Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
William T. Stearn
William Thomas Stearn was a British botanist. Born in Cambridge in 1911, he was self-educated, developed an early interest in books and natural history, his initial work experience was at a Cambridge bookshop, but he had a position as an assistant in the university botany department. At the age of 29 he married Eldwyth Ruth Alford, who became his collaborator, he died in London in 2001, survived by three children. While at the bookshop, he was offered a position as a librarian at the Royal Horticultural Society in London. From there he moved to the Natural History Museum as a scientific officer in the botany department. After his retirement, he continued working there and serving on a number of professional bodies related to his work, including the Linnean Society, of which he became president, he taught botany at Cambridge University as a visiting professor. Stearn is known for his work in botanical taxonomy and botanical history classical botanical literature, botanical illustration and for his studies of the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus.
His best known books are his Dictionary of Plant Names for Gardeners, a popular guide to the scientific names of plants, his Botanical Latin for scientists. Stearn received many honours for his work, at home and abroad, was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1997. Considered one of the most eminent British botanists of his time, he is remembered by an essay prize in his name from the Society for the History of Natural History, a named cultivar of Epimedium, one of many genera he produced monographs on, he is the botanical authority for over 400 plants that he described. William Thomas Stearn was born at 37 Springfield Road, Cambridge, England, on 16 April 1911, the eldest of four sons, to Thomas Stearn and Ellen Kiddy of West Suffolk, his father worked as a coachman to a Cambridge doctor. Chesterton was a village on the north bank of the River Cam, about two miles north of Cambridge's city centre, where Springfield Road ran parallel to Milton Road to the west. William Stearn's early education was at the nearby Milton Road Junior Council School.
Despite not having any family background in science he developed a keen interest in natural history and books at an early age. He spent his school holidays on his uncle's Suffolk farm, tending cows grazing by the roadside where he would observe the wild flowers of the hedgerows and fields. Stearn's father died in 1922 when Stearn was only eleven, leaving his working-class family in financial difficulties as his widow had no pension; that year, William Stearn succeeded in obtaining a scholarship to the local Cambridge High School for Boys on Hills Road, close to the Cambridge Botanic Garden, which he attended for eight years till he was 18. The school had an excellent reputation for biology education, while he was there, he was encouraged by Mr Eastwood, a biology teacher who recognised his talents; the school provided him with a thorough education in both Latin and Greek. He became secretary of the school's Natural History Society, won an essay prize from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and spent much of his time at the Botanic Garden.
Stearn gained horticultural experience by working as a gardener's boy during his school holidays, to supplement the family income. Stearn attended evening lectures on paleobotany given by Albert Seward, Harry Godwin. Seward was impressed by the young Stearn, giving him access to the herbarium of the Botany School and allowing him to work there as a part-time research assistant. Seward gave Stearn access to the Cambridge University Library to pursue his research. Stearn was self-educated and his widowed mother worked hard to support him while at school but could not afford a university education for him, there being no grants available then; when not at the Botany School, he attended evening classes to develop linguistic and bibliographic skills. His classes there included the classics, he obtained his first employment at the age of 18 in 1929, a time of high unemployment, to support himself and his family. He worked as an apprentice antiquarian bookseller and cataloguer in the second-hand section at Bowes & Bowes bookshop, 1 Trinity Street, between 1929 and 1933 where he was able to pursue his passion for bibliography.
During his employment there, he spent much of his lunchtimes and weekends, at the Botany School and Botanic Garden. This was at a time when botany was thriving at Cambridge under the leadership of Seward and Humphrey Gilbert-Carter. On 3 August 1940, he married Eldwyth Ruth Alford, by whom he had a son and two daughters, who collaborated with him in much of his work. Ruth Alford was a secondary school teacher from Tavistock, the daughter of Roger Rice Alford a Methodist preacher and mayor of Tavistock; when their engagement was announced in The Times, Stearn was vastly amused to see that he was described as a "Fellow of the Linen Society", a typographical error for Linnean Society. Stearn was brought up an Anglican, but was a conscientious objector and after the Second World War he became a Quaker. In his years, following official retirement in 1976 he continued to live in Kew, Richmond, his entry in Who's Who lists his interests as "gardening and talking". He died on 9 May 2001 of pneumonia at Kingston Hospital, Kingston upon Thames, at the age of 90.
His funeral took place on 18
The okapi known as the forest giraffe, congolese giraffe or zebra giraffe, is an artiodactyl mammal native to the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. Although the okapi has striped markings reminiscent of zebras, it is most related to the giraffe; the okapi and the giraffe are the only living members of the family Giraffidae. The okapi stands about 1.5 m tall at the shoulder and has an average body length around 2.5 m. Its weight ranges from 200 to 350 kg, it has a long neck, large, flexible ears. Its coat is a chocolate to reddish brown, much in contrast with the white horizontal stripes and rings on the legs and white ankles. Male okapis have short, hair-covered, horn-like protuberances on their heads called ossicones, less than 15 cm in length. Females possess hair whorls, ossicones are absent. Okapis are diurnal, but may be active for a few hours in darkness, they are solitary, coming together only to breed. Okapis are herbivores, feeding on tree leaves and buds, ferns and fungi.
Rut in males and estrus in females does not depend on the season. In captivity, estrous cycles recur every 15 days; the gestational period is around 440 to 450 days long, following which a single calf is born. The juveniles are kept in hiding, nursing takes place infrequently. Juveniles start taking solid food from three months, weaning takes place at six months. Okapis inhabit canopy forests at altitudes of 500–1,500 m, they are endemic to the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they occur across the central and eastern regions. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies the okapi as endangered. Major threats include habitat loss due to logging and human settlement. Extensive hunting for bushmeat and skin and illegal mining have led to a decline in populations; the Okapi Conservation Project was established in 1987 to protect okapi populations. Although the okapi was unknown to the Western world until the 20th century, it may have been depicted since the early fifth century BCE on the façade of the Apadana at Persepolis, a gift from the Ethiopian procession to the Achaemenid kingdom.
For years, Europeans in Africa had heard of an animal. The animal was brought to prominent European attention by speculation on its existence found in press reports covering Henry Morton Stanley's journeys in 1887. In his travelogue of exploring the Congo, Stanley mentioned a kind of donkey that the natives called the atti, which scholars identified as the okapi. Explorers may have seen the fleeting view of the striped backside as the animal fled through the bushes, leading to speculation that the okapi was some sort of rainforest zebra; when the British special commissioner in Uganda, Sir Harry Johnston, discovered some Pygmy inhabitants of the Congo being abducted by a showman for exhibition, he rescued them and promised to return them to their homes. The Pygmies fed Johnston's curiosity about the animal mentioned in Stanley's book. Johnston was puzzled by the okapi. Though Johnston did not see an okapi himself, he did manage to obtain pieces of striped skin and a skull. From this skull, the okapi was classified as a relative of the giraffe.
Okapia johnstoni was first described as Equus johnstoni by English zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater in 1901. The generic name Okapia derives from the Lese Karo name o'api, while the specific name is in recognition of Sir Harry Johnston, who first acquired an okapi specimen for science from the Ituri Forest while repatriating a group of Pygmies to the Congo Free State. Remains of a carcass were sent to London by Johnston and became a media event in 1901. In 1901, Sclater presented a painting of the okapi before the Zoological Society of London that depicted its physical features with some clarity. Much confusion arose regarding the taxonomical status of this newly discovered animal. Sir Harry Johnston himself called it a relative of other extinct giraffids. Based on the description of the okapi by Pygmies, who referred to it as a "horse", Sclater named the species Equus johnstoni. Subsequently, Lankester declared that the okapi represented an unknown genus of the Giraffidae, which he placed in its own genus and assigned the name Okapia johnstoni to the species.
In 1902, Swiss zoologist Charles Immanuel Forsyth Major suggested the inclusion of O. johnstoni in the extinct giraffid subfamily Palaeotraginae. However, the species was placed in its own subfamily Okapiinae, by Swedish palaeontologist Birger Bohlin in 1926 due to the lack of a cingulum, a major feature of the palaeotragids. In 1986, Okapia was established as a sister genus of Giraffa on the basis of cladistic analysis; the two genera together with Palaeotragus constitute the tribe Giraffini. The earliest members of the Giraffidae first appeared in the early Miocene in Africa, having diverged from the superficially deer-like climacoceratids. Giraffids spread into Asia by the middle Miocene in a first radiation. Another radiation began in the Pliocene, but was terminated by a decline in diversity in the Pleistocene. Several important primitive giraffids existed more or less contemporaneously in the Miocene, including Canthumeryx, Giraffokeryx and Samotherium. According to palaeontologist and author Kathleen Hunt, Samotherium split into Okapia (18 million years ago
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, enshrining rigorous ethical and moral obligations. Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are agreed upon and maintained through recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE; some definitions of "professional" limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest and the general good of society. In some cultures, the term is used as shorthand to describe a particular social stratum of well-educated workers who enjoy considerable work autonomy and who are engaged in creative and intellectually challenging work. In narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession.
Although sometimes incorrectly referred to as professions, occupations such as skilled construction and maintenance work are more thought of as trades or crafts. The completion of an apprenticeship is associated with skilled labour, or trades such as carpenter, mason, painter and other similar occupations. A related distinction would be that a professional does mental work, as opposed to engaging in physical work. Although professional training appears to be ideologically neutral, it may be biased towards those with higher class backgrounds and a formal education. In his 2000 book, Disciplined Minds: A Critical Look at Salaried Professionals and the Soul-Battering System that Shapes Their Lives, Jeff Schmidt observes that qualified professionals are less creative and diverse in their opinions and habits than non-professionals, which he attributes to the subtle indoctrination and filtering which accompanies the process of professional training, his evidence is both qualitative and quantitative, including professional examinations, industry statistics and personal accounts of trainees and professionals.
A key theoretical dispute arises from the observation that established professions are subject to strict codes of conduct. Some have thus argued that these codes of conduct, agreed upon and maintained through recognized professional associations, are a key element of what constitutes any profession. Others have argued that strict codes of conduct and the professional associations that maintain them are a consequence of'successful' professionalization, rather than an intrinsic element of the definition of professional; the etymology and historical meaning of the term professional is from Middle English, from profes, having professed one's vows, from Anglo-French, from Late Latin professus, from Latin, past participle of profitēri to profess, from pro- before + fatēri to acknowledge. Thus, as people became more and more specialized in their trade, they began to'profess' their skill to others, and'vow' to perform their trade to the highest known standard. With a reputation to uphold, trusted workers of a society who have a specific trade are considered professionals.
The usage of the word'profess' declined from the late 1800s to the 1950s, just as the term'professional' was gaining popularity from 1900–2010. Notably, in American English the rise in popularity of the term'professional' started at the beginning of the 20th century whereas in British English it started in the 1930s and grew fastest in the 1960s and 70s. Centre for the Study of Professions Organizational culture Professional boundaries Professional sports Semi-professional Amateur
John Lindley FRS was an English botanist and orchidologist. Born in Catton, near Norwich, John Lindley was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley ran a commercial nursery garden. Although he had great horticultural knowledge, the undertaking was not profitable and George lived in a state of indebtedness; as a boy he would assist in the garden and collected wild flowers he found growing in the Norfolk countryside. Lindley was educated at Norwich School, he would have liked to go to university or to buy a commission in the army but the family could not afford either. He became Belgian agent for a London seed merchant in 1815. At this time Lindley became acquainted with the botanist William Jackson Hooker who allowed him to use his botanical library and who introduced him to Sir Joseph Banks who offered him employment as an assistant in his herbarium, his first publication, in 1819, a translation of the Analyse du fruit of L. C. M. Richard, was followed in 1820 by an original Monographia Rosarum, with descriptions of new species, drawings executed by himself in 1821 by Monographia Digitalium, "Observations on Pomaceae", which were both contributed to the Linnean Society.
Lindley went to work at Banks’ house in London. He concentrated on the genera “Rosa” and “Digitalis” and published the monograph “A Botanical History of Roses” which distinguished seventy-six species, describes thirteen new ones and was illustrated by nineteen coloured plates painted by himself, he became acquainted with Joseph Sabine who grew a large assortment of roses and was the Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London. His employment came to an abrupt end with the death of Banks a few months later. One of Banks’ friends, a wealthy merchant called William Cattley, paid Lindley to draw and describe new plants in his garden at Barnet, he paid for the publication of “Digitalia Monographia”. In 1820, at the age of twenty-one, Lindley was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society of London. From 1821 to 1826 he published a folio work with coloured illustrations that he had painted himself, “Collectanea botanica or Figures and botanic Illustrations of rare and curious exotic Plants”. Many of these plants came from the family Orchidaceae.
Lindley was appointed assistant secretary to the Royal Horticultural Society and its new garden at Chiswick in 1822, where he supervised the collection of plants. Assistant secretary to the Horticultural Society since 1822, in 1829 Lindley was appointed to the chair of botany at University College, which he retained until 1860, he lectured on botany from 1831 at the Royal Institution, including delivering the 1833 Royal Institution Christmas Lecture, from 1836 at the Chelsea Physic Garden, starting the society's flower show in the late 1830s. Lindley described the plants collected on Thomas Livingstone Mitchell's expeditions of 1838 and wrote an Appendix to Edwards's Botanical Register of 1839, describing plants collected by James Drummond and Georgiana Molloy of the Swan River Colony in Western Australia. According to John Ryan, Lindley’s 1840 ‘Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony’ provided ‘the most succinct portrait to date of the flora of the Swan River Settlement’, established in 1829.
The Sketch, published during November 1839 and January 1840 in Edwards’ Botanical Register and separately on its completion, was illustrated by nine hand-coloured lithographs and four wood-cuts. He played a large part in having Charles Moore appointed as Director of the Sydney Botanical Gardens. During his professorship, he wrote many scientific and popular works as well as making significant contributions to the Botanical Register, of which he was the editor for many years, to The Gardeners' Chronicle, where he was in charge of the horticultural department from 1841, he was a fellow of the Royal and Geological Societies. He received the Royal Society's royal medal in 1857, in 1853 became a corresponding member of the Institut de France. About this time, the Horticultural Society of London, which became the Royal Horticultural Society at a date, asked Lindley to draw roses and in 1822 he became the Assistant Secretary of the Society’s garden; the Society’s historian, Harold R Fletcher described him as “ … the backbone of the Society and the greatest servant it had had.”
Now with a steady income, in 1823 he married Sarah Freestone. They rented a house in rural Acton Green, a location convenient for the Society’s garden at Turnham Green; the Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London at that time was Joseph Sabine and he authorised expenditure on large projects beyond the Society’s means. Lindley was unsuccessful in moderating his actions. By 1830, the Society had mounting debts and a committee of enquiry was set up. Sabine resigned as Secretary and Lindley defended his own position and carried the Society forward with the new Honorary Secretary, George Bentham. An eminent botanist of the time, John Claudius Loudon, sought Lindley’s collaboration on his “Encyclopedia of Plants”; this covered nearly fifteen thousand species of flowering ferns. It was a massive undertaking and Lindley was responsible for most of it. During his labour on this undertaking, completed in 1829, through arduous study of character patterns, he became convinced of the superiority of the "natural" classification system devised by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu – a system that he believed reflected the great plan of nature as distinct from the "artificial" system of Linnaeus followed in the Encyclopaedi
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
A folk taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, can be contrasted with scientific taxonomy. Folk biological classification is the way people traditionally describe and organize their natural surroundings/the world around them making generous use of form taxa like "shrubs", "bugs", "ducks", "fish" and the like, or of economic criteria such as "game animal" or "pack animal". Folk taxonomies are used in everyday speech, they are distinguished from scientific taxonomies that claim to be disembedded from social relations and thus objective and universal. Anthropologists have observed that taxonomies are embedded in local cultural and social systems, serve various social functions. One of the most well-known and influential studies of folk taxonomies is Émile Durkheim's The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Folk taxonomies exist to allow popular identification of classes of objects, apply to all areas of human activity. All parts of the world have their own systems of naming local animals; these naming systems are a vital aid to survival and include information such as the fruiting patterns of trees and the habits of large mammals.
These localised naming systems are folk taxonomies. Theophrastus recorded evidence of a Greek folk taxonomy for plants, but formalized botanical taxonomies were laid out in the 18th century by Carl Linnaeus; some anthropologists say. Scientists recognize that folk taxonomies conflict at times with Linnaean taxonomy or current interpretations of evolutionary relationships, can tend to refer to generalized rather than quantitatively informative traits in an organism. Glossary of scientific naming Parataxonomy Baraminology, a taxonomy used in creation science Cladistics Common name Contrast set Corporate taxonomy Ethnotaxonomy Evolutionary taxonomy Incertae sedis Linnaean taxonomy Phylogenetics Wastebasket taxon Bailenson, JN, MS Shum, S Atran, DL Medin, JD Coley A bird's eye view:biological categorization and reasoning within and across cultures. Cognition 84:1-53 Berlin, Brent'Speculations on the growth of ethnobotanical nomenclature', Language in Society, 1, 51-86. Berlin, Brent & Dennis E. Breedlove & Peter H. Raven'Folk taxonomies and biological classification', Science, 154, 273-275.
Berlin, Brent & Dennis E. Breedlove & Peter H. Raven'General principles of classification and nomenclature in folk biology', American Anthropologist, 75, 214-242. Brown, Cecil H.'Unique beginners and covert categories in folk biological taxonomies', American Anthropologist, 76, 325-327. Brown, Cecil H. & John Kolar & Barbara J. Torrey & Tipawan Truoong-Quang & Phillip Volkman. ‘Some general principles of biological and non-biological folk classification’, American Ethnologist, 3, 1, 73-85. Brown, Cecil H. ‘The growth of ethnobiological nomenclature’, Current Anthropology, 27, 1, 1-19