Commonwealth Stadium (Edmonton)

Commonwealth Stadium known as The Brick Field at Commonwealth Stadium during Eskimos events, is an open-air, all-seater multipurpose stadium located in the McCauley neighbourhood of Edmonton, Canada. It has a seating capacity of 55,819, making it the largest open-air stadium in Canada, it has been used for Canadian football, athletics and rugby union, as well as concerts. Construction commenced in 1975 and the venue opened ahead of the 1978 Commonwealth Games, replacing the adjacent Clarke Stadium as the Eskimos home, it received a major expansion ahead of the 1983 Summer Universiade, when it reached a capacity of 60,081. Its main tenant is the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League, has hosted five Grey Cups, the CFL's championship game; the stadium had remained the only CFL venue with natural grass for a long time, until FieldTurf Duraspine Pro was installed in 2010. Soccer tournaments include nine FIFA World Cup qualification matches with Canada Men's National Soccer Team, two versions of the invitational Canada Cup, the 1996 CONCACAF Men's Pre-Olympic Tournament, the 2002 FIFA U-19 Women's World Championship and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, the 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.

FC Edmonton played its Canadian Championship matches at Commonwealth Stadium from 2011-2013. The stadium is listed as a potential site for the 2026 FIFA World Cup, which Canada will co-host with Mexico and the United States. Other events at the stadium include the 2001 World Championships in Athletics, the 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup and three editions of the Churchill Cup. Prior to Commonwealth Stadium, the main stadium in Edmonton was Clarke Stadium, which opened in 1939 and was built on a 38-acre plot of land. Work on applying to host the 1978 Commonwealth Games started in the early 1970s. With both federal and city funding backing the bid, it called for a massive renovation of the city's various sporting venues; the original plans called for Clarke Stadium to be rebuilt and expanded to host the athletics events. By 1974 there was consensus that Clarke Stadium would not be sufficient and that an all-new stadium should be built. Several locations and sizes were discussed, with Edmonton City Council in January 1975 landing on building a 40,000 seat venue next to Clarke Stadium.

The venue was designed by Bell, McManus Consultants. The city decided to build to additional new venues: Kinsmen Aquatic Centre and Argyll Velodrome, they based their design on Jack Trice Stadium in the US city of Iowa. Part of the public support for the stadium came from it being built to support being used by the Eskimos; the plans were met with opposition from local residents. There were discussions regarding the necessity of a $50,000 royal retirement room and the allocation of training and office space to the Eskimos; the largest discussion was related to whether the stadium needed a dome. As the roof would cost $18.2 million, there was limited public support and the stadium was built without one. In an attempt to further the roof process, the Eskimos offered to pay $1.6 million towards the roof. An enclosement would not be permitted used during the Commonwealth Games, so the design would have to call for the roof to be added afterwards. Among the opponents of the roof was Commonwealth Games Foundation President Maury Van Vilet, that experience from construction of the Olympic Stadium in Montreal showed the necessity of building a simple structure.

An alternative design, which would have cost an additional $7.3 million, was launched by the Eskimos in August 1975, but rejected by the city council. A major concern for the city council were the large cost overruns which were being experienced in Montreal at the time. Excavation saw the removal of 400,000 cubic metres of earthwork. A local action committee, Action Edmonton, demanded in early 1975 that construction be halted and the venue relocated; the city estimated that this would cost an additional $2.5 million and delay the process with eight months. The decision to not enclose the stadium was taken on December 10, 1975; the venue was thus not designed to allow a roof, stiff, to be retrofitted. The venue was built on the former site of the Williamson Slaughter House. During excavation, remains from the dump were struck, resulting in archaeological surveys being carried out. Construction of the Edmonton Light Rail Transit's inaugural Capital Line commenced in 1974 and was opened in time for the Commonwealth Games, which allowed spectators to take the LRT from Stadium station to downtown Edmonton.

Construction of the stadium was completed within time. When the venue opened it had a capacity for a natural grass turf. Unlike most other major stadiums in Canada, Commonwealth Stadium elected for a natural grass turf; the original configuration included 3,200 bench seating on the north end. The venue was opened on July 15, 1978 in an event which attracted 15,000 spectators; the venue went through a slight expansion in 1980, when the seating capacity was increased to 43,346. Additional proposals for a roof, ranging from $10 to $32 million in cost, were presented in 1979, but since the discussion of covering the stadium died out. Edmonton was selected to host the 1983 Summer Universiade, in 1981 the city council approved an $11 million upgrade to the venue, which added a further 18,000 seats to the upper tiers and the north end zone. For special events, such as the Grey Cup, additional seating could be added; this made it the second-largest stadium in Canada, after Montreal's Olympic Stadium, the largest without a dome.


Tatyana Yumasheva

Tatyana Borisovna Yumasheva is the younger daughter of former Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Naina Yeltsina. She graduated from MSU Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics in 1983, she worked at the Salyut Design Bureau and at Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center until 1994. Yeltsin made her his personal advisor in 1996. A memoir written by Yeltsin, as reported by the New York Times credited her with advising against "banning Communist Party, dissolving Parliament and postponing presidential elections" in 1996, she was influential as Yeltsin recovered from heart surgery in late 1996. She became the keystone in a small group of advisors known as "The Family," although the others were not Yeltsin relatives. Boris Berezovsky and other oligarchs were included in the group as well. In 2000, Dyachenko's name came up during a corruption investigation. Dyachenko remained on the staff of Yeltsin's hand-picked successor Vladimir Putin, was a key adviser to him during his 2000 election campaign, but Putin dismissed her that year.

Dyachenko is portrayed in the 2003 satirical comedy Spinning Boris, based on the real experiences of U. S. political consultants in the 1996 campaign. Dyachenko and Yumashev provided editorial assistance in preparing the last volume of her father's memoirs, Midnight Diaries. Dyachenko was married to Alexey Dyachenko, a businessman, made CEO of Urals Energy, a company under investigation by the Putin government as of 2008. In 2001, Tatyana married her fellow presidential adviser Valentin Yumashev, flew to London to have a baby. Yumashev is the father-in-law of oligarch Oleg Deripaska. Tatyana is a close friend of Roman Abramovich. List of Russians Media related to Tatyana Yumasheva at Wikimedia Commons

Harry Phillips (judge)

Harry Phillips was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Born in Watertown, Phillips received an Artium Baccalaureus degree from Cumberland University in 1932 and a Bachelor of Laws from Cumberland School of Law in 1933, he was in private practice in Watertown from 1935 to 1937, served as a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1935 to 1937, as an assistant state attorney general of Tennessee from 1937 to 1943. He was in the United States Navy during World War II, from 1943 to 1946, achieving the rank of Lieutenant Commander, he was again an assistant state attorney general of Tennessee from 1946 to 1950, thereafter returning to private practice in Nashville, Tennessee from 1950 to 1963. On June 4, 1963, Phillips was nominated by President John F. Kennedy to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit vacated by Judge John Donelson Martin Sr. Phillips was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 28, 1963, received his commission on July 3, 1963.

He served as Chief Judge from 1969 to 1979, assuming senior status on January 15, 1979 and serving in that capacity until his death on August 3, 1985, in London, due to injuries suffered from being struck by a vehicle while crossing a street in London. In 1986, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit named its Nashville satellite library after Judge Phillips in recognition of his lifelong commitment to legal scholarship; the Harry Phillips American Inn of Court was founded in 1990 in Tennessee. It is the 120th American Inn of Court in the United States. From 1990 to 2011 400 lawyers, law professors, law students living and working in Middle Tennessee have been members of the Harry Phillips AIC; as one of its first official acts, the Inn adopted the name "Harry Phillips American Inn of Court." Harry Phillips at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. "Harry Phillips American Inn of Court".