Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era. Consensus among music historians has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as it is understood in other disciplines; as in the other arts, the music of the period was influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period: the rise of humanistic thought. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular, the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school, whose greatest master was Josquin des Prez; the invention of the printing press in 1439 made it cheaper and easier to distribute music and musical theory texts on a wider geographic scale and to more people. Prior to the invention of printing, written music and music-theory texts had to be hand-copied, a time-consuming and expensive process.
Demand for music as entertainment and as a leisure activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Dissemination of chansons and masses throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style which culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Orlande de Lassus, Thomas Tallis and William Byrd. Relative political stability and prosperity in the Low Countries, along with a flourishing system of music education in the area's many churches and cathedrals allowed the training of large numbers of singers and composers; these musicians were sought throughout Europe in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers and teachers. Since the printing press made it easier to disseminate printed music, by the end of the 16th century, Italy had absorbed the northern musical influences with Venice and other cities becoming centers of musical activity.
This reversed the situation from a hundred years earlier. Opera, a dramatic staged genre in which singers are accompanied by instruments, arose at this time in Florence. Opera was developed as a deliberate attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece. Music was freed from medieval constraints, more variety was permitted in range, harmony and notation. On the other hand, rules of counterpoint became more constrained with regard to treatment of dissonances. In the Renaissance, music became a vehicle for personal expression. Composers found ways to make vocal music more expressive of the texts. Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, vice versa. Popular secular forms such as the madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed both singers and instrumentalists. Music became more self-sufficient with its availability in printed form, existing for its own sake. Precursor versions of many familiar modern instruments developed into new forms during the Renaissance; these instruments were modified to responding to the evolution of musical ideas, they presented new possibilities for composers and musicians to explore.
Early forms of modern woodwind and brass instruments like the bassoon and trombone appeared. During the 15th century, the sound of full triads became common, towards the end of the 16th century the system of church modes began to break down giving way to the functional tonality, which would dominate Western art music for the next three centuries. From the Renaissance era, notated secular and sacred music survives in quantity, including vocal and instrumental works and mixed vocal/instrumental works. An enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance; these can be heard on recordings made in the 20th and 21st century, including masses, madrigals, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, many others. Beginning in the late 20th century, numerous early music ensembles were formed. Early music ensembles specializing in music of the Renaissance era give concert tours and make recordings, using modern reproductions of historical instruments and using singing and performing styles which musicologists believe were used during the era.
One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the increasing reliance on the interval of the third and its inversion, the sixth. Polyphony – the use of multiple, independent melodic lines, performed – became elaborate throughout the 14th century, with independent voices; the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the composers striving for smoothness in the melodic parts. This was possible because of a increased vocal range in music – in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requirin
Diatonic and chromatic
Diatonic and chromatic are terms in music theory that are most used to characterize scales, are applied to musical instruments, chords, musical styles, kinds of harmony. They are often used as a pair when applied to contrasting features of the common practice music of the period 1600–1900; these terms may mean different things in different contexts. Diatonic refers to musical elements derived from the modes and transpositions of the "white note scale" C–D–E–F–G–A–B. In some usages it includes all forms of heptatonic scale. Chromatic most refers to structures derived from the twelve-note chromatic scale, which consists of all semitones. However, it had other senses, referring in Ancient Greek music theory to a particular tuning of the tetrachord, to a rhythmic notational convention in mensural music of the 14th through 16th centuries. In ancient Greece there were three standard tunings of a lyre; these three tunings were called diatonic and enharmonic, the sequences of four notes that they produced were called tetrachords.
A diatonic tetrachord comprised, in descending order, two whole tones and a semitone, such as A G F E. In the chromatic tetrachord the second string of the lyre was lowered from G to G♭, so that the two lower intervals in the tetrachord were semitones, making the pitches A G♭ F E. In the enharmonic tetrachord the tuning had two quarter tone intervals at the bottom: A G F E. For all three tetrachords, only the middle two strings varied in their pitch; the term cromatico was used in the Medieval and Renaissance periods to refer to the coloration of certain notes. The details vary by period and place, but the addition of a colour to an empty or filled head of a note, or the "colouring in" of an otherwise empty head of a note, shortens the duration of the note. In works of the Ars Nova from the 14th century, this was used to indicate a temporary change in metre from triple to duple, or vice versa; this usage became less common in the 15th century as open white noteheads became the standard notational form for minims and longer notes called white mensural notation.
In the 16th century, a form of notating secular music madrigals in was referred to as "chromatic" because of its abundance of "coloured in" black notes, semiminims and shorter notes, as opposed to the open white notes in used for the notation of sacred music. These uses for the word have no relationship to the modern meaning of chromatic, but the sense survives in the current term coloratura; the term chromatic began to approach its modern usage in the 16th century. For instance Orlando Lasso's Prophetiae Sibyllarum opens with a prologue proclaiming, "these chromatic songs, heard in modulation, are those in which the mysteries of the Sibyls are sung, intrepidly," which here takes its modern meaning referring to the frequent change of key and use of chromatic intervals in the work.. This usage comes from a renewed interest in the Greek genera its chromatic tetrachord, notably by the influential theorist Nicola Vicentino in his treatise on ancient and modern practice, 1555. Diatonic scale on C equal just.
Medieval theorists defined scales in terms of the Greek tetrachords. The gamut was the series of pitches from which all the Medieval "scales" notionally derive, it may be thought of as constructed in a certain way from diatonic tetrachords; the origin of the word gamut is explained at the article Guidonian hand. The intervals from one note to the next in this Medieval gamut are all tones or semitones, recurring in a certain pattern with five tones and two semitones in any given octave; the semitones are separated as much as they can be, between alternating groups of three tones and two tones. Here are the intervals for a string of ascending notes from the gamut:... –T–T–T–S–T–T–S–T–T–T–S–T–... And here are the intervals for an ascending octave from the gamut: T–S–T–T–S–T–T In its most strict definition, therefore, a diatonic scale is one that may be derived from the pitches represented in successive white keys of the piano: the modern equivalent of the gamut; this would include the major scale, the natural minor scale, but not the old ecclesiastical church modes, most of which included both versions of the "variable" note B♮/B♭.
There are specific applications in the music of the Common Practice Period, music that shares its core features. Most, but not all writers, accept the natural minor as diatonic; as for other forms of the minor: "Exclusive" usageSome writers classify the other variants of the minor scale – the melodic minor and the harmonic minor – as non-diatonic, since they are not transpositions of the white-note pitches of the piano. Among such theorists there is no agreed general term that encompasses the major and all forms of the minor scale."Inclusive" usageSome writers i
In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps and two half steps in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other; the seven pitches of any diatonic scale can be obtained by using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitches that form the C-major scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F: F—C—G—D—A—E—BAny sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C–D–E–F–G–A–B, any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale. Modern musical keyboards are designed so that the white notes form a diatonic scale, though transpositions of this diatonic scale require one or more black keys. A diatonic scale can be described as two tetrachords separated by a whole tone.
The term diatonic referred to the diatonic genus, one of the three genera of the ancient Greeks. In musical set theory, Allen Forte classifies diatonic scales as set form 7–35; this article does not concern alternative seven-note diatonic scales such as the harmonic minor or the melodic minor. Western music from the Middle Ages until the late 19th century is based on the diatonic scale and the unique hierarchical relationships created by this system of organizing seven notes. There is one claim that the 45,000-year-old Divje Babe Flute uses a diatonic scale, but there is no proof or consensus it is a musical instrument. There is evidence that the Babylonians used some version of the diatonic scale; this derives from surviving inscriptions that contain musical composition. Despite the conjectural nature of reconstructions of the piece known as the Hurrian songs from the surviving score, the evidence that it used the diatonic scale is much more soundly based; this is because instructions for tuning the scale involve tuning a chain of six fifths, so that the corresponding circle of seven major and minor thirds are all consonant-sounding, this is a recipe for tuning a diatonic scale.
9,000-year-old flutes found in Jiahu, China indicate the evolution, over a period of 1,200 years, of flutes having 4, 5 and 6 holes to having 7 and 8 holes, the latter exhibiting striking similarity to diatonic hole spacings and sounds. The scales corresponding to the medieval church modes were diatonic. Depending on which of the seven notes of the diatonic scale you use as the beginning, the positions of the intervals fall at different distances from the starting tone, producing seven different scales. One of these, the one starting on B, has no pure fifth above its reference note: it is for this reason that it was not used. Of the six remaining scales, two were described as corresponding to two others with a B♭ instead of a B♮: A–B–C–D–E–F–G–A was described as D–E–F–G–A–B♭–C–D C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C was described as F–G–A–B♭–C–D–E–F As a result, medieval theory described the church modes as corresponding to four diatonic scales only. Heinrich Glarean considered that the modal scales including a B♭ had to be the result of a transposition.
In his Dodecachordon, he not only described six "natural" diatonic scales, but six "transposed" ones, each including a B♭, resulting in the total of twelve scales that justified the title of his treatise. By the beginning of the Baroque period, the notion of musical key was established, describing additional possible transpositions of the diatonic scale. Major and minor scales came to dominate until at least the start of the 20th century because their intervallic patterns are suited to the reinforcement of a central triad; some church modes survived into the early 18th century, as well as appearing in classical and 20th-century music, jazz. Of Glarean's six natural scales, three are major scales, three are minor. To these may be added the seventh diatonic scale, with a diminished fifth above the reference note, the Locrian scale; these could be transposed not only to include one flat in the signature, but to all twelve notes of the chromatic scale, resulting in a total of eighty-four diatonic scales.
The modern musical keyboard originated as a diatonic keyboard with only white keys. The black keys were progressively added for several purposes: improving the consonances the thirds, by providing a major third on each degree; the pattern of elementary intervals forming the diatonic scale can be represented either by the letters T and S respectively. With this abbreviation, major scale, for instance, can be represented as T–T–S–T–T–T–S The major scale or Ionian scale is one of the diatonic scales, it is made up plus an eighth that duplicates the first an octave higher. The pattern of seven intervals separating the eight notes is T–T–S–T–T–T–S. In solfege, the syllables used to name each degree of the scale are Do–Re–Mi–Fa–Sol–La–Ti–Do. A sequence of successive natural notes starting from C is an example of major scale, called C-major scale; the eight degrees of the scale are known by traditiona
Musical composition, or composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music, either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers. Composers of songs are called songwriters. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score,", performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody and chord progression. In classical music, orchestration is done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In some cases, a pop or traditional songwriter may not use written notation at all, instead compose the song in their mind and play, sing and/or record it from memory.
In jazz and popular music, notable sound recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written or printed scores play in classical music. Although a musical composition uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case. A work of music can have multiple composers, which occurs in popular music when all of the members of a band collaborates to write a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, a third person orchestrates the songs. A piece of music can be composed with words, images, or, since the 20th century, with computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples range from 20th century avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Karlheinz Stockhausen's Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, Witold Lutosławski.
A more known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes jingling in a breeze. The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces, to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers. Although in the 2000s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music, according to Jean-Benjamin de Laborde: Composition consists in two things only; the first is the ordering and disposing of several sounds...in such a manner that their succession pleases the ear. This is; the second is the rendering audible of two or more simultaneous sounds in such a manner that their combination is pleasant. This is what we call harmony, it alone merits the name of composition. Since the invention of sound recording, a classical piece or popular song may exist as a recording.
If music is composed before being performed, music can be performed from memory, by reading written musical notation, or through a combination of both methods. For example, the principal cello player in an orchestra may read most of the accompaniment parts in a symphony, where she is playing tutti parts, but memorize an exposed solo, in order to be able to watch the conductor. Compositions comprise a huge variety of musical elements, which vary from between genres and cultures. Popular music genres after about 1960 make extensive use of electric and electronic instruments, such as electric guitar and electric bass. Electric and electronic instruments are used in contemporary classical music compositions and concerts, albeit to a lesser degree than in popular music. Music from the Baroque music era, for example, used only acoustic and mechanical instruments such as strings, woodwinds and keyboard instruments such as harpsichord and pipe organ. A 2000s-era pop band may use electric guitar played with electronic effects through a guitar amplifier, a digital synthesizer keyboard and electronic drums.
Piece is a "general, non-technical term applied to instrumental compositions from the 17th century onwards....other than when they are taken individually'piece' and its equivalents are used of movements in sonatas or symphonies....composers have used all these terms in compound forms.... In vocal music...the term is most used for operatic ensembles..." These techniques draw parallels from visual art's formal elements. Sometimes, the entire form of a piece is through-composed, meaning that each part is different, with no repetition of sections; some pieces are composed around a set scale, where the compositional technique might be considered the usage of a particular scale. Others are composed during performance, where a v
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody, but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line, provide added interest and variety, give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a main note. There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill; the amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to little or none. The word agrément is used to indicate the French Baroque style of ornamentation. In the Baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody unornamented the first time and decorate it with additional flourishes and trills the second time. A harpsichord player performing a simple melodic line was expected to be able to improvise harmonically and stylistically appropriate trills and appoggiaturas.
Ornamentation may be indicated by the composer. A number of standard ornaments are indicated with standard symbols in music notation, while other ornamentations may be appended to the score in small notes, or written out as sized notes. A composer will have his or her own vocabulary of ornaments, which will be explained in a preface, much like a code. A grace note is a note written in smaller type, with or without a slash through it, to indicate that its note value does not count as part of the total time value of the bar. Alternatively, the term may refer more to any of the small notes used to mark some other ornament, or in association with some other ornament's indication, regardless of the timing used in the execution. In Spain, melodies ornamented upon repetition were called "diferencias", can be traced back to 1538, when Luis de Narváez published the first collection of such music for the vihuela. A trill known as a "shake", is a rapid alternation between an indicated note and the one above it.
In simple music, trills may be diatonic. The trill is indicated by either a tr or a tr~~, with the ~ representing the length of the trill, above the staff. At a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: In Baroque music, the trill is sometimes indicated with a + sign above or below the note. In the late 18th century, when performers play a trill, it always start from the upper note. However, " Koch expressed no preference and observed that it was scarcely a matter of much importance whether the trill began one way or the other, since there was no audible difference after the initial note had been sounded." Clive Brown writes that "Despite three different ways of showing the trills, it seems that a trill beginning with the upper note and ending with a turn was envisaged in each case."Sometimes it is expected that the trill will end with a turn, or some other variation. Such variations are marked with a few grace notes following the note that bears the trill indication. There is a single tone trill variously called trillo or tremolo in late Renaissance and early Baroque.
Trilling on a single note is idiomatic for the bowed strings. A mordent is a rapid alternation between an indicated note, the note above or below, the indicated note again; the upper mordent is indicated by a short thick tilde. As with the trill, the exact speed with which a mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but, at a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: Confusion over the meaning of the unadorned word mordent has led to the modern terms upper and lower mordent being used, rather than mordent and inverted mordent. Practice and nomenclature vary for all of these ornaments. In the Baroque period, a mordant was what came to be called an inverted mordent and what is now called a lower mordent. In the 19th century, the name mordent was applied to what is now called the upper mordent. Although mordents are now thought of as a single alternation between notes, in the Baroque period a mordant may have sometimes been executed with more than one alternation between the indicated note and the note below, making it a sort of inverted trill.
Mordents of all sorts might in some periods, begin with an extra inessential note, rather than with the principal note as shown in the examples here. The same applies to trills, which in the Baroque and Classical periods would begin with the added, upper note. A lower inessential note may or may not be chromatically raised to ma
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism, the Western artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany. In the Romantic period, music became more explicitly expressive and programmatic, dealing with the literary and philosophical themes of the time. Famous early Romantic composers include Beethoven, Schumann, Mendelssohn and Berlioz; the late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra and in the dynamic range and diversity of instruments used in this ensemble. Public concerts became a key part of urban middle class society, in contrast to earlier periods, when concerts were paid for by and performed for aristocrats. Famous composers from the second half of the century include Bruckner, Johann Strauss II, Liszt, Dvořák, Wagner. Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Mahler, Richard Strauss and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create more complex – and much longer – musical works.
A prominent mark of late-19th-century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck; the Romantic movement was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, it was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography and education, was in turn influenced by developments in natural history. One of the first significant applications of the term to music was in 1789, in the Mémoires by the Frenchman André Grétry, but it was E. T. A. Hoffmann who established the principles of musical romanticism, in a lengthy review of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony published in 1810, in an 1813 article on Beethoven's instrumental music.
In the first of these essays Hoffmann traced the beginnings of musical Romanticism to the works of Haydn and Mozart. It was Hoffmann's fusion of ideas associated with the term "Romantic", used in opposition to the restraint and formality of Classical models, that elevated music, instrumental music, to a position of pre-eminence in Romanticism as the art most suited to the expression of emotions, it was through the writings of Hoffmann and other German authors that German music was brought to the centre of musical Romanticism. Characteristics attributed to Romanticism: a new preoccupation with and surrender to Nature; such lists, proliferated over time, resulting in a "chaos of antithetical phenomena", criticized for their superficiality and for signifying so many different things that there came to be no central meaning. The attributes have been criticized for being too vague. For example, features of the "ghostly and supernatural" could apply to Mozart's Don Giovanni from 1787 and Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress from 1951.
In music there is a clear dividing line in musical structure and form following the death of Beethoven. Whether one counts Beethoven as a'romantic' composer or not, the breadth and power of his work gave rise to a feeling that the classical sonata form and, the structure of the symphony and string quartet had been exhausted. Schumann, Schubert and other early-Romantic composers tended to look in alternative directions; some characteristics of Romantic music include: The use of new or not so common musical structures like the song cycle, concert etude and rhapsody, alongside the traditional classical genres. Programme music became somewhat more common; the classical period used short fragmentary, thematic material while the Romantic period tended to make greater use of longer, more defined and more satisfying themes. For example, the Industrial Revolution was in full effect by the late 18th century and early 19th century; this event had a profound effect on music: there were major improvements in the mechanical valves and keys
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities and directionality. In this hierarchy, the single pitch or triadic chord with the greatest stability is called the tonic; the root of the tonic chord forms the name given to the key. Simple folk music songs start and end with the tonic note; the most common use of the term "is to designate the arrangement of musical phenomena around a referential tonic in European music from about 1600 to about 1910". Contemporary classical music from 1910 to the 2000s may practice or avoid any sort of tonality—but harmony in all Western popular music remains tonal. Harmony in jazz includes many but not all tonal characteristics of the European common practice period, sometimes known as "classical music". "All harmonic idioms in popular music are tonal, none is without function". Tonality is an organized system of tones in which one tone becomes the central point for the remaining tones; the other tones in a tonal piece are all defined in terms of their relationship to the tonic.
In tonality, the tonic is the tone of complete relaxation and stability, the target toward which other tones lead. The cadence in which the dominant chord or dominant seventh chord resolves to the tonic chord plays an important role in establishing the tonality of a piece. "Tonal music is music, unified and dimensional. Music is unified if it is exhaustively referable to a precompositional system generated by a single constructive principle derived from a basic scale-type; the term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. According to Carl Dahlhaus, the term tonalité was only coined by Castil-Blaze in 1821. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period. Major-minor tonality is called harmonic tonality, diatonic tonality, common practice tonality, functional tonality, or just tonality.
At least eight distinct senses of the word "tonality", some mutually exclusive, have been identified: The word tonality may describe any systematic organization of pitch phenomena in any music at all, including pre-17th century western music as well as much non-western music, such as music based on the slendro and pelog pitch collections of Indonesian gamelan, or employing the modal nuclei of the Arabic maqam or the Indian raga system. This sense applies to the tonic/dominant/subdominant harmonic harmonic constellations in the theories of Jean-Philippe Rameau as well as the 144 basic transformations of twelve-tone technique. By the middle of the 20th century, it had become "evident that triadic structure does not generate a tone center, that non-triadic harmonic formations may be made to function as referential elements, that the assumption of a twelve-tone complex does not preclude the existence of tone centers". For the composer and theorist George Perle, tonality is not "a matter of'tone-centeredness', whether based on a'natural' hierarchy of pitches derived from the overtone series or an'artificial' pre compositional ordering of the pitch material.
This sense is susceptible to ideological employment, as Schoenberg, did by relying on the idea of a progressive development in musical resources "to compress divergent fin-de-siècle compositional practices into a single historical lineage in which his own music brings one historical era to a close and begins the next." From this point of view, twelve-tone music could be regarded "either as the natural and inevitable culmination of an organic motivic process or as a historical Aufhebung, the dialectical synthesis of late Romantic motivic practice on the one hand with a musical sublimation of tonality as pure system on the other". In another sense, tonality means any rational and self-contained theoretical arrangement of musical pitches, existing prior to any concrete embodiment in music. For example, "Sainsbury, who had Choron translated into English in 1825, rendered the first occurrence of tonalité as a'system of modes' before matching it with the neologism'tonality'. While tonality qua system constitutes a theoretical abstraction from actual music, it is hypostatized in musicological discourse, converted from a theoretical structure into a musical reality.
In this sense, it is understood as a Platonic form or prediscursive musical essence that suffuses music with intelligible sense, which exists before its concrete embodiment in music, can thus be theorized and discussed apart from actual musical contexts". To contrast with "modal" and "atonal", the term tonality is used to imply that tonal music is discontinuous as a form of cultural expression from modal music on the one hand and atonal music on the other. In some literature, tonality