12th Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam
The 12th Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the current Politburo of the ruling Communist Party in Vietnam. It was selected by the Central Committee of the Party at the 12th National Congress of the CPV on January 27, 2016, is expected to serve until the 13th National Congress, tentatively scheduled for early 2021; the 19-member committee comprises seven returning members. Within Vietnam's one-party political system, the Politburo de facto occupies the apex of the political system, with important government positions and leadership of the military and security forces always held by its members. Since the incumbent president, prime minister, chair of the National Assembly were not selected to partake in the 12th Politburo, they were expected to retire when the National Assembly confirmed their successors in late 2016; the incumbent general secretary of the CPV, Nguyễn Phú Trọng, was re-elected to his post. At the 11th session of the 13th National Assembly, a number of members of the new Politburo were confirmed as new leaders of state institutions.
A "*" indicates that the position was confirmed at the 11th session of the 13th National Assembly, convened from late March 2016. Http://tuoitre.vn/tin/chinh-tri-xa-hoi/20160128/infographic-19-uy-vien-bo-chinh-tri-khoa-xii/1045678.html
Vương Đình Huệ
Vương Đình Huệ is a Vietnamese politician, Professor in Economics. He is Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, he was Minister of Finance and head of the PCC Economic Commission, a central committee consulting agency for economic policies and strategies. He is a member of the 10th, 11th and 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, known as First Secretary from 1951 to 1976, is the highest office within the Communist Party of Vietnam. The General Secretaryship was the second-highest office within the party when Hồ Chí Minh was Chairman, a post which existed from 1951 to 1969; the general secretary is the Secretary of the Central Military Commission, the leading Party organ on military affairs. For a period in its history, the position of general secretary has been synonymous with leader of Vietnam; the current general secretary is Nguyễn Phú Trọng, he is ranked first in the Political Bureau. Trần Phú, one of the founding members of the Indochinese Communist Party, was the party's first general secretary. A year after being elected, he was sentenced to prison by the French authorities because of anti-French activities, he died in prison the same year. Trần's de facto successor was Lê Hồng Phong who led the party through the office of General Secretary of the Overseas Executive Committee.
The OEC general secretary led the party. Hà Huy Tập, the third general secretary, was removed from his post in March 1938, was arrested by the authorities in May. Nguyễn Văn Cừ, the fourth general secretary, was arrested by the authorities in June 1940, executed by shooting on 25 May 1941, he was succeeded by Trường Chinh in May 1941. An article in Nhân Dân on 25 March 1951 described Trường's role as the "builder and commander" of the revolution, while Hô Chí Minh was referred to as "the soul of the Vietnamese revolution and the Vietnamese resistance". Trường was demoted as First Secretary in 1956 because of his role in the Land Reform campaign". Hô took over the office of First Secretary, but appointed Lê Duẩn acting First Secretary. Lê was elected general secretary in 1960, was the second only to Hô until the latter's death on 2 September 1969. From 2 September 1969 until his death on 10 July 1986, Lê was the undisputed leader of Vietnam, he died two months before the next National Party Congress, was succeeded by Trường, the former general secretary who had served as the second-most powerful politician in Vietnam since Hô's death.
Trường was demoted from his post at the 6th National Party Congress, was succeeded by Nguyễn Văn Linh. The Western press called Linh "Vietnam's Gorbachev" because of his reformist policies. Linh resigned because of bad health in 1991, Đỗ Mười was appointed to the general secretaryship by the 7th National Congress. Mười ruled until 1997. Lê Khả Phiêu was Mười's successor, he was elected as a compromise candidate. Phiêu was ousted in 2001, before the 10th National Party Congress, when the Central Committee overturned a decision of the Politburo. Nông Đức Mạnh succeeded Phiêu, Manh came to be considered a moderniser. Manh was the first general secretary with a university degree. Manh retired in 2011, Nguyễn Phú Trọng succeeded him, he now is considered the most powerful political figure in Vietnam; the General Secretary presides over the work of the Central Committee, the Political Bureau, the Secretariat, chairs meetings with key leaders
Ho Chi Minh Thought
Ho Chi Minh Thought is the political philosophy of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Since 1991, the contents of Ho Chi Minh's thought were formed and developed in association with the periods of Ho Chi Minh's activities in the revolutionary movement of Vietnam and internationally as integral to the curriculum of fundamental instruction for civil servants in Vietnam. At the beginning and the middle of the 20th century, Ho Chi Minh thought was the crystallization of Vietnamese culture, French revolutionary ideas, liberal ideas, Marxist–Leninist communist ideals and Ho Chi Minh's personal qualities. Ho Chi Minh Thought considered the peasantry to be the most popular force of the nationalist movement, the basis for the struggle for national liberation, with the blood of the working class, oppressed by the colonialists and the minions, ready to stand up with workers in the developing proletarian revolution. In the Party's Revolutionary Strategy, Ho Chi Minh wrote: "The Party must recruit the majority of the peasants and rely on the poor peasants to make a revolutionary land, to build the landlords and feudal lords.
The workers and the peasants from being under the power and influence of the national capitalists, the Party must communicate with the capitalist, middle-class". Ho Chi Minh Thought is an ideology that adapts Marxism–Leninism to the specific social and economic conditions of the Vietnamese people by Ho Chi Minh, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam; the tenets of Ho Chi Minh Thought are constructed from the political statements and attitudes of Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh Thought has been identified as a legitimate ideology of the Communist Party of Vietnam alongside Marxism–Leninism, formally launched from the party's Seventh Party Congress; the Communist Party, the Vietnam state and the legitimate views of Vietnam today agree that Ho Chi Minh Thought is a creative use of Marxism–Leninism in Vietnam's context, considering Ho Chi Minh's thought has become a valuable spiritual asset of the Communist Party and the people of Vietnam. The Communist Party of Vietnam identified Marxism–Leninism and Ho Chi Minh's thought as the guideline for all actions and victories of the Vietnamese revolution.
Vietnamese schools always follow Ho Chi Minh Thought in all walks of life. From its establishment in 1944 his death in 1969 Ho Chi Minh operated the People's Army of Vietnam leading a decades long nonlinear war against the colonial Republic of France, The Empire of Japan in the Pacific theater of World War Two and United States up until the early 1970s. Ho as Chairman of the Vietnamese Communist Party organized a revolutionary war based on the principals of guerilla warfare, Ho's military thought is expressed in several published works, such as, "Twelve Recommendations, Instructions Given at the "Conference Reviewing the Second Le Hong Phong Military Campaign", "To Wage a Resistance War". Ho Chi Minh's tactical strategies bear strong resemblance to several contemporaries such as Chinese leader Mao Zedong, Cuban revolutionaries Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara, the who both waged protracted revolutionary wars against a more well equipped military structure, emphasizing popular support by the peasantry and working class to overthrow reactionary and colonial states.
Ho evokes concepts similar to Mao's Peoples war. Ho shows a military as well as political influence from Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, in utilizing the Leninist political strategy of dual power, wherein peasant and worker based governments are established to contest the legitimacy of the formal state. Ho maintained a strong opposition to Trotskyism. Vietnam from the 1930s up to the late 1940s had a considerable Trotskyist influence within the Marxist and Anti-Imperialist community. Writer Pierre Rosette describes communist figure Ngyuen An Ninh as one of the most considerable figures within the Vietnamese Left Opposition. Following Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech to the Central Committee Secret Speech to the 20th Party Congress denouncing his predecessor Joseph Stalin, Ho Chi Minh supported Khrushchev's position in the August 3, 1956 article "Development of Ideological Unity Among Marxist–Leninist Parties". In the article Ho support's the Soviet policy of Peaceful coexistence, denouncing Stalin's Cult of personality and reaffirming the Communist Party of Vietnam's adherence to the concept of Self-criticism.
This is in contrast to the Anti-revisionist position of Mao Zedong and The People's Republic of China. Filipino Marxist activist Walden Bello is critical of the concept of "Ho Chi Minh Thought", stating that Ho Chi Minh at no point set out to develop a structural Marxist framework, writing "Ho left no significant theoretical innovations, much less an integrated body of theory; this has, of course, not prevented some in the Vietnamese Communist Party from claiming that Ho left behind'Ho Chi Minh Thought', described as a new development in Marxist Leninist theory. " "Twelve Recommendations" Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Communism in Vietnam Juche Maoism Sino-Soviet split Vietnam War Vietnamese nationalism Ho Chi Minh: Down with Colonialism!. Verso, 2007. Introduction and editing by Walden Bello. Ho Chi Minh: Selected Articles and Speeches, 1920-1967, International Publishers, 1970. Minh, Ho Chi. Selected Writings 1920-1969, University Press of the Pacific, 2001. Website of the Communist Party of Vietnam Bao Dien tu Dang Cong san Viet Nam
Politics of Vietnam
The politics of Vietnam are defined by a single-party socialist republic framework, where the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the Party leader and head of the Politburo, holding the highest position in the one-party system. The President of Vietnam is the head of state, the Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government in a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. Executive power is exercised by the President of Vietnam. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly of Vietnam; the Judiciary is independent of the executive. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Vietnam; the President is elected by National Assembly for a five-year term and acts as the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security. Moreover, the president has the right to decide on executive brands; the government, the main executive state power of Vietnam, is headed by the Prime Minister, who has several Deputy Prime Ministers and several ministers in charge of particular activities.
The executive branch is responsible for the implementation of political, cultural, national defence and external activities of the state. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body; the National Assembly has 500 members, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The legislature is, according to the highest organ of the state, its powers includes the amendment of the constitution and laws. The Vietnamese constitution and legislation provide for regular elections for the office of the President of the Socialist Republic, the National Assembly and the People's Councils. Vietnam has a judicial system governed by the Constitution of Vietnam and national legislation enacted by National Assembly; the Supreme People's Court is the highest court of appeal in Vietnam. There are other specialised courts in Vietnam, including the Central Military Court, the Criminal Court, the Civil Court and the Appeal Court; the Supreme People's Procuracy observes the implementation of state organs and makes sure that Vietnamese citizens follow the law.
Vietnam is a one-party socialist republic. The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the 1945 August Revolution led by Hồ Chí Minh; the current constitution was adopted on 15 April 1992 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. There have been three other constitutions in Vietnamese history: the 1946, 1959 and 1980 constitutions; the current constitution has been amended once, during the 10th session of the National Assembly on 25 December 2001. The Communist Party of Vietnam, the leading non-State organ, operates in accordance with the laws. Government powers in Vietnam are divided into legislative and judiciary powers. Vietnam's legal system is based upon socialist legality according to Article 12 of the constitution. Vietnam is a socialist republic with a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam; the CPV espouses Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thought, the thoughts of the late Hồ Chí Minh. The two ideologies function as a firm ideological basis and serve as guidance for the activities of the Party and state.
According to the Constitution, Vietnam is "in the period of transition to socialism". Marxism–Leninism was introduced to Vietnam in the 1920s and 1930s, Vietnamese culture has been led under the banner of patriotism and Marxism–Leninism. Hồ Chí Minh's beliefs were not systematised during his life, nor following his death. Trường Chinh's biography of "Chairman Hồ" in 1973 emphasised his revolutionary policies; the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh were systematised under the leadership of Nguyễn Văn Linh. Hồ Chí Minh Thought, alongside Marxism–Leninism, became the official ideology of the CPV and the state in 1991; the CPV's claim to legitimacy was retained following the collapse of communism in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 by its commitment to the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh, according to Sophie Quinn-Judge. According to Pierre Brocheux, the author of Ho Chi Minh: a Biography, the current state ideology is Hồ Chí Minh Thought, with Marxism–Leninism playing a secondary role. While some claim that Hồ Chí Minh Thought is used as a veil for the Party leadership since they, according to this version, have stopped believing in communism, this is false when considering that Hồ Chí Minh was an avid supporter of Vladimir Lenin and the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Others see Hồ Chí Minh Thought as a political umbrella term whose main function is to smuggle in non-socialist ideas and policies without challenging socialist legality. Since its foundation, the key ideology has been Marxism–Leninism, but since the introduction of a mixed economy in the late 1980s and 1990s, it has lost its monopolistic ideological and moral legitimacy. Marxism–Leninism, a class-based ideology, lost its legitimacy because of the mixed economy; as became clear because of the Đổi Mới reforms, the Party could not base its rule on defending only the workers and the peasants, referred to as the "working class-peasant alliance". In the constitution introduced in 1992, the State represented the "workers and intellectuals". In recent years, the Party has stopped representing a specific class, but instead the "interests of the entire people", which includes entrepreneurs; the final class barrier was removed in 2002, when party members were allowed t
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Nguyễn Phú Trọng is a Vietnamese politician, the current General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, in office since 19 January 2011, President of Vietnam, de jure head of state of Vietnam, in office since 23 October 2018. Nguyễn Phú Trọng was Chairman of the National Assembly from 2006 to 2011, was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the party's 11th National Congress in 2011 and reelected at the 12th National Congress in 2016; as General Secretary, Nguyễn Phú Trọng heads the party's Secretariat and is the Secretary of the Central Military Commission in addition to being the de facto head of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, which makes him the most powerful person in Vietnam. On 3 October 2018, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally nominated Nguyễn Phú Trọng to be the next President of Vietnam to be voted on the next session of the National Assembly where the party holds an overwhelming majority, making him the third person to head the party and the state after Ho Chi Minh and Trường Chinh.
On 23 October 2018, Nguyễn Phú Trọng was elected as the 9th President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in a meeting of the sixth session of the National Assembly. Nguyễn Phú Trọng was born in Đông Anh District, Hanoi, his official biography gives his family background only as "poor peasant". He studied philology at Vietnam National University, Hanoi from 1963 to 1968. Trọng became a member of the Communist Party of Vietnam in December 1968, he worked for the Tạp chí Cộng Sản, the theoretical and political agency of the Communist Party of Vietnam in the periods of 1968–1973, 1976–1981 and 1983–1996. From 1991 to 1996, he served as the editor-in-chief of the Tạp chí Cộng Sản. Nguyễn Phú Trọng went to the Soviet Union in 1981 to study at the Academy of Sciences and received a Candidate of Sciences degree in history in 1983. In 1998, Trọng entered the party section devoted to political work, making him one of the most prominent Vietnamese political theoreticians, heading the party Central Committee's Theoretical Council in charge of the party's theoretical work from 2001 to 2006.
Nguyễn Phú Trọng has been member of the party's Central Committee since January 1994, member of the party's Political Bureau since December 1997 and deputy to the National Assembly since May 2002. From January 2000 to June 2006, Trọng was secretary of the party's Executive Committee of Hanoi, the de facto head of the city authority. On 26 June 2006, Trọng was elected as the Chairman of the National Assembly. During this period, he was elected secretary of the party organization in the National Assembly and member of the Council for Defence and Security. On 23 October 2018, Trọng was elected as the 9th President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in a seasonal meeting of National Assembly. Nguyễn Phú Trọng was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam in 2011; the 5th plenum of the 11th Central Committee decided to take the Central Steering Committee for Anti-Corruption away from the Prime Minister’s control and Nguyễn Phú Trọng was elected its head. On 6 July 2015, General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng arrived in the United States to begin his United States visit to 10 July 2015.
This is the first time a leader of the Communist Party of Vietnam has held office in the United States Department of State, but has not held any official post in the Oval Office. This visit coincided with the milestone of twenty years since the United States and Vietnam normalized diplomatic relations; the talks with President Barack Obama was about human rights and defense and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. On 27 January 2016, Nguyễn Phú Trọng was re-elected as General Secretary of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the first conference of the committee. At 72 years old, he is the 12th Committee's oldest member. For this term, Trong is ranked number one in the Politburo. Nguyễn Phú Trọng hopes under a one party rule, to strengthen Vietnam position in the world, turning it into an industrial country rather than a country that produces on primary products. "A country without discipline would be unstable. E need to balance democracy and law and order", said Nguyễn Phú Trọng at the close of a meeting to choose the country’s leadership for the next five years.
"I much hope the new faces in the politburo will push with reforms and bring the country forward, but I don't know whether they can do that", said Tran Thi Tram. "They will have to tackle the corruption problem, otherwise the people would be the ones to suffer most". On 3 October 2018, Nguyễn Phú Trọng was chosen by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam with nearly 100% support to become the party nominee for the position of the President of Vietnam, becoming the official successor of Trần Đại Quang; the National Assembly elected Nguyễn Phú Trọng as state president on 23 October 2018 with 99.79% percent of the vote. His swearing-in ceremony took place at the Grand Hall and was broadcast live on the afternoon on state radio and television systems. Nguyen Phu Trong. Viet Nam on The Path of Renewal. Hanoi: Thế giới Publishers. 351 p.. Nguyen Phu Trong. Renewal in Việt Nam: Theory and Reality. Hanoi: Thế giới Publishers. 397 p. Nguyen Phu Trong. Vietnam from 1986. Hanoi: Thế giới Publishers.
116 p. Order of José Martí Biography of Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong
Supreme People's Court of Vietnam
The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam is the highest court of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Supreme People's Court is one of the two institutions at the apex of the judicial system of Vietnam, with the other body being the Supreme People's Procuracy of Vietnam. Both are accountable to the President of Vietnam, the highest institution of government power in the country; the head of the Supreme People's Court of Vietnam is the Chief Justice. The current Chief Justice of Vietnam is Nguyen Hoa Binh; the Supreme People's Court is responsible for providing leadership to the Vietnamese court system, supervising the judicial process, recommending bills to the National Assembly as appropriate under law. It is a court of final resort; the Court is by statute the court of final resort for all matters arising under Vietnamese law. It hears appeals in cases; the Court's Council of Justices can pass resolutions directing lower courts on the uniform enforcement of the law across the country. Prior to June 2015, when parts of the Law on the Organization of People's Courts and several resolutions by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly took effect, the Supreme People's Court had some intermediate appellate jurisdiction via its three appellate benches.
However, the 2014 law transformed those appellate benches into full courts called superior people's courts, removed intermediate appellate jurisdiction from the Supreme People's Court. The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam is organized according to the Law on the Organization of People's Courts. Under law, the Court's organization consists of the Council of Justices, its supporting apparatus, as well as training facilities as needed; the Court's Council of Justices consists of the Chief Justice, the Deputy Chief Justices, other justices of the Supreme People's Court as appointed by the National Assembly on nomination by the President. It must have at least 13 members, at most 17 members. Appeals are heard by panels of five justices, or by the entire Council of Justices when appropriate under law. Official website