Common Lisp

Common Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994. The Common Lisp HyperSpec, a hyperlinked HTML version, has been derived from the ANSI Common Lisp standard; the Common Lisp language was developed as a improved successor of Maclisp. By the early 1980s several groups were at work on diverse successors to MacLisp: Lisp Machine Lisp, Spice Lisp, NIL and S-1 Lisp. Common Lisp sought to unify and extend the features of these MacLisp dialects. Common Lisp is not an implementation, but rather a language specification. Several implementations of the Common Lisp standard are available, including free and open-source software and proprietary products. Common Lisp is a multi-paradigm programming language, it supports a combination of procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms. As a dynamic programming language, it facilitates evolutionary and incremental software development, with iterative compilation into efficient run-time programs.

This incremental development is done interactively without interrupting the running application. It supports optional type annotation and casting, which can be added as necessary at the profiling and optimization stages, to permit the compiler to generate more efficient code. For instance, fixnum can hold an unboxed integer in a range supported by the hardware and implementation, permitting more efficient arithmetic than on big integers or arbitrary precision types; the compiler can be told on a per-module or per-function basis which type safety level is wanted, using optimize declarations. Common Lisp includes an object system that supports multimethods and method combinations, it is implemented with a Metaobject Protocol. Common Lisp is extensible through standard features such as reader macros. Common Lisp provides some backwards compatibility to John McCarthy's original Lisp; this allows older Lisp software to be ported to Common Lisp. Work on Common Lisp started in 1981 after an initiative by ARPA manager Bob Engelmore to develop a single community standard Lisp dialect.

Much of the initial language design was done via electronic mail. In 1982, Guy L. Steele, Jr. gave the first overview of Common Lisp at the 1982 ACM Symposium on LISP and functional programming. The first language documentation was published 1984 as Common Lisp the first edition. A second edition, published in 1990, incorporated many changes to the language, made during the ANSI Common Lisp standardization process: extended LOOP syntax, the Common Lisp Object System, the Condition System for error handling, an interface to the pretty printer and much more, but CLtL2 does not describe the final ANSI Common Lisp standard and thus is not a documentation of ANSI Common Lisp. The final ANSI Common Lisp standard was published in 1994. Since no update to the standard has been published. Various extensions and improvements to Common Lisp have been provided by implementations and libraries. Common Lisp is a dialect of Lisp, it uses S-expressions to denote both data structure. Function calls, macro forms and special forms are written as lists, with the name of the operator first, as in these examples: Common Lisp has many data types.

Number types include integers, floating-point numbers, complex numbers. Common Lisp uses bignums to represent numerical values of arbitrary precision; the ratio type represents fractions a facility not available in many languages. Common Lisp automatically coerces numeric values among these types as appropriate; the Common Lisp character type is not limited to ASCII characters. Most modern implementations allow Unicode characters; the symbol type is common to Lisp languages, but unknown outside them. A symbol is a unique, named data object with several parts: name, function, property list and package. Of these, value cell and function cell are the most important. Symbols in Lisp are used to identifiers in other languages: to hold the value of a variable; when a symbol is evaluated, its value is returned. Some symbols evaluate to themselves, for example all symbols in the keyword package are self-evaluating. Boolean values in Common Lisp are represented by the self-evaluating symbols T and NIL. Common Lisp has namespaces for symbols, called'packages'.

A number of functions are available for rounding scalar numeric values in various ways. The function round rounds the argument to the nearest integer, with halfway cases rounded to the integer; the functions truncate and ceiling round towards zero, down, or up respectively. All these functions return the discarded fractional part as a secondary value. For example, yields -3, 0.5. Sequence types in Common Lisp include lists, bit-vectors, strings. There are many operations; as in all other Lisp dialects, lists in Common Lisp are composed of conses, sometimes called cons cells or pairs. A cons is a data structure with two slots, called its cdr. A list is a linked chain of the empty list; each cons's car refers to a member of the list. Each cons's cdr refers to the next cons—except for the last cons in a list, whose cdr refers to the nil value. Conses can easily be used to implement trees and other complex data structures.

Joe Cross (filmmaker)

Joe Cross is an Australian entrepreneur, author and wellness advocate. He is most known for his documentary Fat, Sick & Nearly Dead in which he tells the story of his 60-day juice fast, he is the founder and CEO of Reboot with Joe, a health and lifestyle brand at the same time Joe was an engineer working with different companies on a rig. Following the release of his documentary, Cross has published six books about juicing. In February 2014, Cross released his book titled The Reboot with Joe Juice Diet: Lose Weight, Get Healthy and Feel Amazing that became a New York Times best-seller but right now he's focused on his engineering. In 2005, Cross weighed 22 stone and suffered from an autoimmune condition, chronic urticaria, for which he had been taking medications such as the steroid prednisone for years, he spent his 30s trying non-traditional medicine to solve his illness. And unsuccessfully tried various diets in starts, his daily diet consisted of processed foods. Cross was a consumed alcohol regularly.

According to Cross, he believed that his eating habits had caused his illness and he wanted to change his lifestyle. He wanted to get off medication as he believed that the medication or doctors were not able to offer a cure for his condition. In 2005 when he was 39, the doctors told him that with his health, he would die early and he decided to consume only juice for 60 days in order to improve his health. Under the supervision of his doctor and a team that monitored his blood work he started the juice fast in May 2005. For his juice fast, he decided to travel across America while talking to people about their attitudes toward food, he travelled in a truck with a sound guy, a juicer and a generator. Cross survived on nothing but juices for 60 days during his juice fast, he used an 80/20 rule, according to which he used 80 percent vegetables and 20 percent fruit in the juice that he made to avoid getting too much sugar into his system. Cross used a special juice that he prepared called the Mean Green Juice - a mixture of kale, lemon, cucumber and ginger.

However, he kept changing the fruits and vegetables used in the juice to ensure he consumed different plants and vegetables. According to Cross, he felt unstable the first three to five days; however after consuming only juice for five days, he started feeling well both physically and mentally. After 49 days, he lost 67 pounds, his total cholesterol dropped from 204 to 135 and his LDL cholesterol went from 132 to 86. By day 61, Cross had lost 82 pounds and decreased his medicine dosage after reporting a complete loss of his urticaria symptoms. Following the 60-day juice fast, he consumed only foods derived from plants and no animal-based or processed food for 90 days; as of March 2013, Cross weighed a weight that he maintained for the past five years. He hit an all-time low of 210 pounds near the end of his first five months on the diet. Cross’s future plan includes a juicing launch in the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia and Chile. Cross does not recommend the diet as a long term solution and only recommends it as a reboot for the body.

According to him, he took up the diet because he wanted a circuit breaker to stop what he was doing and not to adopt it as a permanent lifestyle. One of the misconceptions that Cross tries to correct is that people think he consumes nothing but juice. "That’s not a proper, healthy way to live," adds Cross. Cross filmed his juice and travel through America, released a documentary, Sick & Nearly Dead, in 2011. In the movie, while travelling, Cross meets talks to them about their eating habits; the movie features interview segments with people. He charts his progress with an itemized list of what day of the fast it is, what city and what state Cross is filming in, how much weight he’s lost and what kind of medication he’s taking. During his road-trip Cross meets and inspires Phil Staples, a morbidly obese truck driver from Sheldon, Iowa, in a truck stop in Arizona to try juice fasting; the movie was called Death By Fat. It became Faster. However, after Cross came to America to shoot the movie, he had to change the concept and the idea of the movie.

The film has been credited with doubling the sales of Breville juicers since the documentary launched on Netflix in the US in July 2011. After completing work on Fat, Sick & Nearly Dead, he continued to travel around the world to promote juicing and plans to make a second movie about life after juicing. Cross is involved in negotiations with media companies in the US about a TV series. A sequel to the film, Fat Sick and Nearly Dead 2 was released in 2014; the sequel follows the lives of people from the first movie, includes expert interviews and shows Cross's effort to maintain his weight. In 2016, Cross produced another health documentary entitled The Kids Menu, which focuses on stopping childhood obesity at its wake. After Fat, Sick & Nearly Dead was released in 2010, Cross founded Reboot with Joe, a health and lifestyle brand that provides information and support to people looking to make diet and lifestyle changes; the brand is focused on consuming more vegetables for improving health. Cross serves as the CEO of the organization.

The website of the organization offers guides for starting a juice fast and which fruits and vegetables to select. The organization has a medical advisory board to collect data and conduct research about benefits of juicing. Cross released his first book titled Fat, Sick & Nearly Dead in 2011 followed by a second book titled Reboot with Joe Recipe Book (Plant-Based Recipes to Super


Taikoz is a taiko ensemble based in Sydney, Australia. Formed in 1997, they are credited with not only being an early Australian taiko ensemble, but for broadly expanding interest in taiko performance in Australian society. Taikoz formed in 1997 and was founded by Riley Lee along with their current artistic director, Ian Cleworth. Lee had worked with Ondekoza in the 1970s, was approached by Cleworth to form a kumi-daiko group in Sydney. Taikoz's performs predominantly original Australian compositions composed by members of the group and commissioned composers; the work is contemporary collaborations with other performing art mediums and draws influence from western art music, traditional musics and sound design. When formed, Taikoz performed traditional pieces passed on from groups such as Ondekoza and performers such as Eitetsu Hayashi, more modern pieces developed by Japanese groups, as well as pieces the group has developed on their own; some of the more traditional pieces include Yatai-bayashi and Hachijo, whereas some of their own, unique pieces include Asobibachi and Knots.

Their performances can be categorized as either more traditional, festival-based pieces before formal groups formed in the 1950s, or more based on modern kumi-daiko performance modeled on groups like Ondekoza and Kodo. As Taikoz's development extended from performers in Japan, they have been credited as being successful as emphasizing Japanese elements in their work while being able to implement original, creative styles into their performances, they have been effective at introducing taiko performance to the Australian populace, have generated significant interest in taiko playing among Australians. They have performed collaboratively with Kodo, the Sydney and Melbourne Symphony Orchestras, Bell Shakespeare Company, Meryl Tankard Company, premiered work in the Sydney Festival, the Canberra Theatre, City Recital Hall and has toured nationally and internationally. Taikoz official website