click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Communications Act of 1934

The Communications Act of 1934 is a United States federal law signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 19, 1934 and codified as Chapter 5 of Title 47 of the United States Code, 47 U. S. C. § 151 et seq. The Act replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission, it transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC. The first section of the Act read as follows: "For the purpose of regulating interstate and foreign commerce in communication by wire and radio so as to make available, so far as possible to all the people of the United States a rapid, Nation-wide, world-wide wire and radio communication service with adequate facilities at reasonable charges, for the purpose of the national defense, for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communication, for the purpose of securing a more effective execution of this policy by centralizing authority heretofore granted by law to several agencies and by granting additional authority with respect to interstate and foreign commerce in wire and radio communication, there is hereby created a commission to be known as the Federal Communications Commission, which shall be constituted as hereinafter provided, which shall execute and enforce the provisions of this Act.".

On January 3, 1996, the 104th Congress of the United States amended or repealed sections of the Communications Act of 1934 with the Telecommunications Act of 1996. It was the first major overhaul of American telecommunications policy in nearly 62 years; the Act combined and reorganized existing provisions of law, including provisions of the Federal Radio Act of 1927 relating to radio licensing, of the Mann-Elkins Act of 1910 relating to telephone service. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Daniel C. Roper, Secretary of Commerce, to appoint an interdepartmental committee for studying electronic communications; the Committee reported that "the communications service, as far as congressional action is involved, should be regulated by a single body". A recommendation was made for the establishment of a new agency that would regulate all interstate and foreign communication by wire and radio, telegraphy and broadcast. On February 26, 1934, the President sent a special message to Congress urging the creation of the Federal Communications Commission.

The following day Senator Clarence Dill and Representative Sam Rayburn introduced bills to carry out this recommendation. The Senate Bill passed the House on June 1, 1934, the conference report was adopted by both houses eight days later; the Communications Act was signed by President Roosevelt on June 1934. Particular parts of it became effective July 1, 1934; the Communications Act of 1934 followed the precedents of trial cases set under the Commerce Clause of the U. S. Constitution, regulating commerce "among the several states". Twenty years earlier, in 1914, the U. S. Supreme Court had set limits on price discrimination that were interstate commerce in Houston, East & West Texas Railway Co. v. United States; the railway was setting lower prices for intrastate carriers within Texas while charging more for carriers that were going through or out of the state. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the ICC, maximum prices were set to limit the damage that other states could face due to price discrimination.

Communications technology was determined to be an interstate good. President Franklin Roosevelt, along with lobbyists and state regulators, wanted communications technology, both wired and wireless, to be monitored in a similar way and influenced Congress to pass the Communications Act of 1934; the goal was to have telephone and broadcasting regulated with the same jurisdiction in a way similar to that in which the ICC regulates the railways and interstate commerce. The act did not, allow for price regulation through the FCC due to strong lobbying efforts from the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. There are some challenges and proposed changes to the Act; the company CellAntenna unsuccessfully sued the FCC, claiming the Homeland Security Act of 2002 did override the Communications Act of 1934. As the law stands today, the 1934 Communications Act prohibits local and state law enforcement from using jamming devices to thwart criminal and terrorist acts. CellAntenna lost its case, but as a response have supported legislation sponsored by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and Representative Kevin Brady, attempting to amend the Communications Act of 1934.

The bill was left in committee in the House. There has been public debate about the need for an Internet kill switch, defined in a proposed Protecting Cyberspace as a National Asset Act; this act removes the powers established in the 1934 Act and gives the President the authority to stop the Internet in case of a cyber attack. The Communications Act of 1934, as amended, consists of seven major sections or "titles": Title I: General Provisions Title II: Common carrier Title III: Provisions related to radio Title IV: Procedural and administrative provisions Title V: Penal provisions. S. Congress, there was a debate over commercial versus non-commercial broadcasting: Senators Robert Wagner of New York and Henry Hatfield of West Virginia offered an amendment to the proposed Communications Act. Educators wanted more of radio to be given to them.

Amanoyama Shizuo

Amanoyama Shizuo was a sumo wrestler from Taku Saga, Japan. He was an amateur champion at Komazawa University and so was given makushita tsukedashi status upon entering professional sumo, he made his professional debut in March 1976, fighting under surname of Ogata, reached the top division in March 1978. In his top division debut he defeated ozeki Takanohana and scored 11 wins against 4 losses, winning the Fighting Spirit prize for the only time, he made his makuuchi debut in the same tournament as Kotowaka and as both were unusually tall, they were nicknamed "Jumbo Jet" and "Concorde". His highest rank was maegashira 1. Upon retirement from active competition, he became an elder in the Japan Sumo Association under the name Tatsutayama, he died while an active oyakata in September 1997 at the age of 43. He had been suffering from liver disease since his days as an active wrestler. Glossary of sumo terms List of past sumo wrestlers

El Amin Chentouf

El Amin Chentouf, is a Moroccan para-athlete running in T12 distance races. He has represented his country at two Summer Paralympics winning gold medals at both the 2012 and 2016 Games. Outside the Paralympics, Chentouf is a world series Marathon champion, winning the T12/13 event at three London Marathons. Chentouf was born in Morocco in 1981, he is visually impaired. Chentouf took up athletics in 2008, he made his senior international debut at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London. He entered into the 800m and 5,000 m at T12 classifications and the 1,500 m T13 race, he reached the podium in the 5,000m, taking gold with a world record breaking time of 13:53.76. The following year he entered the IPC Athletics Marathon World Cup in London, his first competitive international marathon, he won the race in a time of 2:24:00. The same year he represented Morocco at the 2013 IPC Athletics World Championships in Lyon, Chentouf won gold medals in all three of his events, the 1500m, 5000m and the marathon.

Two years in the buildup to the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, he took part in the inaugural IPC World Marathon Championships held in London. There he won the men's T11/T12 race with a time of 2:21.33. In the year he took part in his second World Championships, this time held in Doha, he failed to dominate the field as he had done so at Lyon, but he did win the bronze in the 1500 metres. In Rio Chentouf cemented his reputation as one of the great distance runners in his class, by winning the men's marathon and taking the silver medal in the 5000 metres. Video of the final 5000 meters men's T12 World Championships 2013 wheelchair athletics, official channel of the International Paralympic Committee. Video of the final 10,000 meters men's T12 World Para-Athletics 2013 Championships, official channel of the International Paralympic Committee

Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, is a medical university in Ardabil Province of Iran. Located in north-west of Iran in the city of Ardabil, the university was established in 1993, it has 1549 students studying in 9 departments. The university administers all public hospitals around the city of Ardabil; the university is located near the beautiful lake of Shorabil. Ardebil medical school started at 1980. In 2013, Ardabil School of Pharmacy was established in the campus of the university; the university contains below schools: Autonomous Campus Dental Health Khalkhal school of Medical Sciences Medicine and Para medicine Meshkinshahr School of Health Nursing and Midwifery Moghan school of Nursing and Midwifery Pharmacy Official website

Rain on Me

"Rain on Me" is a single released by R&B singer Ashanti in 2003 from her second album Chapter II. The single reached number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the United States and the top 20 in the United Kingdom. In the video Ashanti plays a superstar abused by a jealous boyfriend, played by actor Larenz Tate; the video was released on August 28, 2003. It contains a sample of "The Look of Love" by Isaac Hayes but the sample was based on Snoop Dogg's song "G'z Up Hoes Down", a track, removed from his debut album Doggystyle for sample clearance issues, which contained a re-play of the same Isaac Hayes song; the rap remix found on the Collectibles by Ashanti album interpolates "Can I Live" by rapper Jay-Z, which samples the same Hayes song. The remix features Hussein Fatal and fellow The Inc. Records labelmates Ja Rule. There are two videos for the song. In 2004, the song earned Ashanti a Grammy nomination for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance. Ashanti's lyrics for "Rain on Me" address the pains and challenges of facing, overcoming, an abusive relationship.

Wanting to make a cinematic and narrative-driven video for the song, she worked with LidRock and director Hype Williams to produce the clip. Ashanti explained: "We wanted to make a short movie that was'real' — that showed that no matter if you're rich or poor, black or white, famous or not, domestic violence can touch your life."The abusive boyfriend was played by actor Larenz Tate, best known for starring in Dead Presidents, a film which features "The Look of Love" by Isaac Hayes. In the video and Tate are shown in a relationship together while close-up scenes of her bruised face and glimpses of the two of them fighting appear throughout. Towards the climax, Tate is caught cheating on Ashanti with another girl. After a last confrontation, Ashanti ends the relationship as sounds of rain and thunder are heard increasing leaving André behind. In the mini-movie version, we see Tate driving in a car as previous scenes are shown before he is hit by a truck and hospitalized. There are three versions of the video: one where the song begins at the start with the video's end showing Ashanti still sitting in a limo looking out of the window.

Ashanti partnered with LidRock and the San Francisco-based Family Violence Prevention Fund to raise awareness of domestic violence during National Domestic Violence Awareness Month and to help distribute the mini-movie, shown on MTV, BET, other music video programs. Proceeds from sales of the LidRock discs were put toward the FVPF. Esta Soler and president of the Family Violence Prevention Fund said: "When we heard'Rain on Me' and saw the Ashanti LidRock mini movie, we knew the powerful messages about violence that they artfully convey would speak to a lot of people. Ashanti wrote an amazing song that, by itself, has emotional resonance; the LidRock minimovie just enhances the song's power, as it realistically portrays the complexity of domestic violence and the characters' inspiring strength in addressing the situation."Additionally, a public service announcement about domestic violence featuring Ashanti was aired nationwide on October 17, 2003, on more than 4,000 screens at Regal Cinemas, United Artists Theatres, Edwards Theatres, Hoyts Cinemas.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Omaruru Constituency

Omaruru is a constituency in the Erongo Region of central-eastern Namibia. Its district capital is the city of Omaruru. In the 2010 regional elections, SWAPO's Uparura Michael Tjirare won the constituency with 1,102 votes; the defeated challengers were Josef Landuleni Nangolo of the Rally for Democracy and Progress, Lisken Noabes of the United Democratic Front and John Tjiuongua of the Congress of Democrats. The 2015 regional elections were won by Johannes Tuhafeni Hamutenya of SWAPO with 1,420 votes. Christiaan Nanuseb of UDF came second with 678 votes, Sanna Sofia Paulus of the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance received 348 votes, Vincent Isboset Kahua of National Unity Democratic Organisation received 282