Hong Kong literature
Hong Kong literature is 20th-century and subsequent writings from or about Hong Kong or by writers from Hong Kong in the poetry and fiction media. Hong Kong literature reflects the area's unique history during the 20th century as a fusion of British colonial and sea-trading culture, it has been written in Vernacular Chinese and, to a lesser extent, English. Hong Kong fiction and performance are many and varied, though only a few film and theatrical works were known internationally until the late 20th and early 21st century. Hong Kong's wuxia martial arts fiction is one of Hong Kong's most famous exports, provided many internationally recognised films and televisions programmes during the latter half of the 20th century single-handedly bringing Hong Kong literature out of relative obscurity towards a global audience. Many modern vernacular Chinese publications in Hong Kong have their origins in Chinese writers who fled from Communist and Nationalist fighting during the Chinese Civil War. A significant number of Chinese intellectuals and artists moved to Hong Kong between 1927 and 1937.
Many of these people viewed themselves as outsiders in the Hong Kong community, wrote of the "barbaric" and "strange" practices of the southern Chinese people. A second wave of writers came to Hong Kong in 1949 after the Communist Party of China's victory in the Chinese Civil War. While some in this second wave expressed the intention to "Northernise" Hong Kong, many of them began to recognise the valuable traditions that existed in local Hong Kong culture, their efforts to preserve these traditions helped shape Hong Kong's literary landscape; because Hong Kong was a British colony for nearly all of the 20th century, it was spared the harsh censorship that the People's Republic of China and Taiwan endured at the hands of their political leaders. Hong Kong's literature and arts developed quite throughout the 20th century. After 1950, two general literary trends took form: the first, dubbed the "Greenback Culture" sought to make itself appealing to contemporary American culture and consumers.
Hong Kong literature flourished domestically under these two different styles. Until 1950, modern literature in Hong Kong was dominated by writers who had fled fighting in northern China, vestiges of their influence were still present in Hong Kong literature until around 1970; these writers fell into three main categories: Newspaper and periodical editors: Maa Long, who edited "New Tides of Literature and Art", Huang Sicheng, who edited "Everyone's Humanities", others, all were able to bring hitherto unknown information on Western literature to a Hong Kong audience, as well as providing a medium for local writers to publish their works. Professors and teachers: teachers of literature encouraged research among their students and were writers themselves. Author Xu Dishan, who taught at Hong Kong University, is the most famous of these. Younger, radical writers: the works of Eileen Chang and Lau Yee Cheung challenged traditional structures in Hong Kong literature and showed aspects of Hong Kong life and society that were either not treated or taboo.
In addition to Vernacular Chinese writing, there is a smaller body of literature in English. Notable Hong Kong English language writers include Stewart Sloan, Nury Vittachi, Colin McAdam, Rebecca Bradley, Larry Feign and Alan Jefferies. Cha: An Asian Literary Journal List of Hong Kong poets List of Hong Kong authors
East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea; the region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China influenced East Asia as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, East Asian vocabulary and scripts are derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script; the Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from.
Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism, Ancestral worship, Chinese folk religion in Greater China and Shintoism in Japan, Christianity and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus. East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state; the overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre, about three times the world average of 45/km2. In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China would possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.
As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic and political muscle onto its neighbors. Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically and militarily for over two millennia. Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it supplied Japan and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems. In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang.
Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, Confucian political institutions. Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Vietnamese society was impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, animal husbandry. Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years until the loss of independence under French Indochina; this cultural affiliation to China remained true when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan.
The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese, but after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and political independence; as full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Korea and Vietnam began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, urban planning, various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties. For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The trans
Economy of Hong Kong
As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong's service-oriented economy is characterized by its low taxation free port trade and well established international financial market. Its currency, called the Hong Kong dollar, is issued by three major international commercial banks, pegged to the US dollar. Interest rates are determined by the individual banks in Hong Kong to ensure. There is no recognised central banking system, although the Hong Kong Monetary Authority functions as a financial regulatory authority. According to the Index of Economic Freedom, Hong Kong has had the highest degree of economic freedom in the world since the inception of the index in 1995, its economy is governed under positive non-interventionism, is dependent on international trade and finance. For this reason it is regarded as among the most favorable places to start a company. In fact, a recent study shows that Hong Kong has come from 998 registered start-ups in 2014 to over 2800 in 2018, with eCommerce, Fintech and Advertising companies comprising the majority.
The Economic Freedom of the World Index listed Hong Kong as the number one country, with a score of 8.97, in 2015. Hong Kong's economic strengths include a sound banking system no public debt, a strong legal system, ample foreign exchange reserves at around US $408 billion as of mid-2017, rigorous anti-corruption measures and close ties with mainland China; the Hong Kong Stock Exchange is a favourable destination for international firms and firms from mainland China to be listed due to Hong Kong's internationalised and modernised financial industry along with its capital market in Asia, its size and available financial tools, which are comparable to London and New York. Hong Kong's gross domestic product has grown 180 times between 1961 and 1997; the GDP per capita rose by 87 times within the same time frame. Its economy is larger than Israel's or Ireland's and its GDP per capita at purchasing power parity was the sixth highest globally in 2011, higher than the United States and the Netherlands and lower than Brunei.
In 2009, Hong Kong's real economic growth fell by 2.8% as a result of the global financial turmoil. By the late 20th century, Hong Kong was the seventh largest port in the world and second only to New York and Rotterdam in terms of container throughput. Hong Kong is a full Member of World Trade Organization; the Kwai Chung container complex was the largest in Asia. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the sixth largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of about US$3.732 trillion. Hong Kong has had an abundant supply of labour from the regions nearby. A skilled labour force coupled with the adoption of modern British/Western business methods and technology ensured that opportunities for external trade and recruitment were maximised. Prices and wages in Hong Kong are flexible, depending on the performance and stability of the economy of Hong Kong. Hong Kong raises revenues from the sale and taxation of land and through attracting international businesses to provide capital for its public finance, due to its low tax policy.
According to Healy Consultants, Hong Kong has the most attractive business environment within East Asia, in terms of attracting foreign direct investment. In 2013, Hong Kong was the third largest recipient of FDI in the world. Hong Kong ranked fourth on the Tax Justice Network's 2011 Financial Secrecy Index; the Hong Kong Government was the fourth highest ranked Asian government in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index, a measure of a government's information and communication technologies in 2016, ranked 13th globally. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the sixth largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of about US$3.732 trillion as of mid-2017. In 2006, the value of initial public offerings conducted in Hong Kong was second highest in the world after London. In 2009, Hong Kong raised 22 percent of IPO capital, becoming the largest centre of IPOs in the world; the exchange is the world's 10th third largest in China. Since the 1997 handover, Hong Kong's economic future became far more exposed to the challenges of economic globalisation and the direct competition from cities in mainland China.
In particular, Shanghai claimed to have a geographical advantage. The Shanghai municipal government dreamt of turning the city into China's main economic centre by as early as 2010; the target is to allow Shanghai to catch up to New York by 2040–2050. Hong Kong's economic policy has been cited by economists such as Milton Friedman and the Cato Institute as an example of laissez-faire capitalism, attributing the city's success to the policy. However, others have argued that the economic strategy is not adequately characterised by the term laissez-faire, they point out that there are still many ways in which the government is involved in the economy, some of which exceed the degree of involvement in other capitalist countries. For example, the government is involved in public works projects, healthcare and social welfare spending. Further, although rates of taxation on personal and corporate income are low by international standards, unlike most other countries Hong Kong's government raises a significant portion of its revenues from land leases and land taxation.
All land in Hong Kong is owned by the government and is leased to private developers and users on fixed terms, for fees which are paid to the state treasury. By restricting the sale of land leases, the Hong Kong government keeps the price of land at what some consider as art
Now TV (Hong Kong)
Now TV is a pay-TV service provider in Hong Kong operated by PCCW Media Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of PCCW. It provides 197 TV channels including 176 channels branded under now TV, 21 channels from TVB Network Vision, over 30 video on demand categories. Launched on 26 September 2003, its TV signal is transmitted with IPTV technology through HKT's fixed broadband network. Now TV is the largest pay-TV operator in Hong Kong in terms of number of subscribers, number of channels, number of HD channels and quantity of VOD contents; the word "Now" is abbreviated from "Network Of the World". Launched in March 1998, PCCW's services included a wide range of information and entertainment, such as news, video-on-demand, music videos, home-shopping, home-banking and educational content. ITV had some 67,000 subscribers at the end of 2000. Due to the liberalization of the pay-TV market by the HKSAR government in early July 2000, the existing duopolists, iTV and i-Cable, were confronted with ferocious competition.
With fewer subscribers and hence the decline in the revenue generated from iTV, the interactive television operation was terminated in the final quarter of 2002. Now Broadband pay-TV service was launched in September 2003 with 23 channels under the same umbrella company PCCW. In December 2005, Now TV introduced a technology with connection speed up to 18 megabits per second. At least 75% of the service area will be offered a service running up to 8Mbit/s. In addition, Video-On-Demand services were launched in January 2006. Now TV subscribers have access to 136 channels. March 1998 Hong Kong Telecom commercially launched iTV July 2000 Liberalisation of the pay-TV market Last quarter of 2002 Termination of iTV August 2003 Now TV was unveiled September 2003 Now TV was launched Since each household has to install a special decoder to view the channels, there is an extra deposit and installation for the decoder. However, these charges are waived for Netvigator broadband subscribers. With the decoder, households are able to watch 20 free channels.
For the subscription channels, Now uses the pricing model of pay-per-channel basis. There are bundle offers in existence, for given bouquet of channels, but these are less comprehensive than those offered by rivals. Now TV offers a business package for businesses at a higher price than household subscribers. Since 1 September 2007, Now TV no longer offers STAR Sports or ESPN as stand-alone packages, preferring instead to bundle them into a single multi-sport package; this has caused some distress amongst many viewers who view this move as a breach of their commitment contract's that stipulates that upon expiry of channel contracts, contracts are automatically renewed. In the beginning, Now TV only operated 23 channels. In response to competition, it has expanded its repertoire of new channels, adding programming such as the Disney Channel and ESPN. By June 2005, the number of channels grew to more than 70, with an increased number of Cantonese channels. In 2006, Now TV outbid i-Cable for the rights to broadcast English Premier League football in Hong Kong, starting with the 2007-08 season.
It is the broadcaster of LaLiga, the Spanish football competition Now TV has the most channels of any pay TV provider in Hong Kong. At present, it offers 103 pay channels, including 15 audio channels; the total number of channels exceeds 130. The majority of its programming is in English, Cantonese or Putonghua, though some programming in Hindi, French, is available. Now TV service was launched with 23 channels in September 2003 but was soon expanded to exceed 30 with the addition of sports-related channels and BBC World and the Animax channel, as well as the Cantonese-language Star Chinese Movies and Xing Kong channels. Within four months of launch, Now TV had attracted more than 200,000 customers by end-2003. Although Now TV targets high-income viewers, its subscriber numbers have grown sharply; as well as home viewership, the service has been extended to hotel rooms, sports bars and hotels. According to a report in Ming Pao Finance on 5 October 2005, the number of subscribers to Now TV exceeded 450,000.
Per annual reports issued by PCCW, at the end of December 2005 the number of paying subscribers to Now TV stood at 549,000. These figures compare with totals of 361,000 at end-December 2004 and 269,000 at end-June 2004. Despite the growth in subscribers, Now TV was operating at a loss in 2005. By August 2006, Now TV had in excess of 654,000 subscribers. Although NOW TV can claim consistent growth in subscriber numbers, quality of service remains'average' at best. Many viewers report'jerky' TV reception, slow refresh times when changing channels, picture freezing extending over several minutes at multiple instances during single programming. In early July 2000, the HKSAR government awarded five new pay-TV licences; the new entrants were all seasoned broadcasting companies including Galaxy Satellite Broadcasting, Hong Kong DTV Company, a British broadcaster Elmsdsale, Hong Kong Network TV and Pacific Digital Media HK. The considerable opening of the market sparked intense competition for programming and viewer share, which can be seen by the extensive use of advertising.
To avoid direct competition with the two local digital terrestrial channels - Television Broadcasts Limited and ViuTV - Now TV h
Hong Kong identity card
The Hong Kong Identity Card is an official identity document issued by the Immigration Department of Hong Kong. According to the Registration of Persons Ordinance, all residents of age 11 or above who are living in Hong Kong for longer than 180 days must, within 30 days of either reaching the age of 11 or arriving in Hong Kong, register for an HKIC. HKICs contain amongst others the name of the bearer in English, if applicable in Chinese; the HKIC does not expire for the duration of residency in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card is a class of HKIC issued to Hong Kong residents who have the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. There are around 8.8 million Hong Kong identity cards in circulation. The current HKIC, named as the New Smart Identity Card, features multiple security and chip technology enhancement; the use of identity documents has a long history in Hong Kong, starting with manually filled paper documents, to the smart card introduced on 23 June 2003.
Before 1949, people could move into and out of Hong Kong, China. Hong Kong residents who held Republic of China citizenship were not registered. In 1949, when the Government of the Republic of China retreated to Taiwan and the People's Republic of China was established on the mainland, the Hong Kong Government began to register Hong Kong residents to issue compulsory identity documents; these measures were put into practice to halt the large influx of refugees from Communist China and control the border with mainland China. The registration was completed in 1951. Although registration was compulsory for all residents, people were not required to carry their documents with them at all times when out in public. Beginning on 1 June 1960, the government introduced the second generation of ID cards; these bore the holder's fingerprint and photograph, an official stamp. The information was typed, the card was laminated. Males had a blue card and females had a red card; the format of card was replaced in November 1973 with a card without fingerprints.
The colour of the stamp differentiated permanent residents from non-permanent ones. New immigrants subsequently became known colloquially as "green stampers". From 24 October 1980, carrying an identity card in public areas and showing it when requested by a police or immigration officer became compulsory; this law was passed to control large numbers of illegal immigrants arriving in the territory. The government adopted a policy of deporting illegal immigrants within three days if they could not produce a valid ID card. From March 1983, digitally processed identity cards were introduced to reduce forgery; this simplified border controls. On 1 June 1987, the Immigration Department produced cards without the coat of arms of British Hong Kong, which would last through the handover on 1 July 1997. Following the handover the cards display a smaller seal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the back of the card. In 2003, the government began replacing the cards with smart ID cards in stages.
On 23 June 2003, the Immigration Department of Hong Kong began issuing a new Smart Identity card. The new cards contained an embedded microchip. Previous HKICs remained valid until the Executive Council, through the Secretary for Security, declared them invalid. In addition, existing holders of HKICs were called to have their old-style HKICs replaced by the new cards. Between August 2003 to 2007, all Hong Kong ID cards were replaced; the introduction of Smart Identity Cards was motivated to speed up processing at Hong Kong's Immigration checkpoints with Shenzhen, China. In the latter checkpoint, an estimated 7,200 Hong Kong residents commuted daily to Shenzhen for work and 2,200 students from Shenzhen commuted to school in Hong Kong in 2002. In November 2017, the design of the new Smart ID card was introduced; the card is equipped with built-in radio frequency identification, expanded storage for higher-resolution photo, hologram background, rainbow printing, micro-printed text. It was designed to prevent counterfeiting.
On 27 December 2018, the Immigration Department started the replacement procedure for all existing Smart Cards under the Territory-wide Identity Card Replacement Exercise. The programme features 24 phases, from 2018 to 2022. There are two classes of Hong Kong Identity Card: Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card – states that the holder has the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Hong Kong Identity Card – which does not state that right; the card types can be further divided into cards bearing the term "child", "youth", "adult". Permanent HKIC holders have the Right of Abode in Hong Kong. Under the Basic Law of Hong Kong, a person who belongs to one of the following categories is a permanent resident of the HKSAR with right of abode privileges: Chinese citizen born in Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the HKSAR Chinese citizen who has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years before or after the establishment of the HKSAR.
Person of Chinese nationality born outside Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to a parent who, at the time of birth of that person, was a Chinese citizen falling within category or. Person not of Chinese n
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, security, military and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia. It regularly engages other countries in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. A major partner of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN maintains a global network of alliances and dialogue partners and is considered by many as a global powerhouse, the central union for cooperation in Asia-Pacific, a prominent and influential organisation, it is involved in numerous international affairs, hosts diplomatic missions throughout the world. ASEAN was preceded by an organization formed in 31 July 1961 called the Association of Southeast Asia, a group consisting of the Philippines, the Federation of Malaya, Thailand. ASEAN itself was created on 8 August 1967, when the foreign ministers of five countries: Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, signed the ASEAN Declaration.
As set out in the Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are to accelerate economic growth, social progress, cultural development in the region, to promote regional peace and mutual assistance on matters of common interest, to provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities, to collaborate for better utilisation of agriculture and industry to raise the living standards of the people, to promote Southeast Asian studies and to maintain close, beneficial co-operation with existing international organisations with similar aims and purposes. The creation of ASEAN was motivated by a common fear of communism, ASEAN achieved greater cohesion in the mid-1970s following a change in balance of power after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; the region's dynamic economic growth during the 1970s strengthened the organization, enabling ASEAN to adopt a unified response to Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979. ASEAN's first summit meeting, held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976, resulted in an agreement on several industrial projects and the signing of a Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, a Declaration of Concord.
The end of the Cold War between the West and the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s allowed ASEAN countries to exercise greater political independence in the region, in the 1990s ASEAN emerged as a leading voice on regional trade and security issues. In 1984, Brunei became ASEAN's sixth member and on 28 July 1995, Vietnam joined as the seventh member. Laos and Myanmar joined two years on 23 July 1997. Cambodia was to have joined at the same time as Laos and Burma, but its entry was delayed due to the country's internal political struggle, it joined on 30 April 1999, following the stabilization of its government. In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus composed of the members of ASEAN as well as China and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing US influence in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and in Asia as a whole. However, the proposal failed because of heavy opposition from the Japan. Work for further integration continued, the ASEAN Plus Three, consisting of ASEAN, China and South Korea, was created in 1997.
In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff scheme was adopted as a schedule for phasing out tariffs with the goal to increase the "region's competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market". This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area, an agreement by member states concerning local manufacturing in ASEAN, it was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. After the 1997 Asian financial crisis, a revival of the Malaysian proposal, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, was put forward in Chiang Mai, Thailand, it called for better integration of the economies of ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three. The bloc focused on peace and stability in the region. On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asia into a nuclear-weapon-free zone; the treaty took effect on 28 March 1997. It became effective on 21 June 2001 after the Philippines ratified it banning all nuclear weapons in the region.
On 15 December 2008, member states met in Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an EU-style community". The charter turned ASEAN into a legal entity and aimed to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated: "This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating and transforming itself into a community, it is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift". Referring to climate change and economic upheaval, he concluded: "Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s"; the financial crisis of 2007–2008 was seen as a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter, set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposition caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries which violated citizens' rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.
The body was established in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights. In November 2012, the commission adopted the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration. The'ASEAN W
CSL Mobile Limited is an HKT subsidiary, which operates mobile network brands of "csl", "1O1O" and "Club SIM" in Hong Kong. CSL was Hong Kong's first mobile communications operator established in 1983, the first network to launch the world’s first dual band 4G LTE network with DC-HSPA+; the brand CSL was under different legal person in its operating history, namely Communication Services Limited, which known as Hong Kong Telecom CSL Limited from 1990 to 1999, Cable & Wireless HKT CSL Limited from 1999 to 2001, Hong Kong CSL Limited from 2001, CSL Limited and CSL Mobile Limited. It was the result of the merger of the brands PCCW Mobile. In the 1990s, CSL was a company of PCCW. In 2002, PCCW sold CSL. In 2005, PCCW re-entered the mobile network operator business by acquiring SUNDAY and setting up a new brand "PCCW Mobile". In 2014, HKT acquired CSL New World Mobility and its subsidiaries such as CSL Limited and New World Mobility. In 2014, the legal person of PCCW Mobile was renamed into CSL Mobile Limited.
However, it used the brand CSL instead. CSL was an abbreviation for Communication Services Limited and their original branding of "Create a Simple Life"; the CSL brand and corporate colour were all updated in August 2011 and again in recent year. 1980: Communication Services Limited was incorporated. 1984: CSL, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hong Kong Telecom, launches Hong Kong's first public mobile radiotelephone service using NEC's Advance Mobile Telephone System. July 1993: CSL launches its GSM service. June 1997: CSL launches its GSM 1800 network. December 1997: CSL acquires Pacific Link Communications; the acquisition included PCS and radio paging services. 2000: PCCW Limited buys HKT, including subsidiary CSL, for an estimated US$38 billion from Cable & Wireless. February 2001: PCCW sells 60% of CSL to Telstra for $3.05 billion, in a joint venture called "Regional Wireless Company". July 2002: Telstra purchases PCCW's 40% stake in RWC for A$1.1billion, giving Telstra 100% ownership of CSL. March 2006: CSL & New World PCS merge to become the CSL New World Mobility.
The enlarged group owned the brands CSL, 1010, One2Free and New World Mobility, was majority owned by Telstra. January 2007: New World Mobile Holdings agrees to sell its quarter stake of CSL New World Mobility to its parent company New World Development, for US$321 million. March 2009: CSL launches the international award winning Next G™ network. Next G™ is an all-IP HSPA+ commercial mobile broadband network capable of download speeds up to 21Mbit/s and provides the widest coverage in Hong Kong. November 2010: Launches the world's first LTE/DC-HSPA+ network in partnership with ZTE. June 2012: CSL and SK Telecom, the largest mobile operator in Korea, launches the world’s first 4G LTE international roaming between their two markets – Hong Kong and Korea. December 2013: CSL launches the first VoLTE network in Hong Kong. December 2013: Telstra and New World Development have agreed to sell CSL New World Mobility to HKT, a listed unit of PCCW for $2.43B USD selling it back to PCCW. Telstra owns 76.4% of CSL, New World Development owns the rest 23.6%.
May 2014: The Communications Authority agree to the sale of CSL, subject to conditions. September 2014: The brand New World Mobility was renamed to Sun Mobile, owned by HKT and Telecom Digital December 2014: CSL launches the first LTE Advanced network in Hong Kong. Sun Mobile, a mobile network operator, owned by HKT Official website Official website of CSL Mobile's 1010 brand