A food court is an indoor plaza or common area within a facility, contiguous with the counters of multiple food vendors and provides a common area for self-serve dinner. Food courts may be found in shopping malls and parks. In various regions, it may be a standalone development. In some places of learning such as high schools and universities, food courts have come to replace or complement traditional cafeterias; the average cost of a meal per person at a U. S food court in 2004 was US$6. Food courts consist of a number of vendors at food stalls or service counters. Meals are ordered at one of the vendors and carried to a common dining area; the food may be ordered as takeout for consumption at another location, such as a home, or workplace. In this case, it may be packaged in foam food containers, though one common food tray used by all the stalls might be utilized to allow the food to be carried to the table. Food courts may have shops which sell prepared meals for consumers to take home and reheat, making the food court a daily stop for some.
Food is eaten with plastic cutlery, sporks are sometimes used to avoid the necessity of providing both forks and spoons. There are exceptions: Carrefour Laval requires its food court tenants to use solid dinnerware and cutlery which it provides. Typical North American and European food courts have fast food chains such as McDonald's and Sbarro, with a few smaller private vendors. Berkshire Hathaway is a frequent presence at food courts via their Dairy Queen and Orange Julius divisions. Cuisines and choices are varied, with larger food courts offering more global choices. Asian and African food courts are private vendors that offer local cuisine. In Singapore, food courts and hawker centres are the people's main eating choice. Common materials used in constructing food courts are tile, Formica, stainless steel, glass, all of which facilitate easy cleanup; the second-floor food court at the Paramus Park shopping mall in Paramus, New Jersey, which opened in March 1974, has been credited as the first successful shopping mall food court in the United States.
However, a food court at the Sherway Gardens shopping center in Toronto, Canada was constructed three years earlier. Built by The Rouse Company, one of the leading mall building companies of the time, it followed an unsuccessful attempt at the Plymouth Meeting Mall in 1971, which failed because it was "deemed too small and insufficiently varied." In the 1990s, food courts became a shopping mall staple. Food courts have become such a part of the culture that colleges and universities have started to incorporate food-court like settings in their cafeteria, bringing in name-brand franchises into partnership with the schools. Soon after, airports, as well as many office buildings, have opted for the food court layout in their spaces as it allows for diversity and allowing for franchises and businesses to gain a wide spectrum of consumers. Since the food court culture is being encouraged, a whole community of regular fast-food consuming has become a part of the North American society. In 2010, eating out became more common for an average American in comparison to eating at-home meals.
47% of their food budget would go towards eating out at restaurants or at food courts. Due to this, North Americans have begun to become more aware of health. With the sudden outburst of the fast-food centric, North American consumer deviating from the food court culture to a more health conscious society, many businesses are more at risk due to the inability of maintaining the same high level of revenue. With that, the food court industry has had to find a solution to keep the consumers continuing to come back. Food courts are beginning to evolve into the European inspired food halls. Many shopping centres are demanding and by transforming their food courts into food halls, businesses believe that they are able to attract the newer generation of health-conscious customers. Though food courts still exist, many food hall elements have been brought into food court settings. In order for food businesses to do well in the food court, businesses feel as though they have to keep up with the trend of fresh food and stray away from the traditional unhealthy, fast food reputation of food courts.
One of the main concerns for upcoming new food businesses is the overgrowing of competition in restaurants. And due the uncertainty for rush times and customer interests, businesses opt for going into the food court industry. With the ever-growing trends of the food industry expectations, businesses struggle to make a name for themselves in the food court setting. For several years, Business Insider names Panda Express as one of the first notorious successful food court business, noted by many other food industry insiders. One of the reasons for Panda Express' success was due to their constant change and upgrading of their menu items. Costco Wholesale has one of the largest and most successful businesses that benefit from the revenue generated by food court sales, they deviate from the movement of health conscious and pricey image that most food retailers are trying to strive for these days. While most food court businesses go for the healthy and fresh image, Costco brands their food court to be fast and fitting of the stereotypical fast food image.
By placing their food court near the exit of their store, Costco is able to generate a bit more revenue as a part of their business plan to allow customers to linger around in their store longer to purchase more
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee to pay the lessor for use of an asset. Property and vehicles are common assets that are leased. Industrial or business equipment is leased. Broadly put, a lease agreement is a contract between the lessor and the lessee; the lessor is the legal owner of the asset. The lessee agrees to abide by various conditions regarding their use of the property or equipment. For example, a person leasing a car may agree; the narrower term rental agreement can be used to describe a lease in which the asset is tangible property. Language used is that the user rents goods let out or rented out by the owner; the verb to lease is less precise. Examples of a lease for intangible property are use of a computer program, or use of a radio frequency; the term rental agreement is sometimes used to describe a periodic lease agreement internationally and in some regions of the United States. A lease is a legal contract, thus enforceable by all parties under the contract law of the applicable jurisdiction.
In the United States, since it represents a conveyance of possessory rights to real estate, it is a hybrid sort of contract that involves qualities of a deed. Some specific kinds of leases may have specific clauses required by statute depending upon the property being leased, and/or the jurisdiction in which the agreement was signed or the residence of the parties. Common elements of a lease agreement include: Names of the parties of the agreement; the starting date and duration of the agreement. Identifies the specific object being leased. Provides conditions for renewal or non-renewal. Has a specific consideration for granting the use of this object. Has provisions for a security deposit and terms for its return. May have a specific list of conditions which are therein described as Default Conditions and specific Remedies. May have other specific conditions placed upon the parties such as: Need to provide insurance for loss. Restrictive use. Which party is responsible for maintenance. Termination clause All kinds of personal property or real property may be leased.
As a result of the lease, the owner grants the use of the stated property to the lessee. The narrower term ` tenancy' describes a lease. A premium is an amount paid by the tenant for the lease to be granted or to secure the former tenant's lease in order to secure a low rent, in long leases termed a ground rent. For parts of buildings it is most common for users to pay by collateral contract, or by the same contract, a service charge, an express list of services in a lease to minimize disputes over service charges. A gross lease or tenancy stipulates a rent, for the global amount due including all service charges. A cancelable lease is a lease that may be terminated by the lessee or by the lessor without penalty. A mutually determinable lease can be determined by either. A non-cancelable lease is a lease. “lease” may imply a non-cancelable lease, whereas “rental agreement” may connote a cancelable lease. Influenced by land registration tenancies granted for more than a year are referred to more as leases.
The lease will either provide specific provisions regarding the responsibilities and rights of the lessee and lessor, or there will be automatic provisions as a result of local law. In general, by paying the negotiated fee to the lessor, the lessee has possession and use of the leased property to the exclusion of the lessor and all others except with the invitation of the tenant; the most common form of real property lease is a residential rental agreement between landlord and tenant. As the relationship between the tenant and the landlord is called a tenancy, this term is used for informal and shorter leases; the right to possession by the tenant is sometimes called a leasehold interest. A lease can be for a fixed period of time. A lease may be terminated sooner than its end date by: Break/cancellation A negotiated deed of surrender or yielding-up. Forfeiture By operation of statute A lease should be contrasted with a license, which may entitle a person to use property, but, subject to termination at the will of the owner of the property.
An example of a licensor/licensee relationship is a parking lot owner and a person who parks a vehicle in the parking lot. A license may be seen in the form of a ticket to a baseball game or a verbal permission to sleep a few days on a sofa; the difference is that if there is a term, a degree of privacy suggestive of exclusive possession of a defined part, practised ongoing, recurrent payments, a lack of right to terminate save for misconduct or nonpayment, these factors tend toward a lease.