The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, ended on December 31, 1900. It is used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year; the 19th century saw large amounts of social change. European imperialism brought much of Asia and all of Africa under colonial rule, it was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire, the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded becoming the world's leading powers; the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew in the first half of the century with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, South Africa and populated India, in the last two decades of the century in Africa.
By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale; the first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, the first functional light bulb in 1878. The 19th century was an era of accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, chemistry, biology and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century; the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.
Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, were responsible for accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from 200 million to more than 400 million; the introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became capital of the British Empire, its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s.
Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans; the UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Serfdom was abolished in Russia; the 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire by the end of the century.
In the 19th century 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States. The 19th century saw the rapid creation and codification of many sports in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous, it marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Industrial revolution European Imperialism British Regency, Victorian era Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic Belle Époque Edo period, Meiji period Qing dynasty Joseon dynasty Zulu Kingdom Tanzimat, First C
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600. The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century. During the 16th century and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia; this era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world. China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, met with strong resistance, Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova; these events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Polybius' "The Histories" translated into Italian, English and French. Mississippian culture disappears. Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia, is made, it is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum. 1500: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain was born. 1500: Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest religion in the world Sikhism. 1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. 1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto.
1501: Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue David. 1501: Safavid dynasty reunified Iran and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam. 1502: First reported African slaves in The New World 1503: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503: Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. 1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three years later. 1503: Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21. 1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille became the Queen. 1505: Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1505: Martin Luther enters St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation. 1505: King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia's of a homelessness of a.
Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of unity. 1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. 1506: King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming Kongo's state religion. 1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal. 1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain. 1506: Poland is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate. 1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population. 1507: Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. 1508–1512: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling. 1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean. 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade.
After receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The Javanese fleet is destroyed in Malacca.. 1509–10: The'great plague' in various parts of Tudor England. 1511: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia. 1512: Copernicus writes Commentar
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the final century of the 2nd millennium, it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900 and ended on December 31, 1999. The 20th century was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts, it saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication and genetic modification of life. Global total fertility rates, sea level rise and ecological collapses increased, it took over two-hundred thousand years of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion. Global literacy averaged 80%; the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II.
Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determination, official decolonization in the mid-century, related regional conflicts. The century saw a major shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, economics, culture, science and medicine; the 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization. Terms like ideology, world war and nuclear war entered common usage. Scientific discoveries, such as the theory of relativity and quantum physics, profoundly changed the foundational models of physical science, forcing scientists to realize that the universe was more complex than believed, dashing the hopes at the end of the 19th century that the last few details of scientific knowledge were about to be filled in, it was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the Space Shuttle.
Horses, Western society's basic form of personal transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. These developments were made possible by the exploitation of fossil fuel resources, which offered energy in an portable form, but caused concern about pollution and long-term impact on the environment. Humans explored space for the first time. Mass media, telecommunications, information technology made the world's knowledge more available. Advancements in medical technology improved the health of many people: the global life expectancy increased from 35 years to 65 years. Rapid technological advancements, however allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time. However, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the imperial system. For the first time in human history and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized and cooperative world.
The last time major powers clashed was in 1945, since violence has seen an unprecedented decline. The world became more culturally homogenized than with developments in transportation and communications technology, popular music and other influences of Western culture, international corporations, what was arguably a global economy by the end of the 20th century. Technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of trench warfare in Western Europe, 20 million dead, the powers that had formed the Triple Entente emerged victorious over the Central Powers. In addition to annexing many of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from them, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression; the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were dismantled at the war's conclusion. The Russian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of the Tsarist regime of Nicholas II and the onset of the Russian Civil War.
The victorious Bolsheviks established the Soviet Union, the world's first communist state. At the beginning of the period, the British Empire was the world's most powerful nation, having acted as the world's policeman for the past century. Fascism, a movement which grew out of post-war ang
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, according to some historians, the General Crisis; the greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. In the Islamic world, the Ottoman and Mughal empires grew in strength. In the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP.
In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty. From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde; the semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a expanded royal court could be more kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded, it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.
By the end of the century and Indians were aware of logarithms, the telescope and microscope, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was a period of development of culture in general. 1600: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. 1601: Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601–1603: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills one-third of Russia. 1602: Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries.
1602: The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1603: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. 1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of shōgun, establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. This begins the Edo period, which will last until 1868. 1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam 1606: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania. 1606: Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary. 1607: Flight of the Earls occurs from County Donegal in the west of Ulster in Ireland. 1607: Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan of Aceh. He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago. 1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian- Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow.
1610: King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac. 1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in Manila 1611: The first publication of the King James Bible. 1612: Costwold Olympic Games, Robert Dover 1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov, which rules until 1917. 1613–1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times. 1613: The Dutch East India Company is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara. 1615: The Battle of Osaka ends. 1616: The last remaining Moriscos in Spain are expelled. 1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare dies. 1618: The Defenestration of Prague. 1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years' War, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. 1618: The Manchus start invading China.
Their conquest topples the Ming dynasty. 1619: Dutch East India Company, English East India Company, Sultanate of Banten all fighting over port city of Ja
Friday the 13th
Friday the 13th is considered an unlucky day in Western superstition. It occurs when the 13th day of the month in the Gregorian calendar falls on a Friday, which happens at least once every year but can occur up to three times in the same year,for example in 2015, on 13 February, 13 March and 13 November. In 2017, it occurred twice, on 13 October. In 2018, it occurred twice, on 13 April and 13 July. There will be two Friday the 13ths every year until 2020. A Friday the 13th occurs during any month; the fear of the number 13 has been given a scientific name: "triskaidekaphobia". The superstition surrounding this day may have arisen in the Middle Ages, "originating from the story of Jesus' last supper and crucifixion" in which there were 13 individuals present in the Upper Room on the 13th of Nisan Maundy Thursday, the night before his death on Good Friday. While there is evidence of both Friday and the number 13 being considered unlucky, there is no record of the two items being referred to as unlucky in conjunction before the 19th century.
An early documented reference in English occurs in Henry Sutherland Edwards' 1869 biography of Gioachino Rossini, who died on a Friday 13th: He was surrounded to the last by admiring friends. It is possible that the publication in 1907 of Thomas W. Lawson's popular novel Friday, the Thirteenth, contributed to disseminating the superstition. In the novel, an unscrupulous broker takes advantage of the superstition to create a Wall Street panic on a Friday the 13th. A suggested origin of the superstition—Friday, 13 October 1307, the date Philip IV of France arrested hundreds of the Knights Templar—may not have been formulated until the 20th century, it is mentioned in the 1955 Maurice Druon historical novel The Iron King, John J. Robinson's 1989 work Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry, Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code and Steve Berry's The Templar Legacy. In Spanish-speaking countries, instead of Friday, Tuesday the 13th is considered a day of bad luck; the Greeks consider Tuesday an unlucky day.
Tuesday is considered dominated by the influence of the god of war. The fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade occurred on Tuesday, April 13, 1204, the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans happened on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, events that strengthen the superstition about Tuesday. In addition, in Greek the name of the day is Triti meaning the third, adding weight to the superstition, since bad luck is said to "come in threes". Tuesday the 13th occurs in a month. In Italian popular culture, Friday the 17th is considered a day of bad luck; the origin of this belief could be traced in the writing of number 17, in Roman numerals: XVII. By shuffling the digits of the number one can get the word VIXI, an omen of bad luck. In fact, in Italy, 13 is considered a lucky number. However, due to Americanization, young people consider Friday the 13th unlucky as well; the 2000 parody film Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth was released in Italy with the title Shriek – Hai impegni per venerdì 17?.
Friday the 17th occurs on a month starting on Wednesday. According to the Stress Management Center and Phobia Institute in Asheville, North Carolina, an estimated 17 to 21 million people in the United States are affected by a fear of this day, making it the most feared day and date in history; some people are so paralyzed by fear that they avoid their normal routines in doing business, taking flights or getting out of bed. "It's been estimated that $800 or $900 million is lost in business on this day". Despite this, representatives for both Delta Air Lines and Continental Airlines have stated that their airlines do not suffer from any noticeable drop in travel on those Fridays. In Finland, a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental organizations led by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health promotes the National Accident Day to raise awareness about automotive safety, which always falls on a Friday the 13th; the event is coordinated by the Finnish Red Cross and has been held since 1995.
A study in the British Medical Journal, published in 1993, attracted some attention from popular science-literature, as it concluded that "'the risk of hospital admission as a result of a transport accident may be increased by as much as 52 percent' on the 13th". Subsequent studies have disproved any correlation between the rate of accidents. On the contrary, the Dutch Centre for Insurance Statistics on 12 June 2008 stated that "fewer accidents and reports of fire and theft occur when the 13th of the month falls on a Friday than on other Fridays, because people are preventatively more careful or just stay home. Statistically speaking, driving is safer on Friday the 13th, at least in the Netherlands.
Monday is the day of the week between Sunday and Tuesday. According to the international standard ISO 8601 it is the first day of the week; the name of Monday is derived from Old English Mōnandæg and Middle English Monenday a translation of Latin dies lunae "day of the Moon". The names of the day of the week were coined in the Roman era, in Greek and Latin, in the case of Monday as ἡμέρᾱ Σελήνης, diēs Lūnae "day of the Moon". Many languages use terms either directly derived from these names, or loan-translations based on them; the English noun Monday derived sometime before 1200 from monedæi, which itself developed from Old English mōnandæg and mōndæg, which has cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian mōnadeig, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch mānendag, mānendach, Old High German mānetag, Old Norse mánadagr. The Germanic term is a Germanic interpretation of Latin lunae dies. Japanese and Korean share the same ancient Chinese words'月曜日' for Monday which means "day of the moon".
In many Indo-Aryan languages, the word for Monday is Somavāra or Chandravāra, Sanskrit loan-translations of "Monday". In some cases, the "ecclesiastical" names are used, a tradition of numbering the days of the week in order to avoid the "pagan" connotation of the planetary names, in which Monday is the "second day". In many Slavic languages the name of the day translates to "after Sunday/holiday". Russian понедельник, Croatian ponedjeljak, Serbian понедељак, Ukrainian понеділок, Bulgarian понеделник, Polish poniedziałek, Czech pondělí, Slovak pondelok, Slovenian ponedeljek. In Turkish it is called pazartesi, which means "after Sunday"; the Greco-Roman week began with Sunday, Monday was the second day of the week. It is still the custom to refer to Monday as feria secunda in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. Quakers traditionally referred to Monday as "Second Day"; the Portuguese and the Greek retain the ecclesiastical tradition. The Modern Hebrew name for Monday is yom-sheni.
In modern times, it has become more common to consider Monday the first day of the week. The international ISO 8601 standard places Monday as the first day of the week, this is used on calendars in Europe and in international business. Monday is xīngqīyī in Chinese, meaning "day one of the week". Modern Western culture looks at Monday as the beginning of the workweek. In Judaism Mondays are considered auspicious days for fasting; the Didache warned early Christians not to fast on Mondays to avoid Judaizing, suggests Wednesdays instead. In Judaism the Torah is read in public on Monday mornings, one of three days the Torah is read each week. Special penitential prayers are recited on Monday, unless there is a special occasion for happiness which cancels them. In the Eastern Orthodox Church Mondays are days; the Octoechos contains hymns on this theme, arranged in an eight-week cycle, that are chanted on Mondays throughout the year. At the end of Divine Services on Monday, the dismissal begins with the words: "May Christ our True God, through the intercession, s of his most-pure Mother, of the honourable, Bodiless Powers of Heaven…".
In many Eastern monasteries Mondays are observed as fast days. In these monasteries the monks abstain from meat, dairy products, fish and oil; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints spend one evening per week called Family Home Evening or Family Night Monday, that families are encouraged to spend together in study and other family activities. Many businesses owned by Latter-Day Saints close early on Mondays so they and their customers are able to spend more time with their families. A number of popular songs in Western culture feature Monday as a day of depression, avolition, hysteria, or melancholy. For example, "Monday, Monday" from the Mamas & the Papas, "Rainy Days and Mondays" from the Carpenters, "I Don't Like Mondays" from the Boomtown Rats, "Manic Monday" from the Bangles. There is an American pop punk band Hey Monday; the popular comic strip character Garfield by Jim Davis is well known for his disdain for Mondays. In the United Kingdom, more people commit suicide in England and Wales on Mondays than other days of the week.
During July 2002, the consulting firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting announced that it would rename itself to Monday, spend $110 million over the next year to establish that brand before it reversed that decision. Big Monday Black Monday Blue Monday Clean Monday Cyber Monday Easter Monday Bright Monday or Wet Monday First Monday Handsel Monday Lundi Gras Mad Monday Miracle Monday Plough Monday Shrove Monday Weather Market Monday, the day when commodity markets add or subtract weather premium Wet Monday Whit Monday Monday Club Monday demonstrations M
The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American and Haitian revolutions; this was an age of violent slave trading, global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century. In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution; the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War, causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.
18th century music included the classical period. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state; the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars. Napoleon Bonaparte, formed the Franco-Indian alliance with Indian ruler Tipu Sultan and his father emperor Hyder Ali and learnt more about Quran and Islam from them.
Tipu Sultan embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore Empire as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Under his reign, Mysore overtook the wealthy Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with productive agriculture and textile manufacturing. Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time. Along his father, he used their French-trained army in alliance and won important victories against the British Empire in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784; the defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment. Western historians have defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work.
For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 or later. 1700–1721: Great Northern War between the Russian and Swedish Empires. 1701: Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I. 1701–1714: The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe. 1702–1715: Camisard Rebellion in France. 1703: Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great. 1703–1711: The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy. 1704: End of Japan's Genroku period. 1704: First Javanese War of Succession. 1706–1713: The War of the Spanish Succession: French troops defeated at the battles of Ramillies and Turin. 1707: The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1708: The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and English Company Trading to the East Indies merge to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies. 1708–1709: Famine kills one-third of East Prussia's population. 1709: The Great Frost of 1709 marks the coldest winter in 500 years. 1710: The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne, takes effect. 1710–1711: Ottoman Empire fights Russia in the Russo-Turkish War. 1711–1715: Tuscarora War between British and German settlers and the Tuscarora people of North Carolina. 1715: The first Jacobite rising breaks out. 1716: Establishment of the Sikh Confederacy along the present-day India-Pakistan border. 1718: The city of New Orleans is founded by the French in North America. 1718–1730: Tulip period of the Ottoman Empire. 1719: Second Javanese War of Succession. 1720: The South Sea Bubble. 1720–1721: The Great Plague of Marseille. 1721: The Treaty of Nystad is signed, ending the Great Northern War.
1722–1723: Russo-Persian War. 1722–1725: Controversy over William Wood's halfpence leads to the Drapier's Letters and