Communes of Romania

A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2,686 communes in Romania; the commune is the rural subdivision of a county. Urban areas, such as towns and cities within a county, are given the status of municipality. In principle, a commune can contain any size population, but in practice, when a commune becomes urbanised and exceeds 10,000 residents, it is granted city status. Although cities are on the same administrative level as communes, their local governments are structured in a way that gives them more power; some urban or semi-urban areas of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants have been given city status. Each commune is administered by a mayor. A commune is made up of one or more villages which do not themselves have an administrative function. Communes, like cities, correspond to the European Union's level 2 local administrative unit. Florești, in Cluj County, is the largest commune in Romania, with over 22,000 inhabitants. Cities of Romania Municipalities of Romania Counties of Romania

Cape Town Civic Centre

The Cape Town Civic Centre is a building on the Foreshore in central Cape Town, South Africa that serves as the headquarters of the City of Cape Town, the municipality that governs Cape Town and its suburbs. It was completed in 1978, is made up of two blocks; the Podium Block is a low-rise building which houses the City management, including the Council Chamber and the Mayor's Office. The Tower Block is a 98-metre-tall, 26-floor high-rise block that houses the administrative offices of the municipality; the arch where the road passes under the building acts as a powerful wind tunnel and some of the highest windspeeds can be found along this corridor. This has at times endangered pedestrians and impacted important events like the Cape Argus Cycle Race; the Civic Centre trunk station of the MyCiTi bus rapid transit system is located along Hertzog Boulevard beneath the Tower Block

Blackwood convention

In the partnership card game contract bridge, the Blackwood convention is a popular bidding convention, developed by Easley Blackwood. It is used to explore the partnership's possession of aces, kings and in some variants, the queen of trumps, to judge more whether slam is to be a good contract. Two versions of Blackwood are common: "standard" Blackwood, developed by Easley in 1933, "Roman Key Card" Blackwood, named for the Italian team which invented it. Standard Blackwood enables one partner to count partnership kings in general. Key card variants are defined by a particular "key" suit and enable counting the trump king and queen, as well as aces and kings. Both versions are initiated by a bid of four notrump, the entire family of conventions may be called Blackwood 4NT in both versions, or Key Card 4NT in the key card variation. There are other 4NT conventions, such as Culbertson 4-5 Notrump, Norman Four Notrump and San Francisco, but all bridge partnerships employ some member of the Blackwood family as part of their slam-investigation methods.

If the partnership's preceding call is a natural bid in notrump 4NT is played as natural. Over an opposing pass it is a raise and a quantitative invitation to six notrump, a small slam. Over an intervening four of a suit by opponents it is played as a competitive raise, expecting to play four notrump; those natural interpretations may hold in other auctions where the partnership has bid notrump or shown a balanced hand conventionally. In some situations where 4NT is a quantitative invitation where 4♣ is a jump, many partnerships use the Gerber convention instead of the Blackwood family: 4♣ asks for the number of aces or key cards. Where both sides are bidding, 4NT is played as a conventional takeout asking partner to help choose one of two or three suits, similar to a lower-level takeout double or cuebid reply to such a double. Where standard Blackwood 4NT is in force, a four notrump bid asks partner to disclose the number of aces in his hand. With no aces or four, partner replies 5♣; the difference between no aces and four is clear to the Blackwood bidder so one member of the partnership knows the combined number of aces.

That is sufficient to set the final contract. The continuation bid of 5NT asks for the number of kings according to the same code of replies at the six-level: 6♣ shows no kings or four, etc. Asking for the number of kings confirms that the partnership holds all four aces, so partner may reply at the seven level with expectation of taking thirteen tricks. A void may be as good as an ace in some situations but it should not be counted as an ace; some experts recommend the 5NT reply to 4NT – the cheapest with no standard assigned meaning – to show a void plus two aces and six of a suit to show a void in the bid suit plus one ace. A variation of the standard Blackwood convention, known as Roman Blackwood, was popularized by the famous Italian Blue Team in the 1960s. In Roman Blackwood, the responses are more ambiguous, but more space-conserving; the basic outline of responses is: In practice, the ambiguity is unlikely to occur, as a strength difference between hands with 0 or 1 and 3 or 4 aces is big enough that it can be established in previous rounds of bidding.

In other words, a partner who has shown, for example, 12-15 range of high points is unlikely to hold 3 aces for his bid, etc. Roman Blackwood convention has several variations, revolving around 5♥ and 5♠ responses. In all variants, they denote 2 aces. One variation is. In other variations, responses 5♥ - 5NT denote specific combinations of aces. If the querying partner ascertains that all aces are present, he can continue as follows: 5NT is the Grand slam force The first available bid, not the agreed suit is the Roman Blackwood for kings; the partner responds stepwise, as above. Roman Key Card Blackwood has replaced the standard version among tournament players, it developed from the Roman Blackwood variant. According to RKCB there are five equivalent key cards rather than just the four aces: the trump king is counted as the 5th key card; the key card replies to 4NT are more compressed than standard ones and they begin to locate the queen of trumps. Although the replies to 4NT are more compressed, it is always possible to infer which number of keycards is correct: 0 or 3, 1 or 4, 2 or 5.

Evidence for that inference includes the entire auction as well as the number of key cards that the 4NT bidder holds. The 5♥ and 5♠ replies with 2 or 5 key cards deny and show the trump queen, respectively; the 5♣ and 5♦ replies tell nothing about the queen or extra length, but the 4NT bidder may ask about that using the cheapest bid other than five of the trump suit. The code for replies to that "queen ask" vary. An option is for the positive calls to show a feature, such as a king in that suit, 6 of the trump suit can show the queen of trumps with no outside kings. Roman Key Card Blackwood is predicated on existence of a trump sui