Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography and illustration. The field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, but sometimes the term "graphic design" is used synonymously. Graphic designers create and combine symbols and text to form visual representations of ideas and messages, they use typography. Common uses of graphic design include corporate design, editorial design, wayfinding or environmental design, web design, communication design, product packaging and signage; the term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. However, the origins of graphic design can be traced from the origins of human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome's Trajan's Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In "Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction; the bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder, or some other dignitary".
This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governor of a state or mayor of the city. The Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as 136 B. C. found on the Rosetta Stone. "The Rosetta stone, found by one of Napoleon's engineers was an advertisement for the Egyptian ruler, Ptolemy as the "true Son of the Sun, the Father of the Moon, the Keeper of the Happiness of Men"" The Egyptians invented papyrus, paper made from reeds found along the Nile, on which they transcribed advertisements more common among their people at the time. During the "Dark Ages", from 500 AD to 1450 AD, monks created illustrated manuscripts. In both its lengthy history and in the recent explosion of visual communication in the 20th and 21st centuries, the distinction between advertising, graphic design and fine art has disappeared, they share many elements, principles, practices and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising, the ultimate objective is the sale of services.
In graphic design, "the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas and feeling to artifacts that document human experience."Graphic design in the United States began with Benjamin Franklin who used his newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette, to master the art of publicity to promote his own books and to influence the masses. "Benjamin Franklin's ingenuity gained in strength as did his cunning and in 1737 he had replaced his counterpart in Pennsylvania, Andrew Bradford as postmaster and printer after a competition he instituted and won. He showed his prowess by running an ad in his General Magazine and the Historical Chronicle of British Plantations in America that stressed the benefits offered by a stove he invented, named the Pennsylvania Fireplace, his invention is known as the Franklin stove. "American advertising imitated British newspapers and magazines. Advertisements were printed in scrambled type and uneven lines. Franklin better organized this by adding 14-point type for the first line of the advertisement.
Franklin added something that London printers had not attempted. Franklin was the first to utilize logos, which were early symbols that announced such services as opticians by displaying golden spectacles. Franklin taught advertisers; some advertisements ran for 10-20 lines, including color, names and sizes of the goods that were offered. During the Tang Dynasty wood blocks were cut to print on textiles and to reproduce Buddhist texts. A Buddhist scripture printed in 868 is the earliest known printed book. Beginning in the 11th century, longer scrolls and books were produced using movable type printing, making books available during the Song dynasty. During the 17th-18th century movable type was used for handbills or trade cards which were printed from wood or copper engravings; these documents announced its location. English painter William Hogarth used his skill in engraving was one of the first to design for business trade. In Mainz Germany, in 1448, Johann Gutenberg introduced movable type using a new metal alloy for use in a printing press and opened a new era of commerce.
This made graphics more available since mass printing dropped the price of printing material significantly. Most advertising was word of mouth. In France and England, for example, criers announced products for sale just as ancient Romans had done; the printing press made books more available. Aldus Manutius developed the book structure that became the foundation of western publication design; this era of graphic design is called Old Style. Additionally, William Caxton, England's first printer produced religious books, but had trouble selling them, he discovered the use of leftover pages and used them to announce the books and post them on church doors. This practice was termed "squis" or "pin up" posters, in 1612, becoming the first form of print advertising in Europe; the term Siquis came from the Roman era when public notices were posted stating "if anybody...", which in Latin is "si quis". These printed announcements were followed by public registers of wants called want ads and in some areas such as the first periodical in Paris advertising was termed "advices".
The "Advices" were what we know
Menlo Park, California
Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States. It is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north and east. Menlo Park is one of the most educated cities in the state of the United States. Menlo Park had 32,026 inhabitants according to the 2010 United States Census, which had grown to an estimated 34,357 inhabitants by 2017. Menlo Park is the site of Facebook's main campus. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.4 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. The total area is 43.79% water. Menlo Park is narrow on a northeast to southwest axis; the northeast portion borders the San Francisco Bay and includes the Dumbarton Bridge that connects Menlo Park to Fremont on the east side of the bay. The city shoreline includes the city's largest park, Bedwell Bayfront Park 160 acres and the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. San Francisquito Creek marks much of the southeast border of the city.
West Menlo Park along Alameda de las Pulgas nearly separates the southwestern part of the city from the rest. The extreme southwest is clipped by Interstate 280; the Bayshore Freeway traverses Menlo Park northwest to southeast near the shoreline and somewhat parallel to it to the southwest is El Camino Real. The intersection of El Camino Real and Santa Cruz Avenue is considered the heart of the city. Nearby, the Menlo Park Civic center is bounded by Ravenswood Avenue, Alma Street, Laurel Street and Burgess Drive, it contains the council offices, police station and Burgess Park which has various recreational facilities. Other major roads include Sand Hill Road in the Sharon Heights area; the residential areas of Menlo Park are unofficially divided into several neighborhoods. Belle Haven is the only neighborhood east of the Bayshore Freeway. Between Middlefield road and Bayshore are the neighborhoods of the Willows, Suburban Park, Lorelei Manor, Flood Triangle, Vintage Oaks, South of Seminary. Between Middlefield and El Camino Real are Felton Gables, Linfield Oaks, Park Forest.
West of El Camino Real until the hills are the neighborhoods of Downtown Menlo Park, Central Menlo Park, Allied Arts. In the hills are Sharon Heights and Stanford Hills. Several other neighborhoods are associated with Menlo Park but are in unincorporated San Mateo county; the area of Menlo Park was inhabited by the Ohlone people. In 1795 the Rancho de las Pulgas land grant was made. In 1851 two Irish immigrants, Dennis J. Oliver and his brother-in-law D. C. McGlynn, purchased a 1,700-acre tract of land on the former Rancho de las Pulgas. In 1854, they erected a gate with a wooden arch bearing the inscription "Menlo Park" and the date "August 1854" at the entrance to their property; the word "Menlo" derived from the owners' former home of Menlo in County Galway, is an Anglicized version of the original Irish name of the place, meaning "middle lake."In 1863, the San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road had built the railroad from San Francisco to as far as Mayfield and started running trains to the area.
They named a nearby station "Menlo Park" after the sign. The 1867 station building still stands on the platform of the current Caltrain station, used by the local Chamber of Commerce; the town of Menlo Park grew up around this station, becoming a popular home for San Francisco businessmen. A post office arrived in 1870, the city was incorporated in 1874; the original arch which gave its name to the stations and the city, survived until 1922, when the original arch was destroyed in an automobile accident. The origin of the name of Menlo Park, California pre-dates any work done by Thomas Edison in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In 1917/1918 a large portion of Menlo Park was the site of Camp Fremont, a training camp for, at its height, 27,000 men being sent to fight in World War I, it didn't last long, but army engineers paved the first streets in Menlo Park and laid the first water and gas lines. The army did retain the camp hospital, it is now the site of a Veterans Administration hospital off of Willow road in Menlo Park.
In the autumn of 1918 a flu pandemic hit Camp Fremont and killed 147. At the start of World War II, the US government bought the 260-acre estate of Timothy Hopkins from his widow and created the Palo Alto General Hospital renamed the Dibble General Hospital. After the war ended, some of the land was sold to the city and became the sites of the main library and city hall. More of
Emigre was a graphic design magazine published by Emigre Graphics between 1984 and 2005. Art-directed by Rudy VanderLans using fonts designed by his wife, Zuzana Licko, Emigre was one of the first publications to use Macintosh computers and had a large influence on graphic designers moving into desktop publishing, its variety of layouts, use of guest designers, opinionated articles had an effect on other design publications. The focus of Emigre was both redundant and wandering — both positive qualities as a journal produced by a tight and evolving group of designers and writers with Vanderlans at the center. Vanderlans was editor, though guest-editors appeared and the work/writing of Zuzana Licko and Jeffery Keedy reappeared throughout the magazine's history; the magazine began in 1984 with a focus on the émigré. The first eight issues were concerned with boundaries, international culture, travel accounts and alienation; the first eight issues incorporated a dynamic aesthetic that caught the attention of designers and led to the next stage in the magazine's evolution.
Beginning with Issue 9 — devoted to the art of Vaughan Oliver at 4AD — the magazine explored design in itself, devoting issues to Cranbrook, the Macintosh, type design and individual graphic designers. In two issues in 1992 and 1993, the magazine chronicled the work of David Raygun. Emigre became a platform for essays and writings on design; this aspect of Emigre came to the forefront with issues in 1994 and the magazine changed its format in 1995 from its oversized layout to a text-friendlier format that debuted with Issue 33. The magazine retained this character through Issue 59 in 2001. Emigre took a sharp turn with four re-formatted issues in 2001 and 2002 that included one DVD and three compact discs (featuring the music of Honey Barbara, The Grassy Knoll and Scenic. In its fifth and final incarnation, the last six issues of Emigre were co-published by Princeton Architectural Press as small softcover books; the last issue, The End, was published in 2005. The magazine changed formats several times: it was published quarterly in a large format where each page measures 285 mm x 425 mm.
The issues in the book format were co-published by Princeton Architectural Press. Communication Arts Eye magazine Graphis Inc. Print Ray Gun Visible Language Emigre magazine, issues 1–69, 1984–2005. Emigre magazine’s web page on Emigre’s official web site Eye magazine, Vol. 2, No. 7, 1992, pp. 8–16: Rudy Vanderlans Eye magazine, Vol. 11, No. 43, Spring 2002, pp. 58–64: Zuzana Licko Merz to Emigre and Beyond: Avant-Garde Magazine Design of the Twentieth Century, Steven Heller, Phaidon, 2003
Print, A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts was a limited edition quarterly periodical begun in 1940 and continued under different names through the end of 2017 as Print, a bimonthly American magazine about visual culture and design. In its final format, Print documented and critiqued commercial and environmental design from every angle: the good, the bad, the ugly. Print was a general-interest magazine, written by cultural reporters and critics who look at design in its social and historical contexts. From newspapers and book covers to Web-based motion graphics, from corporate branding to indie-rock posters, from exhibitions to cars to monuments, Print showed its audience of designers, art directors, photographers, educators and enthusiasts of popular culture why our world looks the way it looks, why the way it looks matters. Print underwent a complete redesign in 2005, ceased publication in 2017, with a promise to focus the brand on "a robust and thriving online community." The journal was founded by William Edwin Rudge to demonstrate “the far reaching importance of the graphic arts” including art prints, commercial printing, etc.
Contents were eclectic covering typography, book making, book printing, fine prints as well as the trade journal aspects of printing candy bar wrappers. The publication included original prints such as the frontispiece for Vol 1, #1 a two color woodcut by Hans Alexander Mueller and Vol 1, #3 a black and white wood engraving by Paul Landacre. By Volume 8 the focus of the periodical had shifted to a trade journal. Vol 1, #1 Print: A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts Vol 3, #2 combined with The Printing Art. An Illustrated Monthly Magazine of the Art of Printing and of the Allied Arts but continued under Print: A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts Vol 7, #1 Print: combining: Print, A Quarterly Journal of Graphic Arts, Vol. VII, Number 1 and The Print Collector's Quarterly, Volume XXX, Number 4. Vol 7, #2 Print, The Magazine of the Graphic Arts - until Vol 9, #2 Print - until Vol 11, #4 Print, The Magazine of Visual Communication - until Vol 12, #1 Print, America's Graphic Design Magazine at least until May/June 2005 Vol 59, #3.
Artistarchive.com Print web site Imprint - Print's blog
Interactive media refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user's actions by presenting content such as text, moving image, video and video games. Interactive media is a method of communication in which the output from the media comes from the input of the users. Interactive media works with the user's participation; the media still has the same purpose but the user's input adds interaction and brings interesting features to the system for better enjoyment. The analogue videodisc developed by NV Philips was the pioneering technology for interactive media. Additionally, there are several elements that encouraged the development of interactive media including the following: The laser disc technology was first invented in 1958, it enabled the user to access high-quality analogue images on the computer screen. This increased the ability of interactive video systems; the concept of the graphical user interface, developed in the 1970s, popularized by Apple Computer, Inc. was about visual metaphors, intuitive feel and sharing information on the virtual desktop.
Additional power was the only thing needed to move into multimedia. The sharp fall in hardware costs and the unprecedented rise in the computer speed and memory transformed the personal computer into an affordable machine capable of combining audio and color video in advanced ways. Another element is the release of Windows 3.0 in 1990 by Microsoft into the mainstream IBM clone world. It accelerated the acceptance of GUI as the standard mechanism for communicating with small computer systems; the development by NV Philips of optical digital technologies built around the compact disk in 1979 is another leading element in the interactive media development as it raised the issue of developing interactive media. All of the prior elements contributed in the development of the main hardware and software systems used in interactive media. Though the word media is plural, the term is used as a singular noun. Interactive media is related to the concepts interaction design, new media, human computer interaction, digital culture, interactive design, can include augmented reality and virtual reality.
An essential feature of interactivity is that it is mutual: user and machine each take an active role. Most interactive computing systems are for some human purpose and interact with humans in human contexts. Manovich complains that'In relation to computer-based media, the concept of interactivity is a tautology..... Therefore, to call computer media “interactive” is meaningless – it means stating the most basic fact about computers.'. The term is useful to denote an identifiable body of practices and technologies. Interactive media are an instance of a computational method influenced by the sciences of cybernetics and system theories, challenging notions of reason and cognition and memory, emotions and affection. Any form of interface between the end user/audience and the medium may be considered interactive. Interactive media is not limited to digital media. Board games, pop-up books, flip books and constellation wheels are all examples of printer interactive media. Books with a simple table of contents or index may be considered interactive due to the non-linear control mechanism in the medium, but are considered non-interactive since the majority of the user experience is non-interactive reading.
Interactive media is helpful in the four development dimensions in which young children learn: social and emotional, language development and general knowledge, approaches toward learning. Using computers and educational computer software in a learning environment helps children increase communication skills and their attitudes about learning. Children who use educational computer software are found using more complex speech patterns and higher levels of verbal communication. A study found that basic interactive books that read a story aloud and highlighted words and phrases as they were spoken were beneficial for children with lower reading abilities. Children have different styles of learning, interactive media helps children with visual, verbal and tactile learning styles. Interactive media makes technology more intuitive to use. Interactive products such as smartphones, iPad's/iPod's, interactive whiteboards and websites are all easy to use; the easy usage of these products encourages consumers to experiment with their products rather than reading instruction manuals.
Interactive media promotes dialogic communication. This form of communication allows receivers to build long term trust and cooperation; this plays a critical role in building relationships. Organizations use interactive media to go further than basic marketing and develop more positive behavioral relationships; the introduction of interactive media has affected the lives and inner workings of families, with many family activities having integrated with technology quite seamlessly, allowing both children and parents to adapt to it as they see fit. However, parents have become worried about the impact that it will have on their family lives; this is not because they are opposed to technology, but because they fear that it will lessen the time that they get to spend with their children. Studies have shown that although interactive media is able to connect families together when they are unable to physically, the dependence on this media continues to persist when there are opportunities for family time, which leads the adults to believe that it distracts children more than it benefits them.
The media which allows several
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the