An open-access mandate is a policy adopted by a research institution, research funder, or government which requires researchers—usually university faculty or research staff and/or research grant recipients—to make their published, peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers open access by self-archiving their final, peer-reviewed drafts in a accessible institutional repository or disciplinary repository or by publishing them in an open-access journal or both. Among the universities that have adopted open-access mandates for faculty are Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University College London, Queensland University of Technology, University of Minho, University of Liege and ETH Zürich. Among the funding organizations that have adopted open-access mandates for grant recipients are National Institutes of Health, Research Councils UK, National Fund for Scientific Research, Wellcome Trust and European Research Council. For a full index of institutional and funder open-access mandates adopted to date, see the Registry of Open Access Mandatory Archiving Policies.
Open-access mandates can be classified in many ways: by the type of mandating organization, by the locus and timing of deposit itself, by the time at which the deposit is made open access, by whether or not there is a default copyright-retention contract. Mandate types can be compared for strength and effectiveness (in terms of the annual volume and timing of deposits, relative to total annual article output, as well as the time that access to the deposit is set as open access. Mandates are classified and ranked by some of these properties in MELIBEA. Universities can adopt open-access mandates for their faculty. All such mandates make allowances for special cases. Tenured faculty cannot be required to publish. However, mandates can take the form of administrative procedures, such as designating repository deposit as the official means of submitting publications for institutional research performance review, or for research grant applications or renewal. Many European university mandates have taken the form of administrative requirements, whereas many U.
S. university mandates have taken the form of a unanimous or near-unanimous self-imposed faculty consensus consisting of a default rights-retention contract. Research funders such as government funding agencies or private foundations can adopt open-access mandates as contractual conditions for receiving funding. "Mandate" can mean either "authorize" or "oblige". Both senses are important in inducing researchers to provide OA. Open-access advocate Peter Suber has remarked that "'mandate' is not a good word..." for open-access policies, "...but neither is any other English word." Other ways to describe a mandate include "shifting the default publishing practice to open access" in the case of university faculty or "putting an open-access condition" on grant recipients. Mandates are stronger than policies which either request or encourage open access, because they require that authors provide open access; some mandates allow the author to opt out. Encouragement policies - These are not requirements but recommendations to provide open access.
Loophole mandates - These require authors to provide open access if and when their publishers allow it. Mandates may include the following clauses: Mandates with a limited-embargo clause - These require authors to provide open access either or, at the latest, after a maximal permissible embargo period. Mandates with an immediate-deposit clause - These require authors to deposit their refereed final drafts in their institutional repository upon publication whether or not their publishing contracts allow making the deposit open access immediately: If the publisher embargoes open access, access to the deposit can be left as closed access during any permissible embargo period. Mandates with a rights-retention clause - These policies extend to the parent institution a non-exclusive license to exercise any and all copyrights in the article. Copyright remains with the author until they transfer copyright to a publisher, at which point the non-exclusive license survives. In so doing, authors are free to publish wherever they prefer, while granting the institution the right to post a version of the article on the open web via an institutional repository.
The benefit of the rights-retention clause is that neither the author, nor the institution, need negotiate open access with the publisher. Upon acceptance or publication, the author or their representative deposits the article into their institutional repository. Waivers are available in cases where authors do not desire open access for a given article. Most institutional open-access mandates require that authors self archive their papers in their own institutional repository; some funder mandates specify institutional deposit, some specify institution-external deposit, some allow either. Mandates may require deposit upon publication or after an allowable embargo. Mandates may require opening access to the deposit upon public
Open access in Germany
Open access to scholarly communication in Germany has evolved since the early 2000s. Publishers Beilstein-Institut, Copernicus Publications, De Gruyter, Knowledge Unlatched, Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information, ScienceOpen, Springer Nature, Universitätsverlag Göttingen belong to the international Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. Open access journals can be found on digital platforms such as Copernicus Publications, Digital Peer Publishing, German Medical Science, Living Reviews. There are a number of collections of scholarship in Germany housed in digital open access repositories, they contain journal articles, book chapters and other research outputs that are free to read. As of March 2018 some 161 institutions in Germany maintain repositories, according to the UK-based Directory of Open Access Repositories. Listings of German repositories can be found in the Germany-based registries Bielefeld Academic Search Engine and Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation, in international registries Directory of Open Access Repositories, Registry of Open Access Repositories, Open Archives Initiative's OAI-PMH Registered Data Providers.
Experts consider BASE the most comprehensive registry for Germany. In 2012, German repositories with the highest number of digital assets were Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt's elib. "Most of Germany's open access repositories can be found in the most populated Länder: North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria."The upcoming 2019 "International Conference on Open Repositories" will be held in Hamburg. All major German research institutions have signed the 2003 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, including the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation, Fraunhofer Society, German Rectors' Conference, Max Planck Society. "The Federal Ministry of Education and Research released its open access strategy paper entitled "Open Access in Germany" on September 20, 2016 which contains a clear commitment to the principles of open access and open science.
Since the initial Berlin conference in 2003, follow-up conferences occur every year in Germany."Open-Access-Tage" have occurred annually since 2007 in various German-speaking locales, including Berlin, Dresden, Göttingen, Hamburg, Köln, Munich, Regensburg. The 2018 event will be held in Austria. In 2007 several German institutions launched the general information website, "Open-access.net". The Allianz der Wissenschaftsorganisationen in 2008 initiated an effort to expand open access in order to "exhaust the potential of digital publishing."Bielefeld University Library hosts the "Transparent Infrastructure for Article Charges" project, which covers article processing charges for publications of Germany and elsewhere. The project began around 2014. Key events in the development of open access in Germany include the following: 2001 16 March: German Wikipedia, a German-language open educational resource, begins publication. 2003 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities issued.
2004 Bielefeld Academic Search Engine launched. Aktionsbündnis Urheberrecht für Bildung und Wissenschaft formed. 2005 Bielefeld University begins its open access policy encouraging deposits in its institutional repository. 2006 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft adopts open access policy for its grantees. 2007 Open-access.net launched. "Open-Access-Tage" begin. 2008 Allianz der Wissenschaftsorganisationen's Schwerpunktinitiative. 2010 Confederation of Open Access Repositories headquartered in Göttingen. 2011 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft begins "to support centrally funded publication fees through its'Open-Access Publishing' programme." 2012 Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation begins. 2013 Registry of Research Data Repositories headquartered in Germany. 2014 "Transparent Infrastructure for Article Charges" project begins. 2015 Berlin-based Springer Nature, "the world’s second largest academic publisher," in business. As of 2018 "open-access journals generate 10 per cent of Springer Nature’s research revenues."
Internet in Germany Education in Germany Media of Germany Copyright law of Germany List of libraries in Germany Science and technology in Germany Open access in other countries Johannes Fournier, Infrastructure, Involvement: The open access agenda in Germany, Berlin 5 Open Access: From Practice to Impact, Padova European Commission. "Determinants of Open Access Publishing: Survey Evidence from Germany". European Journal of Law and Economics. 39. Eelco Ferwerda. "Germany". Gold Open Access by Country 2012-2017. United States: Cites & Insi
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Creative Commons is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public; these licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses are based upon it, they replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, benefiting both copyright owners and licensees.
The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002; the first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002. The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, Ben Adida. In 2002 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director. Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons; as of May 2018 there were an estimated 1.4 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses. Wikipedia uses one of these licenses; as of May 2018, Flickr alone hosts over 415 million Creative Commons licensed photos. Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors.
Their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works. Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, has been dubbed "some rights reserved". David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that, Creative Commons has provided "institutional and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely."Creative Commons attempts to counter what Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, considers to be a dominant and restrictive permission culture. Lessig describes this as "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past."
Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions. Until April 2018 Creative Commons had over 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support and promote CC activities around the world. In 2018 this affiliate network has been restructured into a network organisation; the network no longer relies on affiliate organisation but on individual membership organised in Chapter. Creative Commons Japan is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in Japan. In 2003, the International University GLOCOM hold a meeting for the CC Japan preparing. In March 2004, CC Japan was initiated by that University, that, the second CC created among the world. In March 2006, the CC Japan be in motion. In the same year of March, the CC founder Lawrence Lessig came to Japan to be one of the main holder of the open ceremony.
Within same year of May to June, different international events hold in Japan which include iSummit 06 and the first to third round CCJP held. In 2007 of February, ICC x ClipLife 15 sec CM open. In June, iSummit 07 held on. After that month, the fourth CCJP held on. In the 25/7/2007, Tokyo approve Nobuhiro Nakayamato become the NGO chairman of CCJP. In 2008, Taipie ACIA join CCJP; the main theme music which chose by CCJP announced. In 2009, INTO INFINITY shown in Sapporo. I-phone held the shows with Audio Visual Mixer for INTO INFINITY. 2012, the 10 anniversary ceremony held on Japan. 2015, the renew version of CCJP overt. Creative Commons Japan Zero overt. Creative Commons Korea is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea. In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon, a Presiding Judge of Incheon District Court, as a project of Korea Association for Infomedia Law; the major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences.
In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was founded as a non-profit incorporated association. Since CC Korea has been promoting the liberal and open culture of creation as well as leading the diffusion of Creative Common in the country. Creative Commons Korea Creative Commons Asia Conference 2010
New Year's Day
New Year's Day simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is the most celebrated public holiday observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.
The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were positioned as the seventh through tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January Kalends came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.
Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. Medieval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.
Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on March 25. Most nations of Western Europe adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25 called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's l
Juan Carlos De Martin
Juan Carlos De Martin is an Italian academic. He is an associate professor at the DAUIN Department of the Polytechnic of Turin, where he co-founded and co-directs the Nexa Center of Internet and Society. Since 2011, he is a Berkman Faculty Fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society of Harvard University and Senior Visiting Researcher at the Internet and Society Laboratory of Keio University, it is known for its activities in the Internet and the Society, with particular attention to issues of copyright in the digital age and net neutrality. Writes in the daily "La Stampa" as a columnist on issues related to digital technologies and their impact on society, he is a member of the Scientific Council of'Encyclopedia Treccani' and Coordinators of the Scientific Council of "Democracy Biennial". It'also an expert of the Italian Government Committee "Science and Society" of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission and, from April 2013, he is the'National Point of Reference' for the open access policies, referring to the European Recommendation on access to and preservation of scientific information.
Born in Córdoba from Italian parents, he came back to Italy at the age of five years. After his military service, in 1991 Juan Carlos De Martin graduated in Electronic Engineering at the Polytechnic of Turin. During the PhD research, dedicated to the study of algorithms for speech coding, he worked two years as a "visiting scholar" at the University of California at Santa Barbara. From 1996 to 1998 he was a researcher of "Media Technologies Laboratory" of Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas. In 1998 he returned to Italy to work, first as a researcher and as a senior researcher at the Turin office of the National Research Council. In 1998 he founded, together with Professor Angelo Raffaele Meo of the Polytechnic of Turin, the research group "Internet Media Group", devoted to the study of advanced technical processing and transmission of multimedia information. In the summer of 1999, he is an "adjunct professor" at the School of Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Texas at Dallas, where he teaches a course on speech coding.
In 2003 he founded, together with Marco Ricolfi, "Creative Commons Italia", the working group that produced the Italian version of the licenses of copyright Creative Commons. Since January 2005, he is the "public lead" of Creative Commons in Italy, a position he holds until December 16, 2012, when he passed the baton to the new CC lead Italia, Federico Morando. In May 2005 he is the co-organizer of the Italian edition of the' Internet Law Program of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. In October 2005, he left the National Research Council to become an associate professor at the Polytechnic of Turin. In November 2006 he founded, together with Marco Ricolfi, the Nexa Center of Internet and Society, a research center at the Polytechnic of Turin dedicated to issues of society. In 2007, De Martin became the coordinator of the European project "Communia", the European thematic network for the study of public domain digital project funded by the European Union under the program eContentPlus.
In 2007, De Martin is appointed by the Rector Francesco Profumo, president of the Library System of the Polytechnic of Turin, a position he kept until the end of 2011. Since 2008 he participates in the Internet Governance Forum Italia, which he co-organizes as Nexa Center, the 2012 edition, held in Turin on 19–21 October 2012. Prof. De Martin has participated in numerous conferences and meetings at national and international level, writes on the Turin daily "La Stampa" and "Il Sole 24 Ore" as a columnist. Among other initiatives, in January 2011, Prof. De Martin is one of the promoters of "Agenda Digitale" initiative, to stimulate Italian politicians about the need to give to the country a Digital Agenda, the founder and editor of "Piazza Statuto", the site of discussion about the role and the main problems of the University. With regard to the teaching at the Polytechnic of Turin, having long taught courses in programming and multimedia, in March 2012 inaugurated a course in the first year of Engineering, entitled Rivoluzione Digitale.
Juan Carlos De Martin, as a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, is the author or co-author of over one hundred of scientific publications "peer-reviewed" by some international patents, as well as prefaces to books and numerous interventions of newspapers and magazines. In 2012 he edited, along with Melanie Dulong de Rosnay, the book The Digital Public Domain: Foundations for an Open Culture, his research concerned voice coding and transmission of multimedia information and themes'Internet & Society'. Two articles of which De Martin was co-author received a "best paper award" IEEE
History of open access
The idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term "open access" was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s and physicists had been self-archiving in arxiv since the 1990s; the Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994. The term "open access" itself was first formulated in three public statements in the 2000s: the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing in June 2003, the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in October 2003, the initial concept of open access refers to an unrestricted online access to scholarly research intended for scholarly journal articles. One early proponent of the publisher-pays model was the physicist Leó Szilárd. To help stem the flood of low-quality publications, he jokingly suggested in the 1940s that at the beginning of his career each scientist should be issued with 100 vouchers to pay for his papers.
Closer to the present, but still ahead of its time, was Common Knowledge. This was an attempt to share information for the good of all, the brainchild of Brower Murphy of The Library Corporation. Both Brower and Common Knowledge are recognised in the Library Microcomputer Hall of Fame. One of Mahatma Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swaraj published in Gujarati in 1909 is recognised as the intellectual blueprint of India's freedom movement; the book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved". The modern open access movement traces its history at least back to the 1950s, with the Letterist International placing anything in their journal Potlatch in the public domain; as the LI merged to form the Situationist International, Guy Debord wrote to Patrick Straram "All the material published by the Situationist International is, in principle, usable by everyone without acknowledgement, without the preoccupations of literary property." This was to facilitate détournement.
It became much more prominent in the 1990s with the advent of the Digital Age. With the spread of the Internet and the ability to copy and distribute electronic data at no cost, the arguments for open access gained new importance; the fixed cost of producing the article is separable from the minimal marginal cost of the online distribution. An explosion of interest and activity in open access journals has occurred since the 1990s due to the widespread availability of Internet access, it is now possible to publish a scholarly article and make it accessible anywhere in the world where there are computers and Internet connections. The fixed cost of producing the article is separable from the minimal marginal cost of the online distribution; these new possibilities emerged at a time when the traditional, print-based scholarly journals system was in a crisis. The number of journals and articles produced; the result was decreased access – just when technology has made unlimited access a real possibility, for the first time.
Libraries and librarians have played an important part in the open access movement by alerting faculty and administrators to the serials crisis. The Association of Research Libraries developed the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, in 1997, an alliance of academic and research libraries and other organizations, to address the crisis and develop and promote alternatives, such as open access; the first online-only, free-access journals began appearing in early 1990s. These journals used pre-existing infrastructure and volunteer labor and were developed without any intent to generate profit. Examples include Bryn Mawr Classical Review, Postmodern Culture and The Public-Access Computer Systems Review; the earliest book publisher to provide open access was the National Academies Press, publisher for the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, other arms of the National Academies. They have provided free online full-text editions of their books alongside priced, printed editions since 1994, assert that the online editions promote sales of the print editions.
As of June 2006 they had more than 3,600 books up online for browsing and reading. While Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Ajit Varki made it the first major biomedical journal to be available on the web in 1996. Varki wrote, "The vexing issue of the day is how to appropriately charge users for this electronic access; the nonprofit nature of the JCI allows consideration of a novel solution — not to charge anyone at all!" Other pioneers in open access publishing in the biomedical domain included BMJ, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Medscape, who were created or made their content accessible in the late 90s. The first free scientific online archive was arXiv.org, started in 1991 a preprint service for physicists, initiated by Paul Ginsparg. Self-archiving has become the norm in physics, with some sub-areas of physics, such as high-energy physics, having a 100% self-archiving rate; the prior existence of a "preprint culture" in high-energy physics is one major reason why arXiv has been successful.
ArXiv now includes papers from related disciplines including computer science, nonlinear sciences, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. However, comput