Tandel is a commune and village in eastern Luxembourg, in the canton of Vianden. It lies close to the border with Germany; as of 2001, the village of Tandel, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 87. Other villages within the commune include Bastendorf, Brandenbourg and Longsdorf; the commune of Tandel was formed on 1 January 2006 from the former communes of Bastendorf and Fouhren. The law creating Tandel was passed on 21 December 2004. Media related to Tandel at Wikimedia Commons
Echternach is a commune with town status in the canton of Echternach, part of the district of Grevenmacher, in eastern Luxembourg. Echternach lies near the border with Germany, is the oldest town in Luxembourg; the town grew around the Abbey of Echternach, founded in 698 by St Willibrord, an English monk from Ripon, who became the first bishop of Utrecht and worked to Christianize the Frisians. As bishop, he was the Echternach monastery's abbot until his death in 739, it is in his honour that the notable Dancing procession of Echternach takes place annually on Whit Tuesday. The river Sauer that flows past the town now forms the border between Germany; the Roman villa at Echternach was reputed to be the largest North of the Alps. It was part of the Electorate of Trier and was presented to Willibrord by Irmina, daughter of Dagobert II, king of the Franks. Other parts of the Merovingians' Roman inheritance were presented to the Abbey by king of the Franks Pepin the Short. Echternach continued to have royal patronage from the house of Charlemagne.
Though the monks were displaced by the canons of the bishop of Trier between 859 and 971, although Willibrord's buildings burned down in 1017, the Romanesque basilica, with its symmetrical towers, to this day houses Willibrord's tomb in its crypt. The abbey's library and scriptorium had a European reputation; as it flourished, the town of Echternach grew around the abbey's outer walls and was granted a city charter in 1236. The abbey was rebuilt in a handsome Baroque style in 1737. In 1797, in the wake of the French Revolution, the monks were dispersed and the abbey's contents and its famous library were auctioned off; some of the library's early manuscripts, such as the famous Echternach Gospels, are now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. In the 19th century, a porcelain factory was established in the abbey and the town declined, until the advent of the railroad brought renewed life and an influx of tourists. During the concluding months of World War II in Europe, on December 16, 1944, Echternach served as the southernmost point on the battlefront for the attempt of the German Wehrmacht forces attacking the Allies to retake Antwerp, during the Battle of the Bulge.
The town was badly damaged in World War II, but was restored. There are two main churches in Echternach; the larger is the Abbey's Basilica of St Willibrord, now surrounded by the eighteenth-century abbey and is located in the heart of the town's historical centre. The other is the parish church of St Paul; the nearby Prehistory Museum traces mankind's history over the past one million years. Close to Echternach lies the Echternach lake which hosts several activities every year, like the e-Lake music festival or the "Mill Man Trail" bike race. Since 1975, Echternach has been the site of an International Music Festival, held annually in May and June. Johannes Holler a Roman Catholic prelate and Auxiliary Bishop of Trier 1663–1671 Joseph-Alexandre Müller a Luxembourg composer. Artur Sirk an Estonian military figure. Jeannette Goergen-Philip a Luxembourgian archer, competed at the 1984 and 1992 Summer Olympics Gaston Stronck a Luxembourgish diplomatpoliticiansCaspar Mathias Spoo a Luxembourgish industrialist and politician.
Robert Schaffner a Luxembourgian politician, twice mayor of Echternach, 1945-1947 and 1970-1979 Marie-Josée Frank a Luxembourgish politician Marcel Sauber a Luxembourgian politician Fernand Boden a politician from Luxembourg, minister in the government 1979-2009 Media related to Echternach at Wikimedia Commons Official Website of Echternach Everything about Echternach Harmonie Municipale Echternach Local Radio Echternach 106,5 FM Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2008 Old postcards of Echternach
For the town in Mersch canton, see Boevange-sur-AttertBoevange is a village in the commune of Wincrange, in northern Luxembourg. As of 2001, the village had a population of 117. Boevange was a commune in the canton of Clervaux until 1 January 1978, when it was merged with the communes of Asselborn and Oberwampach to form the new commune of Wincrange; the law creating Wincrange was passed on 31 October 1977. The former commune of Boevange included the villages of Boevange, Deiffelt, Hamiville, Lullange and Wincrange
Differdange is a commune with town status in south-western Luxembourg, 17 miles west from the country's capital. It lies near the borders with Belgium and France and it is located in the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette. With a population of around 26,000, Differdange is the country's third largest city, it is the main town of the commune, other towns within the commune include Lasauvage and Oberkorn. Differdange is an industrial town, home to much of Luxembourg's steel production, much of its development occurred during its heyday. Today, Differdange still remains an important industrial center, with ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer, retaining an important steel factory in the town. Notable landmarks in Differdange include the Maison de Soins de Differdange, an ancient Cistercian abbey dating back to 1235 and the Differdange Castle, located on a hill in the centre of the town, which dates from 1577 and is now used by Miami University; as such, Differdange is home to Miami University's Dolibois European Center, the University's European campus branch where students study abroad.
Differdange is home to football team FC Differdange 03. The era of the Cistercian cathedrals and abbeys was in full swing during the thirteenth century and Differdange did not deviate from this pattern. In 1235, Alexandre de Soleuvre founded the abbey of Differdange, which he donated to the order of Cîteaux; the Cistercian abbey welcomed only sisters from the nobility of Luxembourg. Subsequently, women from the Lorraine region of France and the present province of Luxembourg in Wallonia made their vows at Differdange. In 1552, the abbey sacked by French soldiers. However, it was during the French invasion of Luxembourg that the abbey and the town experienced real raids and innumerable rampages; the last abbess to direct the convent was Marie-Madeleine de Gourcy, who held office until 1796. After her mandate, the Order was formally dissolved; the Abbey of Differdange was auctioned off in 1797 and subsequently be bought by the commune of Differdange in 1929. In 1981 following its purchase by government of Luxembourg, the Differdange Abbey was transformed into a hospital and health center.
The Differdange Castle is one of the only remaining landmarks from the Renaissance period in the area. Although it has no known origin since all traced manuscripts have disappeared, squire listed was Wilhelm de Differdange, named in documents dating from 1310; the castle is the earliest example in Luxembourg of a château built in the Renaissance style. It was intended as a fortification. Differdange'e descendants were extinguished in 1400 with the death of his last grandson. In 1552, the castle underwent a disastrous fire, It was restored and occupied by Anna of Isenburg. Beginning in 1830, Luxembourg's steel industry evolved from and artisan stage to an industrial stage. In 1896, two blast furnaces were erected in Differdange with the name of "Société Anonyme des Hauts-Fourneaux de Differdange". Subsequently, eight other blast furnaces were built, allowing the production of steel beams known at the time as "Differdinger". On August 4, 1907, Differdange received its town status by William IV of Luxembourg.
During the 20th century, the industrial boom was at its peak, the population of Differdange rose from less than 4,000 in 1890 to 18,000 by 1930. In 1967, the "Société des Hauts-Fourneaux and Aciererie de Differdange" merged with several steel companies in Belgium and France to form ARBED, Luxembourg's largest steel company, which had numerous factories in Differdange; the town is located in the valley of the river Chiers, a tributary of the river Meuse which takes its source in the section of Oberkorn. Differdange has an altitude of 293 meters, the highest point of the municipality being at 427,1m at Koufeld; the commune spreads over 2,215 hectares. Its territory borders France, through the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle in the basin of Longwy. Differdange Lasauvage Niederkorn Oberkorn Émile Krieps a resistance leader and politician Jean Portante a writer of novels, plays, journalistic articles and poetry. J. the current Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Luxembourg since 2011SportÉtienne Bausch a footballer, competed at the 1924 Summer Olympics Émile Kolb a footballer, competed at the 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics Bernard Fischer a footballer, competed at the 1928 Summer Olympics Paul Feierstein a footballer, competed at the 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics Michael Maurer a boxer who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics Arnold Kieffer a footballer, competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics Fernand Ciatti a boxer, competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics Julien Darui a French football goalkeeper Gusty Kemp a footballer, played 20 times for the national team and competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics Paul Anen a fencer, competed at the 1948 and 1952 Summer Olympics Jean-Fernand Leischen a fencer, competed in three Summer Olympics Nicolas May a footballer, competed in the 1948 Summer Olympics Josy Stoffel a retired gymnast, competed in five consecutive Summer Olympics in 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960 & 1964 Rudy Kugeler a fencer, competed in the team épée at the 1960 Summer Olympics Ferd Lahure (b
Remich is a commune with town status in south-eastern Luxembourg with a population of 3,645 inhabitants as of 2018. It is the capital of the canton of Remich. Remich lies on the left bank of the Moselle river, which forms part of the border between Luxembourg and Germany; the commune is the smallest in Luxembourg by surface area. The Moselle valley is dominated by wine-making and many small wine-making towns, of which Remich is one of the most picturesque and frequented by tourists. In the 5th century, after the withdrawal of Roman troops, the Roman settlement of "Remacum" turned into "Remich". In the 8th century the King of the Franks, Pepin the Short ceded his crown estate "Hof Remich" to the Benedictine St. Maximin's Abbey in Trier and to Prüm Abbey. In 882, the Normans destroyed the settlement. Fragments of the medieval town fortifications from 952, such as the St. Nicolas gate, are still visible today; the town gate, it is dedicated to the patron saint of fishermen and sailors, is registered as a national monument today, as is the decanal church, whose rectangular tower is a former defensive tower from the 12th century.
In 1687 the town's fortifications were demolished by the army of Louis XIV. There are still guild symbols on some of the houses today. In 1866 the first bridge was built over the Moselle. After its destruction in World War II it was replaced first with a wooden construction in 1958 with the bridge that still stands today. Since its canalisation in 1964, it has been possible for boats to sail on the Moselle all year round. Remich annually holds a three-day-long celebration for Carnival. Remich is notable for two special events in addition to its Fuesend Karneval parades; the first of these is the Stréimännchen, the burning of a male effigy from the Remich bridge that crosses the Moselle River separating the Grand Duchy from Germany. The Stréimännchen symbolizes the burning away of winter; the other special event at the Remich Fuesend celebrations is the Buergbrennen or bonfire that closes the celebration. The communal council is composed as detailed below; the results are those of the most recent communal elections on 8 October 2017.
NB: The "Change" column refers to a party's number of seats gained/lost since the 2011 communal elections. Jacques Sitz Henri Kox Jeannot Belling Fernand Kons Jean-Auguste Neyen Joseph-Chrétien Gretsch Willibrorde Macher Mary Alfred Moes, American Roman Catholic nun, was born in Remich. Media related to Remich at Wikimedia Commons Website of the town of Remich
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia
Luxembourg known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, 209 km from Cologne; the city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2019, Luxembourg City had a population of 119,214, more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune. In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living. Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several institutions and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the European Stability Mechanism.
In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption. At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed; the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares.
In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, Spanish and Austrian empires and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; these were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once in 1792–3, after a seven-month siege. Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the'Gibraltar of the North'.
Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison surrendered, as a consequence, Luxembourg was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City, their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, required the destruction of over 24 km of underground defences and 4 hectares of casemates, barracks, etc. Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a independent country, Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a independent state.
Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution. In 1921, the city limits were expanded; the communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg C