.
OpenMusic is an object-oriented visual programming environment for musical composition based on Common Lisp. It may be used as an all-purpose visual interface to Lisp programming. At a more specialized level, a set of provided classes and libraries make it a convenient environment for music composition. OpenMusic is the last in a series of computer-assisted composition software designed at Ircam. Versions of OpenMusic are available for Mac OS X, Windows and Linux; the source code has been released under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Programs in OpenMusic are created by connecting together either pre-defined or user-defined modules, in a similar manner to graphical signal-processing environments such as Max/MSP or Pd. Unlike such environments, the result of an OpenMusic computation will be displayed in conventional music notation, which can be directly manipulated, if so required, via an editor. A substantial body of specialized libraries has been contributed by users, which extends OpenMusic's functionality into such areas as constraint programming, aleatoric composition, spectral music, minimalist music, music theory, music information retrieval, sound synthesis etc.
Alain Bancquart Brian Ferneyhough Joshua Fineberg Karim Haddad Rozalie Hirs Eres Holz Michael Jarrell Fabien Lévy PerMagnus Lindborg Fang Man Philippe Manoury Tristan Murail Kaija Saariaho Marco Stroppa OpenMusic: Un langage visuel pour la composition musicale assistée par ordinateur, Carlos Agon, PhD Thesis, IRCAM—Univ. Paris 6; the OM Composer's Book 1, ed. Carlos Agon, Gérard Assayag and Jean Bresson, 2006, Editions Delatour/IRCAM; the OM Composer's Book 2, ed. Jean Bresson, Carlos Agon and Gérard Assayag, 2008, Editions Delatour/IRCAM; the OM Composer's Book ed. Jean Bresson, Carlos Agon and Gérard Assayag, 2016, Editions Delatour/IRCAM. Fabio Selvafiorita's Thesis in Italian, Fabio. Composition assistée par ordinateur: techniques et outils de programmation visuelle pour la création musicale, Jean Bresson, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2017. OpenMusic Homepage, with full OM class and function reference and instructions on building OM from source
Xerox Corporation is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document and services in more than 160 countries. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, though its largest population of employees is based around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded; the company purchased Affiliated Computer Services for $6.4 billion in early 2010. As a large developed company, it is placed in the list of Fortune 500 companies. On December 31, 2016, Xerox separated its business process service operations into a new publicly traded company, Conduent. Xerox focuses on its document technology and document outsourcing business, continues to trade on the NYSE. On January 31, 2018, Xerox announced that it would sell a controlling stake to Fujifilm, which has maintained a joint venture in the Asia-Pacific region known as Fuji Xerox. Researchers at Xerox and its Palo Alto Research Center invented several important elements of personal computing, such as the desktop metaphor GUI, the computer mouse and desktop computing.
These concepts were frowned upon by the board of directors, who ordered the Xerox engineers to share them with Apple technicians. The concepts were adopted by Apple and Microsoft. With the help of these innovations and Microsoft came to dominate the personal computing revolution of the 1980s, whereas Xerox was not a major player. Xerox was founded in 1906 in Rochester as The Haloid Photographic Company, which manufactured photographic paper and equipment. In 1938 Chester Carlson, a physicist working independently, invented a process for printing images using an electrically charged photoconductor-coated metal plate and dry powder "toner". However, it would take more than 20 years of refinement before the first automated machine to make copies was commercialized, using a document feeder, scanning light, a rotating drum. Joseph C. Wilson, credited as the "founder of Xerox", took over Haloid from his father, he saw the promise of Carlson's invention and, in 1946, signed an agreement to develop it as a commercial product.
Wilson remained as President/CEO of Xerox until 1967 and served as Chairman until his death in 1971. Looking for a term to differentiate its new system, Haloid coined the term xerography from two Greek roots meaning "dry writing". Haloid subsequently changed its name to Haloid Xerox in 1958 and Xerox Corporation in 1961. Before releasing the 914, Xerox tested the market by introducing a developed version of the prototype hand-operated equipment known as the Flat-plate 1385; the 1385 was not a viable copier because of its speed of operation. As a consequence, it was sold as a platemaker for the Addressograph-Multigraph Multilith 1250 and related sheet-fed offset printing presses in the offset lithography market, it was little more than a high quality, commercially available plate camera mounted as a horizontal rostrum camera, complete with photo-flood lighting and timer. The glass film/plate had been replaced with a selenium-coated aluminum plate. Clever electrics turned this into reusable substitute for film.
A skilled user could produce fast and metal printing plates of a higher quality than any other method. Having started as a supplier to the offset lithography duplicating industry, Xerox now set its sights on capturing some of offset's market share; the 1385 was followed by the first automatic xerographic printer, the Copyflo, in 1955. The Copyflo was a large microfilm printer which could produce positive prints on roll paper from any type of microfilm negative. Following the Copyflo, the process was scaled down to produce the 1824 microfilm printer. At about half the size and weight, this still sizable machine printed onto hand-fed, cut-sheet paper, pulled through the process by one of two gripper bars. A scaled-down version of this gripper feed system was to become the basis for the 813 desktop copier; the company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the Xerox 914, "the most successful single product of all time." The 914, the first plain paper photocopier was developed by John H. Dessauer.
The product was sold by an innovative ad campaign showing that monkeys could make copies at the touch of a button - simplicity would become the foundation of future Xerox products and user interfaces. Revenues leaped to over $500 million by 1965. In the 1960s, Xerox held a dominant position in the photocopier market, the company expanded making millionaires of some long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and development phase of the product. In 1960, a xerography research facility called the Wilson Center for Research and Technology was opened in Webster, New York. In 1961, the company changed its name to Xerox Corporation. Xerox common stock was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1961 and on the Chicago Stock Exchange in 1990. In 1963 Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, realizing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk. Ten years in 1973, a basic, color copier, based on the 914, followed.
The 914 itself was sped up to become the 420 and 720. The 813 was developed into the 330 and 660 products and also the 740 desktop microfiche printer. Xerox's first foray into duplicating, as distinct from copying, was with the Xerox 2400, introduced in 1966; the model number denoted the number of prints produced in an hour. Although not as fast as offset printing, this machine introduced the industry's first automatic document feeder, paper slitter and perforator, collato
Common Lisp Interface Manager
The Common Lisp Interface Manager is a Common Lisp-based programming interface for creating user interfaces—i.e. GUIs, it is a object-oriented User Interface Management System, using the Common Lisp Object System and is based on the idea of stream input and output. There are facilities for output device independence, it is descended from the GUI system Dynamic Windows of Symbolics's Lisp machines Main development was between 1988 and 1993. CLIM 2.0 was released in 1993. CLIM has been designed to be portable across different Common Lisp implementations and different window systems, it uses a reflective architecture for its window system interface. CLIM supports, like Dynamic Windows, so-called Presentations. CLIM is available for Allegro CL, LispWorks, Macintosh Common Lisp, Symbolics Genera A free implementation of CLIM is called McCLIM. McCLIM has several extensions to CLIM and has been used for several applications like Climacs, an Emacs-like editor. McCLIM provides a mouse-sensitive Lisp Listener, a REPL for Common Lisp.
BB1, Blackboard system CLASP, analyze data from experiments by using graphics, statistical tests and various kinds of data manipulation CLIB, a prototype of an interface builder for CLIM Direct Labor Management System, managing the automobile manufacturing process system at Ford's assembly plants GenEd, An Editor with Generic Semantics for Formal Reasoning about Visual Notations Grasper-CL, a graph management system KONWERK, a domain independent configuration tool Mirage, an editor for building gadget-oriented graphical user interfaces. SENEX, a CLOS/CLIM application for molecular pathology SPIKE, scheduling system for the Hubble space telescope observations. Used for ASTRO-D, an X-Ray observation astronomy mission SpyGlass, an analysis environment for viewing packet traces, from BBN. VITRA Workbench, an integrated vision and natural language processing system CLIM 2.0 Specification as multiple HTML pages McCLIM Project Page Climacs Project Page