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Common Language Infrastructure

The Common Language Infrastructure is an open specification developed by Microsoft and standardized by ISO and Ecma that describes executable code and a runtime environment that allows multiple high-level languages to be used on different computer platforms without being rewritten for specific architectures. This implies. The. NET Framework. NET Core, DotGNU and Portable. NET are implementations of the CLI. Among other things, the CLI specification describes the following four aspects: The Common Type System A set of data types and operations that are shared by all CTS-compliant programming languages; the Metadata Information about program structure is language-agnostic, so that it can be referenced between languages and tools, making it easy to work with code written in a language the developer is not using. The Common Language Specification A set of base rules to which any language targeting the CLI should conform in order to interoperate with other CLS-compliant languages; the CLS rules define a subset of the Common Type System.

The Virtual Execution System The VES loads and executes CLI-compatible programs, using the metadata to combine separately generated pieces of code at runtime. All compatible languages compile to Common Intermediate Language, an intermediate language, abstracted from the platform hardware; when the code is executed, the platform-specific VES will compile the CIL to the machine language according to the specific hardware and operating system. In August 2000, Hewlett-Packard and others worked to standardize CLI. By December 2001, it was ratified by the Ecma, with ISO standardization following in April 2003. Microsoft and its partners hold patents for CLI. Ecma and ISO require that all patents essential to implementation be made available under "reasonable and non-discriminatory terms." It is common for RAND licensing to require some royalty payment, which could be a cause for concern with Mono. As of January 2013, neither Microsoft nor its partners have identified any patents essential to CLI implementations subject to RAND terms.

As of July 2009, Microsoft added C# and CLI to the list of specifications that the Microsoft Community Promise applies to, so anyone can safely implement specified editions of the standards without fearing a patent lawsuit from Microsoft. To implement the CLI standard requires conformance to one of the supported and defined profiles of the standard, the minimum of, the kernel profile; the kernel profile is a small set of types to support in comparison to the well known core library of default. NET installations. However, the conformance clause of the CLI allows for extending the supported profile by adding new methods and types to classes, as well as deriving from new namespaces, but it does not allow for adding new members to interfaces. This means that the features of the CLI can be used and extended, as long as the conforming profile implementation does not change the behavior of a program intended to run on that profile, while allowing for unspecified behavior from programs written for that implementation.

In 2012, Ecma and ISO published the new edition of the CLI standard, not covered by the Community Promise.. NET Framework is Microsoft's original commercial implementation of the CLI, its Virtual Execution System is the Common Language Runtime and its implementation of the Standard Libraries is the Framework Class Library.. NET Compact Framework is Microsoft's commercial implementation of the CLI for portable devices and Xbox 360.. NET Micro Framework is an open source implementation of the CLI for resource-constrained devices. Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure is a reference implementation of the CLI available from Microsoft, under the Shared Source licensing program.. NET Core is a modular free and open-source fork of Microsoft's. NET Framework by the. NET Foundation under an MIT license Mono development platform is an open source implementation of CLI and accompanying technologies, sponsored by Xamarin. Portable. NET, part of the dotGNU project, is a free software implementation of ECMA-335 by Free Software Foundation.

Standard Libraries List of CLI languages "Standard ECMA-335, Common Language Infrastructure". Ecma International. Retrieved August 31, 2005. "ISO/IEC 23271, Common Language Infrastructure". ISO. Retrieved September 27, 2006. "Ecma C# and Common Language Infrastructure Standards". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved October 13, 2009

Obolon (company)

Obolon Joint Stock Company is a major Ukrainian producer of beverages: beer, low alcohol drinks, soda drinks and locally extracted natural mineral water, as well as a major malt producer. Based in Kiev, Obolon JSC employs several thousand people. Obolon's main plant in Kiev is the largest brewing facility in Europe by installed capacity; as of 2008, that facility was Europe's largest single beer manufacturer in terms of physical volume. Obolon's plant in Khmelnytskyi Oblast is the largest malting facility in Europe by installed capacity; the company's main brewery was built in 1980 according to designs made by Czech engineers, near an artesian well in Kiev's Obolon district. Called Kiev brewery #3, it acquired the name "Obolon" in 1986. In 1992, Obolon became the first privatized company in independent Ukraine and registered its corporate brand Obolon; the shares of company stock were distributed among its employees. In 1993, Obolon changed its legal status to a closed joint-stock company. In 1997, Obolon obtained a $40 million loan from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which the company used to expand its production capacities.

In 2009 Obolon obtained a further $50 million loan from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development towards financial stability and increased energy efficiency. Oleksandr Slobodian, the CEO and veteran of the company was a national politician till the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election. Obolon has its main site in Kiev and 8 facilities in Ukraine: Bershad, Fastiv and Chemerivtsi, Kolomyia Oleksandria, Okhtyrka Rokytne Sevastopol. Obolon sells beer under six brands: Obolon, Obolon BeerMix, hike premium beer and Desant. Brands for its non-alcoholic products are Zhyvchyk and Obolonska mineral waters, the Jett line of energy drinks; the enterprise produces low-alcohol beverages, such as kvass. Obolon bottles Bitburger beer under license. Obolon is the largest Ukrainian exporter of beer, accounting for 80% of Ukrainian beer exports; the company exported with most of its exports being supplied to Russia. Since November 2011 has exported beer to China. In September 2014 Russia banned exports of Ukrainian beer over alleged inaccuracies in the nutrition information displayed on the products' labels.

Early summer 2015 the comt signed a licensing agreement with the Moscow Brewing Company to make beer inside Russia under its label, hence to re-enter the Russian beer market. The Obolon Corporation has its own malting plant able to produce 120,000 tonnes of malt per year; the malting plant uses equipment from the German company Schmidt-Seeger. Obolon exports it. Obolon is quality certified to international standards: ISO 9001:2001, ISO 22 000:2007, ISO 14 001:2006, OHSAS 18 001:2006; the company invests in projects aimed at reducing adverse environmental impact. Obolon is actively involved in educational projects and cultural initiatives, it has contributed to publishing of Ukrainian books. Obolon has sponsored FC Obolon Kyiv since 1999; the company's CEO was an amateur footballer in his youth. On 21 February 2013 FC Obolon Kyiv withdrew voluntary from the Ukrainian First League after Obolon CEO Slobodyan had refused to finance the club after goalkeeper Kostyantyn Makhnovskyi was sold by the club without his consent.

In December 2012 Slobodian announced he would create a new team under the moniker "Obolon Brovar". This club started its residence in competitive football in the 2013–14 Ukrainian Second League season. Beer Economy of Ukraine Official site of the company Sustainability Report

Heinrich Escher

Heinrich Escher was mayor of the City and Republic of Zürich at the turn of the 18th Century. He is credited with introducing chocolate to Switzerland after learning about it in Brussels. At the beginning of his political career in 1652 he became a representative of the guild the Meisen to the large council of Zurich and between 1663 -1668 to the small council. In 1669 he became bailiff of Kyburg and from 1678 until his death he was mayor of Zürich, he was active as a merchant in the textile trade. As a representative of the buyers he was a member of the delegation for the renewal of the alliance of Zürich with Ludwig XIV. After the Threat of Geneva and the Waldenser taken up there and Huguenot by France, Escher in 1687 together with a representative of Berne came to the court of Ludwig XIV, he was sent to represent the interests of the Evangelist conditions in Zürich and Berne and the conditions Geneva allied with them. Swissworld

Early Indian treaty territories in Montana

A number of different Native Americans living in present-day Montana entered into treaties with the United States during the 19th Century. Most of the treaties included an article that established the territory of the tribe entering into it. More and more of this Indian land turned into public or U. S. territory with the signing of new treaties.. Assiniboine Indian territory as described in the Treaty of Fort Laramie; the area changed into U. S. domain on April 13, 1875. In 1866, the Assiniboine had ceded the area by a treaty, never ratified. "Flathead and Upper Pond d'Oreille" used this range. The Kootenai and Upper Pend d'Oreille lived north of Flathead Lake; the Flathead made camps in the valley south of it. Area 374 is the "Jocko Reserve" established by the Hellgate treaty in 1855; the Blackfeet Indians and their Indian allies in the Gros Ventre tribe hunted and pitched tipis here. Areas 398 and 399 is the Fort Laramie treaty territory of the Blackfoot Nation, it is something of an oddity. On October 17, 1855, area 398 became shared hunting grounds for "ninety-nine" years and the Blackfeet accepted camps of the Flathead, Upper Pend d'Oreille and Nez Perce, as well as whites, on the ranges.

Further, they allowed the Assiniboine to hunt on a part of their easternmost treaty range bordering present-day North Dakota. The green area 399 is not included in the 1855 treaty territory of the Blackfeet, but it was first formally relinquished on July 5, 1873, by executive order. Area 574 was ceded by executive orders of April 15 and August 18, 1874; the reserve thus left to the Blackfeet in 1874 would diminish later. Today, both the Blackfeet Reservation, the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation, the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation and the Fort Peck Indian Reservation is located within this former Blackfeet treaty land between the Missouri and Canada; the three areas together indicate the Crow Indian territory in Montana as defined in the Treaty of Fort Laramie. Areas 619 and 635 show the smaller Crow Indian Reservation established on May 7, 1868; this is a vacuum in the cessions of Indian land. With adjoining tribal areas outside Montana, the territory was claimed by "Methow, Kooteny, Pend d'Oreille, North Spokane, San Poeil, other tribes".

When tribal reservations were established in other states in 1872, the United States "simply took possession" of area 532 on "December 0, 1871". The combined areas show the westernmost land recognized as Arikara and Mandan territory in the Treaty of Fort Laramie; the United States came into possession of area 529 by executive order of April 12, 1870, area 620 by executive order of July 13, 1880. The two gray areas at the right bottom of the map indicate the northwestern edges of a larger Lakota territory in the present-day Dakotas and Wyoming as described in the Treaty of Fort Laramie; the Northern Cheyennes are not mentioned here, since the treaties defining Indian territories in Montana antedate the arrival of them. They advanced into Montana during the Sioux Wars in the 1870s; the western part of the present Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation is end-to-end with the eastern and longer border of the Crow reservation in the central part of the 1851 Crow treaty territory. The Chippewas and the Crees are other groups of Native Americans without a long history in Montana.

The Rocky Boy Indian Reservation is located in the center of area 565

Fire on the L√ľneburg Heath

The fire on the Lüneburg Heath was a major forest fire in 1975 on the southern part of the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany, with various points of origin near Gifhorn and Meinersen. To this day, it is the largest known forest fire in the Federal Republic of Germany; the fire was aided by a long period of drought with hot summer weather and dried-out coniferous forests. Additionally, there was a lot of storm-damaged wood left in the wake of Hurricane Quimburga on 13 November 1972 that had not been cleared; the sources of the fire could only be reached with difficulty by the fire services over the unmetalled forest and heath tracks. Assisted by the monoculture of the area with its uniform stands of pines, the fire was able to spread and developed into a giant forest fire in parts of the districts of Gifhorn and Celle; the actual cause of the fire was only clarified in a few cases. At one place it was reckoned that the fire was started by sparks from the railway, in other places by carelessness or arson.

On 8 August 1975 a heath fire near the village of Stüde on the Südheide got out of control. The fire spread and jumped across the Elbe Lateral Canal. In addition to the forest and bog fires between Stüde and Neudorf-Platendorf further fires broke out in the next few days in the districts of Gifhorn and Celle in the area of the Südheide Nature Park, which were only extinguished with difficulty. Plumes of smoke rose up to four kilometres high above the heath. On the first day of the fire, the 8 August, a fire engine near Neudorf-Platendorf was rolled by the rolling barrage, two firemen sustaining serious burns. On the same day the Gifhorn district fire chief died of heart failure during a callout. One of the sources of the fire in Celle district originated on 9 August 1975 at 12:50 hours from a fire in the Unterlüß/Schmarbeck area. On 10 August at 12:30 hours between Eschede and Oldendorf near the village of Queloh a forest fire was reported; the fire spread through the pine monocultures. On 10 August a new forest blaze started near Meinersen.

After the fire was halted shortly before the village, the wind veered and blew the 20-metre-high flames in a new direction. As a result, a water tender of the Volunteer Fire Service was cut off. Five firefighters from Fallersleben and Hohenhameln died in the wall of fire. On 10 August the Lüneburg Regierungspräsident declared a state of emergency. On 12 August 1975 at 11:55 another large fire broke out near Gorleben, that destroyed 2,000 hectares of forest and farmland by 22:00 hours; this fire was put out by the end of the day, however. On 17 August 1975 all the fires were extinguished; the fire disaster had been on radio and television across Germany for a week. On 18 August 1975 the disaster warning was ended. About 15,000 fire fighters from across Germany fought the fire. A total of 3,800 fire engines were deployed. Other authorities such as the police, Bundesgrenzschutz, Technisches Hilfswerk and Forestry Commission as well as aid organisations like the German Red Cross, St. John's Ambulance, Malteser Hilfsdienst and Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund were engaged in fighting the forest fires in Lower Saxony.

But only when around 11,000 Bundeswehr soldiers with cross-country capable vehicles and heavy clearance equipment were deployed could the fire be contained by the creation of firebreaks. In addition there were many British troops deployed in particular AVRE's from 26 Armoured Engineer Squadron from Hohne garrison. For the first time, three aerial firefighter aircraft of the Canadair CL-215 type from France were used in support; these were used to protect small hamlets and farmsteads in the fire zone. They picked up water from the Steinhuder Meer. Airport fire appliances from the Rhineland were stationed at a Bundeswehr barracks in Wesendorf north of Gifhorn. Firefighting was made more difficult by the weather conditions, the poor going on the tracks and changing winds; the biggest problem however was an acute lack of water to fight the fire. Most of the natural water sources such as ponds, gravel pits or rivers were a long way from the sites of the fire. Water tenders had to travel long distances in order to refill their tanks.

During the emergency a railway firefighting train was deployed. The Hanover Railway Fire Service had stood by on 12 August 1975 for deployment to the disaster area. Four tank wagons and a flat wagon were made available for the firefighting train; each tanker held 45,000 litres of water. The Hanover Railway Fire Service put out fires by the railway track between Garßen; the flat wagon carried the Hanover Fire Service's TLF 16 fire appliance. So that water would be continuously available, the two other tank wagons were filled with water. Once the diesel locomotive had delivered two full tank wagons, it would return to Uelzen with the empty ones in order to refill them at the water crane there; the deployment of the fire train ended on 16 August 1975. For future incidents the Deutsche Bundesbahn has stationed four water wagons along the railway line from Hanover to Celle; the fire destroyed 7,418 hectares of forest and caused damage assessed at more than 18 million euros. After the fire the chief executive responsible for the district of Celle, not felt to have handled the problem well, was replaced.

At the site where five firemen died a memorial was erected. It consists of a walled enclosure with a large memorial stone and five smaller one

St Gregory's Church, Norwich

St Gregory’s Church, Norwich is a Grade I listed redundant parish church in the Church of England in Norwich. The church, which stands between Pottergate and St Benedict's Street, is medieval; the body of the church dates back to a 14th-century rebuilding. St Gregory's is noted for its wall-paintings, which include a depiction St George and the dragon at the west end of the north aisle. There is a public passageway under the chancel, rebuilt in 1394; the west tower once had a lead-covered spire, bearing the date 1697, but this was removed in 1840. Most of the stained glass dates back to the late 19th century, was made by J and J King of Norwich; the building is managed by the Norwich Historic Churches Trust. After being made redundant as a parish church, it was used as an arts centre, which closed in September 2012; the following year it was leased out for use as an antiques centre. The church has an organ dating from 1887 by Norman Brothers. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register