The Common Object Request Broker Architecture is a standard defined by the Object Management Group designed to facilitate the communication of systems that are deployed on diverse platforms. CORBA enables collaboration between systems on different operating systems, programming languages, computing hardware. CORBA uses an object-oriented model although the systems that use the CORBA do not have to be object-oriented. CORBA is an example of the distributed object paradigm. CORBA enables communication between software written in different languages and running on different computers. Implementation details from specific operating systems, programming languages, hardware platforms are all removed from the responsibility of developers who use CORBA. CORBA normalizes the method-call semantics between application objects residing either in the same address-space or in remote address-spaces. Version 1.0 was released in October 1991. CORBA uses an interface definition language to specify the interfaces that objects present to the outer world.
CORBA specifies a mapping from IDL to a specific implementation language like C++ or Java. Standard mappings exist for Ada, C, C++, C++11, COBOL, Lisp, PL/I, Object Pascal, Python and Smalltalk. Non-standard mappings exist for C#, Perl and Visual Basic implemented by object request brokers written for those languages; the CORBA specification dictates there shall be an ORB through which an application would interact with other objects. This is how it is implemented in practice: The application initializes the ORB, accesses an internal Object Adapter, which maintains things like reference counting, object instantiation policies, object lifetime policies; the Object Adapter is used to register instances of the generated code classes. Generated code classes are the result of compiling the user IDL code, which translates the high-level interface definition into an OS- and language-specific class base for use by the user application; this step is necessary in order to enforce CORBA semantics and provide a clean user process for interfacing with the CORBA infrastructure.
Some IDL mappings are more difficult to use than others. For example, due to the nature of Java, the IDL-Java mapping is rather straightforward and makes usage of CORBA simple in a Java application; this is true of the IDL to Python mapping. The C++ mapping requires the programmer to learn datatypes that predate the C++ Standard Template Library. By contrast, the C++11 mapping is easier to use, but requires heavy use of the STL. Since the C language is not object-oriented, the IDL to C mapping requires a C programmer to manually emulate object-oriented features. In order to build a system that uses or implements a CORBA-based distributed object interface, a developer must either obtain or write the IDL code that defines the object-oriented interface to the logic the system will use or implement. An ORB implementation includes a tool called an IDL compiler that translates the IDL interface into the target language for use in that part of the system. A traditional compiler compiles the generated code to create the linkable-object files for use in the application.
This diagram illustrates how the generated code is used within the CORBA infrastructure: This figure illustrates the high-level paradigm for remote interprocess communications using CORBA. The CORBA specification further addresses data typing, network protocols, communication timeouts, etc. For example: Normally the server side has the Portable Object Adapter that redirects calls either to the local servants or to the other servers; the CORBA specification leaves various aspects of distributed system to the application to define including object lifetimes, redundancy/fail-over, memory management, dynamic load balancing, application-oriented models such as the separation between display/data/control semantics, etc. In addition to providing users with a language and a platform-neutral remote procedure call specification, CORBA defines needed services such as transactions and security, events and other domain-specific interface models; this table presents the history of CORBA standard versions.
A servant is the invocation target containing methods for handling the remote method invocations. In the newer CORBA versions, the remote object is split into the servant, it can be one servant per remote object, or the same servant can support several objects, associated with the given Portable Object Adapter. The servant for each object can be set or found "once and forever" or dynamically chosen each time the method on that object is invoked. Both servant locator and servant activator can forward the calls to another server. In total, this system provides a powerful means to balance the load, distributing requests between several machines. In the object-oriented languages, both remote object and its servant are objects from the viewpoint of the object-oriented programming. Incarnation is the act of associating a servant with a CORBA object. Incarnation provides a concrete servant form for the virtual CORBA object. Activation and deactivation refer only to CORBA objects, while the terms incarnation and etherealization refer to servants.
However, the lifetimes of objects and servants are independent. You always incarnate a servant before calling activate_object, but
Tryggvi Guðmundsson is an Icelandic former footballer. He is Iceland's all-time top scorer in the Úrvalsdeild, he is the highest scoring male Icelandic footballer of all time in association football with 296 goals credited to his name. A prolific striker, Tryggvi started his career at ÍBV before moving abroad to clubs in Norway and Sweden. After an unsuccessful loan spell at Stoke City, he returned to Iceland. Tryggvi made his debut for Iceland in a July 1997 friendly match against the Faroe Islands, coming on as a second-half substitute for Ríkharður Daðason and scoring the only goal of the match, he has scored twelve goals in 42 appearances, his last appearance coming in a 2–1 away friendly win against Slovakia in March 2008. Tryggvi Guðmundsson at National-Football-Teams.com Profile on KSÍ's website
Dmytro Antonovych was a Ukrainian politician and art historian. Professor Dmytro Antonovych was the son of a Ukrainian historian Volodymyr Antonovych, the husband of Kateryna Antonovych, the father of Marko Antonovych and Mykhailo Antonovych. In 1900–1905, he was one of the founders and leaders of the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party, established in 1900 in the city of Kharkiv, from 1905, of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party. Since 1912, he taught art history at the Lysenko Drama School in Kiev. Antonovych was a member of the Ukrainian Central Rada, he served as the minister of naval affairs of the Ukrainian People's Republic, in cabinets headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko and Vsevolod Holubovych, the minister of arts in Volodymyr Chekhivsky’s government. Antonovych was the president of the Ukrainian diplomatic mission of the UNR in Rome, he was an organizer and rector of the Ukrainian Free University in Vienna and Prague and a professor of art history there as well. Antonovych was the director of the Museum of Ukraine's Struggle for Independence in Prague for many years.
He was president of the Ukrainian Historical-Philological Society, director of the Ukrainian Studio of Plastic Arts, both in Prague, from 1923 until 1945. Antonovych, Dmytro in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1
Vercelli railway station is the main station serving the city and comune of Vercelli, in the Piedmont region, northwestern Italy. Opened in 1856, it forms part of the Turin–Milan railway, is a junction station for two other lines, to Valenza and Pavia, respectively; the station is managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. However, the commercial area of the passenger building is managed by Centostazioni. Train services are operated by Trenitalia; each of these companies is a subsidiary of Italy's state-owned rail company. Vercelli railway station is situated at the northwestern edge of the city centre; the station was opened on 20 October 1856, upon the opening of the Torino Porta Susa–Novara section of the Turin–Milan railway. The passenger building is made up of three components: the central part has two levels and a large lobby consisting of five arches; the single storey lateral wings spread symmetrically from the central part, are smaller. The building is made of brick, it is painted grey at ground floor level, a rose colour above that level.
The station is served by the following services: High speed services Turin - Milan - Brescia - Verona - Vicenza - Padua - Venice - Trieste Night train Turin - Milan - Parma - Rome - Naples - Salerno Night train Turin - Milan - Parma - Reggio Emilia - Florence - Rome - Salerno - Lamezia Terme - Reggio di Calabria Express services Turin - Chivasso – Vercelli – Novara – Milan Regional services Chivasso - Vercelli - Novara Regional services Vercelli - Mortara - PaviaTrain services to Casale Monferrato finished on 14 June 2013. The station has around 3.5 million passenger movements each year. There are about 138 trains per day; the trains stopping at Vercelli are Intercity Notte and regional trains. Their main destinations are Novara and Milan. History of rail transport in Italy List of railway stations in Piedmont Rail transport in Italy Railway stations in Italy Media related to Vercelli railway station at Wikimedia Commons This article is based upon a translation of the Italian language version as at December 2010
The Gerlach and Ely model emphasizes the cycle nature of instructional design. The authors wanted to design a model which explained each component of the teaching and learning process while at the same time examining the relationship between the media and instruction; the model consists of ten elements and was constructed for teachers who both design and deliver instruction. The model is defined and understood; the Gerlach and Ely instructional design model was developed by Donald P. Ely. Gerlach is an American Educator and writer who authored and co-authored books in the field of Education. Dr. Ely was an American professor and director of ERIC Clearinghouse on information and technology at Syracuse University. Dr. Ely published and co-authored several journal articles and books and founded the ERIC Clearinghouse on information and technology; as an Educator, he was an advocate for instructional technology. Gerlach and Ely co-authored Teaching and the media, A systematic Approach where they introduced the Gerlach and Ely Instructional design model.
The model can be described as a mix of linear and concurrent activities that contains several steps which are seen as simultaneous. In education, the model is suitable for primary and tertiary levels and can be implemented with limited resources available to teachers; the model is most suitable for instructional planning and designing where objectives and content are predetermined. Both objectives and content are synchronize and are the starting point of instruction; the model includes strategies for including multimedia during instruction. It is one of the few models. In the field of education, the model “has stood the test of time and has continued to serve the classroom teacher well”. Step One Specification of Content Specification of ObjectivesStep Two Assessment of Entering BehaviorStep Three Determination of Strategy Organization of Groups Allocation of Time Allocation of Space Selection of ResourcesStep Four Evaluation of PerformanceStep Five Analysis of Feedback The first task of the Gerlach and Ely instructional design model is the specification of content and objectives.
This is done since both content and objectives interact with each other. It is essential that the teacher indicates the reason for teaching the specific content and the medium in which the content will be used to achieve the objectives; the teacher is responsible for selecting the area of content to be taught and determining when it should be taughtThe content is selected from the curriculum. The teacher takes into consideration the state/local guidelines, personal experiences, goal or preferences of supervisor; the objectives must be measurable and written as specific skills that learners should display under specific conditions and time. The second step is the assessment of entering behavior. At this stage, the teacher needs to determine the present skills and prerequisite knowledge of learners. Gerlach and Ely explained that the teacher must ask the question, “To what extent has the student learned the terms and skills which are part of the course?” The teacher can determine the starting knowledge of each learner by using a variety of methods such as giving a pretes).
Gerlach and Ely were advocates of pretesting. In this model there are five tasks which occurs simultaneously: Determination of strategy: The teacher determines a teaching strategy through the process of deciding how much information should be used and the roles of the teacher and the students in the learning process; the choice of strategy range from the traditional, expository to the inquiry approach. Organization of groups: The learners may work independently, in pairs or in groups; the group size is dependent on the task to be completed. The organization of groups is dependent on objectives and materials used for delivering the content. Allocation of time: Time allocation is dependent on the class period and the organization of group activity. Allocation of space: This is dependent on the task to be performed and whether or not the space is available during the time of instruction; the teacher can utilize not only the classroom but the school's lab, gym or outdoor facilities. Selection of Resources: The selection of resources is based on the objectives of the lesson.
Materials are not considered resources. The teacher must consider; the model suggests that teachers should seek out resources from existing ones rather than developing new resources The fourth step in this model is the evaluation of performance. Evaluation of performance is focused on the measurement of students’ performance and the attitude of students towards the content. In other words, the teacher must determine the efficiency of the instruction; the final step in the model is the analysis of feed back. A formative revision is done to complete the process. At this point the teacher will inform the students about their performance. Instructional Design ADDIE Model Instructional Technology Communication Theory Learning Theory References Agamba, J. and Keengwe, J.. Models for improving and optimizing online and blended learning in higher education. A volume in the advances in higher education and professional development Book series. Hershey PA, USA. IGE Global. Gustafson, K. L. & Branch, R.. Survey of Instructional Development Models.
Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, Syracuse Universit
"Jesus wept" is a phrase famous for being the shortest verse in the King James Version of the Bible, as well as many other versions. It is not the shortest in the original languages, it is found in the Gospel of John, chapter 11, verse 35. Verse breaks—or versification—were introduced into the Greek text by Robert Estienne in 1551 in order to make the texts easier to cite and compare; this verse occurs in John's narrative of the death of Lazarus of a follower of Jesus. Lazarus's sisters—Mary and Martha—sent word to Jesus of their brother's illness and impending death, but Jesus arrived four days after Lazarus died. Jesus, after talking to the grieving sisters and seeing Lazarus's friends weeping, was troubled and moved. After asking where Lazarus had been laid, being invited to come see, Jesus wept, he went to the tomb and told the people to remove the stone covering it, prayed aloud to his Father, ordered Lazarus to come out, resurrected. Luke's gospel records that Jesus wept as he entered Jerusalem before his trial and death, anticipating the destruction of the Temple.
Significance has been attributed to Jesus's deep emotional response to his friends' weeping, his own tears, including the following: Weeping demonstrates that Christ was a true man, with real bodily functions. His emotions and reactions were real. Pope Leo the Great referred to this passage when he discussed the two natures of Jesus: "In His humanity Jesus wept for Lazarus; the sorrow and compassion Jesus felt for all mankind. The rage he felt against the tyranny of death over mankind. Although the bystanders interpreted his weeping to mean that Jesus loved Lazarus, Witness Lee considered the Jews' opinion to be unreasonable, given Jesus' intention to resurrect Lazarus. Lee argued instead that every person to whom Jesus talked in John 11 was blinded by their misconceptions, thus he "groaned in his spirit" because those who were closest to him failed to recognize that he was, as he declared in verse 26, "the resurrection and the life". At the graveside, he "wept in sympathy with their sorrow over Lazarus' death".
Jesus's tears have figured among the relics attributed to Jesus. In some places in the English-speaking world, including Great Britain and Australia, the phrase "Jesus wept" is a common mild expletive spoken when something goes wrong or to express incredulity, it is used sarcastically when expressing unsympathetic indifference to someone else's perceived unfortunate situation or self-pity. In 1965 broadcaster Richard Dimbleby accidentally used the expletive live on air during the state visit of Elizabeth II to West Germany, it is used as an expletive in novels by author Stephen King. In his book On Writing, he explained that in grade school he was forced to memorize a verse from the Bible, so he picked "Jesus wept" due to its short length. Other authors using it as an expletive include Neil Gaiman in the Sandman series, David Lodge in Nice Work, Mike Carey in the Hellblazer series and The Devil You Know, Peter F. Hamilton in The Night's Dawn Trilogy, Mark Haddon in The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Dan Simmons in Hyperion Cantos, Minette Walters in Fox Evil and Jason Matthews in Red Sparrow.
This usage is evidenced in films and television programmes including Lawrence of Arabia, Get Carter, Hellraiser, The Stand, Michael Collins, Notes on a Scandal, The Bank Job, Call the Midwife, The Magnificent Seven, The Haunting of Hill House, Troop Zero, Drop The Dead Donkey. Dominus Flevit Church Chapters and verses of the Bible#Statistics King James Bible - Book of John, Chapter 11 Oliver, Simon. "The Shortest Verse". Bibledex Verses. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham