Hong Kong Police Force
The Hong Kong Police Force is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong. It is the world's second, Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system, it was formed on 1 May 1844 by the British Hong Kong government with a strength of 32 officers. In 1969, Queen Elizabeth II granted the'Royal' prefix and the HKPF became the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, only to be removed in 1997 upon the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China. Due to the one country, two systems principle, the mainland authorities may not interfere with Hong Kong's local law enforcement affairs. Thus, HKPF is independent from the jurisdiction of Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong has been ranked in the top ten positions in the Global Competitiveness Report in terms of its reliability of police services. Including the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force and civil servants, the force consists of about 34,000 personnel, which gave Hong Kong the second highest police officer/citizen ratio in the world in 2014.
The Marine Region with about 3,000 officers and a fleet of 143 vessels in 2009, was the largest such marine division of any civil police force. The Hong Kong Police has been serving Hong Kong since shortly after the island was established as a colony in 1841. On 30 April 1841, 12 weeks after the British landed in Hong Kong, Captain Charles Elliot established a police force in the new colony; the first chief of police was Captain William Caine, who served as the Chief Magistrate. The 1950s saw the commencement of Hong Kong's 40-year rise to global prominence, during which time the Hong Kong Police tackled many issues that have challenged Hong Kong's stability. Between 1949 and 1989, Hong Kong experienced several huge waves of immigration from mainland China, most notably 1958–62. In the 1970s and 1980s, large numbers of Vietnamese boat people arrived in Hong Kong, posing challenges first for marine police, secondly for officers who manned the dozens of camps in the territory and lastly for those who had to repatriate them.
The force was granted the Royal Charter in 1969 for its handling of the Hong Kong 1967 riots—renaming it: the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. The recruitment of Europeans to the force ceased in 1994, in 1995 the Royal Hong Kong Police took responsibility for patrolling the boundary with China. Prior to 1995, the British Army had operated the border patrol; the force played a prominent role in the process of handover of sovereignty in 1997 and performs ceremonial flag-raising each anniversary. In more recent history, the police force played a prominent role in handling the 2014 Hong Kong protests; the current crest of the force was adopted in 1997 so as to retire symbols of British sovereignty. Changes to the crest included: St Edward's Crown replaced with a bauhinia flower. Changes to the flag included replacing the Blue Ensign, featuring the old crest, with a single blue flag with the crest centred in the middle; the Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, assisted by two deputy commissioners.
For day-to-day policing, the Force is organised into six regions:Hong Kong Island. The Force Headquarters is made up of five departments: Support. Regions are autonomous in their day-to-day operation and management matters, each has its own headquarters, which comprises administration and operation wings, Emergency Units, as well as traffic and criminal investigation units; each region is divided into divisions and, in a few cases, sub-divisions. There are 23 districts; the policing of Hong Kong Island and the main towns of the New Territories follows a similar pattern. Responsibility for law and order on the Mass Transit Railway, which runs through most police districts, lies with the Railway District. Railway District based at 2 Siu Yip Street in Kwun Tong is responsible for patrols on the MTR. Police Force operational matters are coordinated by the Operations & Support Department. Land Operations and Support are divided into six regions, whereas marine matters are managed by the marine police—organised as one Marine Region.
Each land region comprises two wings, the operations wing and support wing, a traffic headquarters. The department is charged with the formulation and implementation of policies, the monitoring of activities and the efficient deployment of personnel and resources. Operations Wing coordinates counter-terrorism, internal security, anti-illegal-immigration measures, bomb disposal commitments and contingency planning for natural disasters—they are responsible for the Police Dog Unit; the Operations Wing consists of three sections: The Operations Bureau, the Police Tactical Unit, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau. Operations Bureau comprises the Operations Division, the Counter-Terrorism and Internal Security Division, the Key P
Customs and Excise Department (Hong Kong)
The Customs and Excise Department is a government agency responsible for the protection of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region against smuggling. Hong Kong Customs known as the Preventive Service, was founded in 1909, it was responsible to collect the newly imposed duties on liquor. As commodities became subject to duties, the scope of the Preventive Service broadened to include tobacco and hydrocarbon oil, as well as duties related to the government opium monopoly. During times of war, the service prevented the export of precious metals and other commodities to the enemies of the United Kingdom and its allies. In 1963, with the passage of the Preventive Service Ordinance, the service gained the legal status to make regulations on its discipline, functions and terms of service. In 1977, it was renamed Excise Service. On 1 August 1982, The Hong Kong Customs and Excise Department became independent from the Trade and Industry Department; the C&ED is an active member of the World Customs Organization and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation.
It exchanges intelligence and works with overseas Customs administrations and law enforcement agencies. With a view to tackling cybercrime, Hong Kong Customs established the Computer Forensic Laboratory, the Computer Analysis & Response Team, the Anti-Internet Piracy Investigation Team in 2000; these specialized establishments prominently enhanced Customs' enforcement capability and the credibility of digital evidence presented to the courts. The Customs Computer Forensic Laboratory offers professional assistance in collecting, preserving and presenting digital evidence to law court in customs related cases; the digital forensic analysts from the laboratory are qualified to testify as expert witnesses in court of law. The forensic laboratory has been awarded ISO 9001 on quality management and ISO 27001 on information security since 2006; the Hong Kong Customs Computer Forensic Laboratory is the first government unit of HKSAR to implement ISO 27001. In 2013, an Electronic Crime Investigation Centre was set up within the department.
The department is headed by the Commissioner of Excise. As at 1 January 2019, the department has an establishment of 7,387 posts, of which nine are directorate officers, 6,222 are members of the Customs and Excise Service, 480 are Trade Controls Officers and 676 are staff of the General and Common Grades. There are five branches: This is responsible for matters relating to dutiable commodities under the purview of the Financial Services and the Treasury Bureau, the international customs liaison and co-operation and the overall staff management and general administration of the Customs and Excise Service, including staff training and provision of resources and departmental facilities; this is responsible for matters relating to import and export controls under the purview of the Security Bureau and the housekeeping of the Airport Command, Control Points Command and the Ports and Maritime Command. This branch is responsible for matters relating to recreational drugs and anti-smuggling activities under the schedule of the Security Bureau and issues relating to intellectual property under the purview of the Commerce and Technology Bureau.
This branch is responsible for trade controls matters under the schedule of the Commerce and Technology Bureau and consumer protection matters under the schedule of the Economic Development and Labour Bureau, comprises the Textiles Tactical Investigation Bureau, the Trade Inspection and Verification Bureau, the Trade Investigation Bureau, the General Investigation and Systems Bureau and the Consumer Protection and Prosecution Bureau. This is responsible for all matters concerning departmental administration, financial management, information technology development and internal audit; the branch comprises the Office of Departmental Administration, the Office of Financial Administration, the Office of Information Technology, the Internal Audit Division and the Information Unit. There is no tariff on goods entering Hong Kong, but excise duties are charged on four groups of commodities; these commodities are hydrocarbon oil, methyl alcohol and tobacco. These duties make no differentiation between imported commodities, or commodities manufactured locally for domestic consumption.
In 2003, the C&ED collected $6,484 million excise duty. Under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance, the C&ED controls breweries, tobacco factories, oil installations and aircraft duty-free stores, industrial and commercial establishments dealing with dutiable commodities. Licences are issued to those who import, manufacture or st
The Office of Communications known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. Ofcom has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio and postal sectors, it has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material. Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over are licensing, research and policies, complaints and protecting the radio spectrum from abuse; the regulator was established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003. The creation of Ofcom was announced in the Queen's Speech to the UK Parliament, in June 2001; the new body, which would replace several existing authorities, was conceived as a "super-regulator" to oversee media channels that were converging through digital transmission. Ofcom launched on 29 December 2003, formally inheriting the duties, the responsibility of five different regulators: the Broadcasting Standards Commission the Independent Television Commission the Office of Telecommunications the Radio Authority the Radiocommunications Agency In July 2009, Conservative party opposition leader David Cameron said in a speech against the proliferation of quangos that:With a Conservative government, Ofcom as we know it will cease to exist… Its remit will be restricted to its narrow technical and enforcement roles.
It will no longer play a role in making policy. And the policy-making functions it has today will be transferred back to the Department for Culture and Sport. Under Cameron's subsequent premiership of the 2010 UK coalition government, the Public Bodies Act 2011 did remove or modify several of Ofcom's duties, although it did not reduce Ofcom's remit. On 1 October 2011, Ofcom took over responsibility for regulating the postal services industry from the Postal Services Commission. In April 2015, Ofcom announced that telephone companies would have to provide customers with a set charge for the cost of calling numbers starting 084, 087 and 09; the streamlining of these charges must be printed in monthly bills. The change came into force on 1 July 2015 and affected over 175 million phone numbers, making it the biggest overhaul of telephoning in over a decade. On 1 January 2016, the regulation of video on demand was transferred to Ofcom from ATVOD, the Authority for Television on Demand; the Digital Economy Act 2017 extended Ofcom's remit and powers.
Ofcom were given powers concerning the minimum broadband speed provided by Internet service providers, the ability to financially penalise communications providers for failing to comply with licence commitments and the power to require public service broadcasters to include a minimum quantity of children's programming made in the United Kingdom. The act transferred to Ofcom the regulation of the BBC, a duty undertaken by the BBC Trust, updated the Ofcom Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for telecommunications companies to erect and extend mobile masts. News International phone hacking scandal In July 2011, in the wake of the News International phone hacking scandal, Ofcom came under pressure to launch an inquiry into whether the parent company of News International, News Corporation, was still the "fit and proper" owner of a controlling stake in the satellite broadcasting company British Sky Broadcasting. On 13 July former Prime Minister Gordon Brown urged Ofcom to launch an investigation.
On 15 July the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg stated that the Government would launch a review of laws on what constituted a "fit and proper" owner for broadcasting companies in the United Kingdom, that anyone found not to meet that standard can be forced to give up their current holdings in a company. On 22 July 2011, it was reported that Ofcom had begun an investigation into whether the phone-hacking scandal may have changed BSkyB's status as the "fit and proper" holder of a UK broadcasting licence. On the same day Ed Richards, the chief executive of Ofcom, replied to Simon Hughes MP, Don Foster MP and Tim Farron MP following a letter which they had written to him on 8 July concerning News Corporation's shareholding in BSkyB. In the letter Richards confirmed that Ofcom considers that News Corporation's current shareholding of 39.14% in BSkyB does give it a material influence over the company. In April 2012, Ofcom's probe moved from a monitoring phase to an "evidence gathering" phase. * Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ofcom licenses all UK commercial television and radio services in the UK.
Broadcasters must risk having it revoked. Ofcom publishes the Broadcasting Code, a series of rules which all broadcast content on television and radio must follow; the Broadcasting Code requires that content inappropriate for children should not be broadcast between the hours of 5:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. Premium-rate film services may broadcast content equivalent to a BBFC 15 certificate at any time of day provided a PIN-protected system is in place to restrict access to those authorised to view it; the broadcasting of pornography with a BBFC R18 certificate is not permitted. In 2010 Ofcom revoked the licences of four free-to-air television channels for promoting adult chat services during daytime hours and transmitting content, too sexually explicit; the companies involved were fined £157,2
Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel
The Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel, abbreviated CSA, is a French institution created in 1989 whose role is to regulate the various electronic media in France, such as radio and television. The creation of the Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle was a measure found in the Socialist Party's electoral program of 1981, called 110 Propositions for France; the CSA replaced the Commission Nationale de la Communication et des Libertés, which itself replaced the Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle, created in 1982 to supervise the attribution of radio frequencies to the private radio sector, judged better than allowing the anarchic creation of the radios libres composed of amateurs and NGOs. The CSA always acts after content has been shown on a TV channel or heard on a radio, so it is not a censorship instance. For example, the CSA asked the French government to forbid Al-Manar TV in 2005 because of charges of hate speech. Roch-Olivier Maistre Carole Bienaimé-Besse Nicolas Curien Hervé Godechot Michèle Léridon Jean-François Mary Nathalie Sonnac The following pictograms are proposed to the different TV channels.
Channels are responsible for displaying the right pictogram depending on the show and its time of broadcast. Note that -18 can be either non-pornographic or pornographic. Pirate radio in France Official web site of the CSA
Government Flying Service
For the Slovak state carrier, see Slovak Government Flying Service. The Government Flying Service is a disciplined unit of the Government of Hong Kong, it was established on 1 April 1993. It took over all the non-military operations of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, an auxiliary unit of the United Kingdom Royal Air Force. After Hong Kong was handed over to the People's Republic of China in 1997, the GFS remains as a government unit of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is responsible for search and rescue, air ambulance and police operations; the service operates from the southwestern end of Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok. Before the opening of the Chek Lap Kok airport in 1998, it operated from the old Kai Tak Airport. GFS patrols a 400-nautical-mile radius of Hong Kong's Maritime Search and Rescue Region, as well as the Hong Kong Flight Information Region, which covers most of the South China Sea basin. In 2007, the former dispersal in the old Kai Tak Airport was re-opened as a sub-base, providing refuelling and other supporting services for GFS's helicopters.
The helipad is located near the foot of Cheung Yip Street. GFS is broken down to operational sections: Operations Section – day-to-day core functions Training and Standards Section – professional standards and development Engineering Section – maintenance of GFS aircraft and equipment Quality Section – compliance to operational standards Administration Section – administration, human resources, supplies, etc... Helicopters can land on 5 highways in Hong Kong to attend to road related recovery operations. For long-range search and rescue operations, the GFS uses fixed wing aircraft which guides helicopters to the location. Air ambulance service response time – 20miutes / 30minutes Search and rescue callout time 0700-2159 - – 1hr / 1hr 40m Search and rescue callout time 2200-0659 - – 2hr For SARs outside 50 nm / 92.5 km – add 30mins per 50 nm Fixed Winged Aircraft 0700-2159 – - 50m, - 1hr 5m, - add 15m per 50 nm. The fleet comprises: Paint scheme for Jetstream and Super Puma is white and Safety orange, two grey tones for the EC 155 and some of the Super Puma to support police operations.
The H175s have an overall grey livery with a light grey stripe on the tile broom. Prior to 2002, the fleet colours consisted of: white and Safety orange blue and red – the S-76 and were the colours of the RHKAAF and similar to the scheme used by the Her Majesty's Coastguard night black and sea grey – the S-70A The fleet has included: Standard equipment for GFS personnel is: Flight suit or jumpsuit Special Operations Vests – consists of a small oxygen tank, life jacket, small survival/first aid kit. Helicopter helmet Walkie-talkie glovesAs the GFS is not a police or para-military unit, they are unarmed. Armed officers of the Hong Kong Police Force fly with the GFS on occasion. GFS employs 238 personnel: 178 commissioned/disciplined personnel 60 civilian personnelMost of the pilots in the GFS were localised prior to the handover in 1997, as former RAF and other British military personnel departed Hong Kong; the GFS is led by a controller. The current controller is Captain Michael CP Chan. Other senior officers of the GFS are: Departmental Secretary Chief Pilot Chief Pilot Chief Aircraft Engineer Flight Operations Manager Manager Manager Manager Operations uniforms: green Jumpsuit or separate Flight jacket and pants - pilot and aircrew blue jumpsuit or separate Flight jacket and pants - mechanics and engineersDress uniforms: light blue shirt with dark tie dress jacket and pants dark skirts for women sweaters for men dark windbreaker jacket for summer Peaked cap - male and female variations Prior to the creation of the GFS, the ranks within the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force were the same as the RAF.
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the transition to local staff in the RHKAAF in preparation for the civil transfer to the GFS role. For details and insignia of the ranking, see http://www.gfs.gov.hk/eng/insignia.htm Ranking of personnel of the GFS are civilian aviation roles and are as follows: 1 Bauhinia and 1 Laurel Wreath with Crossed Feather Controller 1 Bauhinia and 2 Pips Chief Pilot Chief Aircraft Engineer 1 Bauhinia and 1 Pip Senior Pilot Senior Aircraft Engineer Senior Aircrewman Officer 1 Bauhinia Pilot I Aircraft Engineer Aircrewman Officer I 3 Pips Pilot I Aircraft Engineer Aircrewman Officer I 2 Pips and 1 Bar Pilot II Aircraft Engineer Aircrewman Officer II Chief Aircraft Technician 2 Pips Pilot II Chief Aircraft Technician Senior Aircraft Technician Aircrewman Officer III 1 Pip Cadet Pilot Senior Aircraft Technician Aircraft Technician Aircrewman Officer IIIPilot II and Cadet Pilot ranks were created in the 1990s for local pilots with less flying experience. List of past controllers of the GFS: Captain Brian Cluer - former RAF fighter pilot and General Manager of Operations, Cathay Pacific Captain Brian Butt Yiu-ming - with Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force and Chief Inspector with Hong Kong Police specializing in the counterfeit detection The current crest of the force was adopted in 1997, prior to which the
Home Affairs Department
The Home Affairs Department is an executive agency in the government of Hong Kong responsible for internal affairs of the territory. It reports to the Home Affairs Bureau, headed by the Secretary for Home Affairs; the Department is responsible for the District Administration Scheme, community building and community involvement activities, minor environmental improvement projects and minor local public works, the licensing of hotels and guesthouses, bedspace apartments and clubs. It promotes the concept of effective building management and works with other government departments to improve the standard of building management in Hong Kong, it monitors the provision of new arrival services and identifies measures to meet the needs of new arrivals. It disseminates information relating to and, where necessary, promotes the public's understanding of major government policies and development plans; these responsibilities are discharged through the 18 district offices covering the whole of Hong Kong.
For a long time the department was the only channel of communication between the people and the government. It used to be headed by the Registrar General, called the'Protector of the Chinese'. Fung-Chi Au, the teacher of Chinese literature for Sun Yat-sen, was the Secretary of the Department of Chinese Affairs. In 1913 the department was called the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. After the 1967 riots, the colonial government introduced the City District Officer Scheme "as the first sign of reaching out to the ordinary people" in Hong Kong society, it was renamed the Home Affairs Department in 1971 because,according to the government, the department dealt not only with matters relating to the Chinese. The first Secretary for Home Affairs was Donald Luddington. Area committees were formed in districts in 1972 to promote public participation in the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign and Fight Violent Crime Campaign. Nowadays, the functions of area committees are to encourage public participation in district affairs, to advise and assist in the organisation of community involvement activities and the implementation of government-sponsored initiatives, advise on issues of a localised nature affecting the area.
Throughout the years, area committees have played an important role in the districts and in providing a link between the local community and the district office. Area committee members are appointed by the Director of Home Affairs and are drawn from a wide spectrum of the community including district council members of the area concerned. At present, there are 70 area committees throughout Hong Kong. In general, each area committee serves an area with a population, including residents and mobile population, of about 80,000 to 100,000. A mutual aid committee is a voluntary body formed by the residents of a building. Mutual aid committees were promoted in private multi-storey buildings, extended to public housing estates, industrial buildings, temporary housing and squatter areas; as at March 31, 2004, there were 3,103 mutual aid committees throughout Hong Kong Island and the New Territories. The primary aims of a mutual aid committee are to promote a sense of friendliness, mutual help and responsibility among members, to promote better security, a better environment and more effective management within the building.
These committees provide a channel of two-way communication between the Government and the residents on matters affecting the well-being of the individual and the community and provide opportunities for residents to participate in community activities. An Owners' Corporation is a legal entity formed under the Building Management Ordinance by the owners of a private building. Owners' corporations are statutory bodies vested with certain legal powers to facilitate the management of a building. At the end of March 2004, there were 7,294 owners' corporations throughout Hong Kong, among which 5,537 were formed with the assistance of the district offices. Government departments and agencies in Hong Kong District Council of Hong Kong Official website
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon