Intelsat Corporation—formerly INTEL-SAT, INTELSAT, Intelsat—is a communications satellite services provider. Formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services; as of March 2011, Intelsat operates a fleet of 52 communications satellites, one of the world's largest fleet of commercial satellites. They claim to serve around 1,500 customers and employ a staff of 1,100 people. John F. Kennedy instigated the creation of INTELSAT with his speech to the United Nations on the 25th of September 1961. Less than a year John F. Kennedy signed the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. INTELSAT was formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization and operated from 1964 to 2001 as an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services.
In 2001, the international satellite market was commercialized, the US predominant role in INTELSAT was privatized after 2001 as Intelsat was formed up as a private Luxembourg corporation. The International Governmental Organization began on 20 August 1964, with 7 participating countries; the 1964 agreement was an interim arrangement on a path to a more permanent agreement. The permanent international organization was established in 1973, following inter-nation negotiations from 1969 to 1971; the most difficult issue to "resolve concerned the shift from management of the system by a national entity to management by the international organization itself."On 6 April 1965, INTELSAT's first satellite, the Intelsat I, was placed in geostationary orbit above the Atlantic Ocean by a Delta D rocket. In 1973, the name was changed and there were 81 signatories. INTELSAT was "governed by two international agreements: The Agreement setting forth the basic provisions and principles and structure of the organization, signed by the governments through their foreign ministries, an Operating Agreement setting forth more detailed financial and technical provisions and signed by the governments or their designated telecommunications entities."—in most cases the latter are the ministries of communications of the party countries, but in the case of the United States, was the Communications Satellite Corporation, a private corporation established by federal legislation to represent the US in international governance for the global communication satellite system.
INTELSAT at that time directly owned and managed a global communications satellite system, structurally consisted of three parts: the Assembly of Parties—meeting every two years and concerned with aspects "primarily of interest to the Parties as sovereign States."—with each country having one vote. The Meeting of Signatories—meeting annually and composed of all the signatories to the Operating Agreement—primarily working on financial and program matters, with each countries' signatory having one vote. A Board of Governors, meeting at least four times each year, making decisions on design, establishment and maintenance of the in-space assets, appointed by signatories, but weighted to each signatories "investment share" in the space assets; the 1973 Agreement called for a seven-year transition from national to international management, but continued until 1976 to carve out "technical and operational management of the system the Communications Satellite Corporation served as the Manager of the global system under the interim arrangements in force from 1964 to 1973."
Phases of the transition resulted in full international governance by 1980. Financial contribution to the organization, it's so-called "investment share," was proportional to each member's use of the system, determined annually. Intelsat provides service to over 600 Earth stations in more than 149 countries and dependencies. By 2001, INTELSAT had over 100 members, it was this year that INTELSAT privatized and changed its name to Intelsat. Since its inception, Intelsat has used several versions of its dedicated Intelsat satellites. Intelsat completes each block of spacecraft independently, leading to a variety of contractors over the years. Intelsat’s largest spacecraft supplier is Space Systems/Loral, having built 31 spacecraft, or nearly half of the fleet; the network in its early years was not as robust. A failure of the Atlantic satellite in the spring of 1969 threatened to stop the Apollo 11 mission. During the Apollo 11 moonwalk, the moon was over the Pacific Ocean, so other antennas were used, as well as INTELSAT III, in geostationary orbit over the Pacific.
By the 1990s, building and launching satellites was no longer a government domain and as country-specific telecommunications systems were privatized, several private satellite operators arose to meet the growing demand. In the U. S. satellite operators such as PanAmSat, Orion Communications, Columbia Communications, Globalstar, TRW and others formed under the umbrella of the Alliance for Competitive International Satellite Services to press for an end to the IGOs and the monopoly position of COMSAT the US signatory to Intelsat and Inmarsat. In March 2001, the US Congress passed the Open Market Reorganisation for the B
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands, is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, Tokelau to the northeast. Though both French and Polynesian and Futuna is distinct from the entity known as French Polynesia, its land area is 142.42 km2 with a population of 11,558 at the 2018 census. Mata-Utu is biggest city; the territory is made up of three main volcanic tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km apart, namely the Wallis Islands in the northeast, the Hoorn Islands in the southwest, including Futuna Island proper and the uninhabited Alofi Island. Since 2003, Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity. Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory, though its official name did not change when the status changed. Polynesians settled the islands that would be called Wallis and Futuna around the year 1000 AD/CE, when the Tongan Empire expanded into the area.
The original inhabitants built forts and other identifiable ruins on the islands, some of which are still intact. Futuna was first put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their circumnavigation of the globe in 1616, they named the islands "Hoornse Eylanden" after the Dutch town of Hoorn. This was translated into French as "Isles de Horne." The French were the first Europeans to settle in the territory, with the arrival of French missionaries in 1837, who converted the population to Roman Catholicism. Pierre Chanel, canonized as a saint in 1954, is a major patron of the island of Futuna and the region; the Wallis Islands are named after the British explorer, Samuel Wallis, who sailed past them in 1767 after discovering Tahiti. On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the Queen of Uvea signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate; the kings of Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.
The islands were put under the authority of the French colony of New Caledonia. In 1917, the three traditional kingdoms were annexed to France and turned into the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, still under the authority of the Colony of New Caledonia. During World War II, the islands' administration was pro-Vichy until a Free French corvette from New Caledonia deposed the regime on 26 May 1942. Units of the US Marine Corps landed on Wallis on 29 May 1942. In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory, effective in 1961, thus ending their subordination to New Caledonia. In 2005, the 50th King of Uvea, Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, faced being deposed after giving sanctuary to his grandson, convicted of manslaughter; the King claimed. There were riots in the streets involving the King's supporters, who were victorious over attempts to replace the King. Two years Tomasi Kulimoetoke died on 7 May 2007; the state was in a six-month period of mourning. During this period, mentioning a successor was forbidden.
On 25 July 2008, Kapiliele Faupala was installed as King despite protests from some of the royal clans. The territory is divided into three traditional kingdoms: Uvea, on the island of Wallis, Sigave, on the western part of the island of Futuna, Alo, on the eastern part of the island of Futuna and on the uninhabited island of Alofi: referred to the villages with municipal status called MuaThe capital of the collectivity is Matāʻutu on the island of Uvéa, the most populous of the Wallis Islands; as an overseas collectivity of France, it is governed under the French constitution of 28 September 1958, has universal suffrage for those over 18 years of age. The French president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the head of state is President Emmanuel Macron of France as represented by the Administrator-Superior Thierry Queffelec. The President of the Territorial Assembly is Petelo Hanisi since 11 December 2013; the Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly.
The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblée territoriale of 20 seats. Wallis and Futuna elect one senator to the French Senate and one deputy to the French National Assembly. Justice is administered under French law by a tribunal of the first instance in Mata-Utu, but the three traditional kingdoms administer justice according to customary law; the Court of Appeal is in New Caledonia. The territory participates in the Franc Zone, as a permanent member of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and as an observer of the Pacific Islands Forum. Wallis and Fut
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
A teleprinter is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. They were used in telegraphy, which developed in the late 1830s and 1840s as the first use of electrical engineering; the machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could be used to create punched tape for data storage and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. Teleprinters could use a variety of different communication media; these included a simple pair of wires. A teleprinter attached to a modem could communicate through standard switched public telephone lines; this latter configuration was used to connect teleprinters to remote computers in time-sharing environments. Teleprinters have been replaced by electronic computer terminals which have a computer monitor instead of a printer.
Teleprinters are still used in the aviation industry, variations called Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf are used by the hearing impaired for typed communications over ordinary telephone lines. The teleprinter evolved through a series of inventions by a number of engineers, including Samuel Morse, Alexander Bain, Royal Earl House, David Edward Hughes, Emile Baudot, Donald Murray, Charles L. Krum, Edward Kleinschmidt and Frederick G. Creed. Teleprinters were invented in order to send and receive messages without the need for operators trained in the use of Morse code. A system of two teleprinters, with one operator trained to use a keyboard, replaced two trained Morse code operators; the teleprinter system improved message speed and delivery time, making it possible for messages to be flashed across a country with little manual intervention. There were a number of parallel developments on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In 1835 Samuel Morse devised a recording telegraph, Morse code was born.
Morse's instrument used a current to displace an electromagnet, which moved a marker, therefore recording the breaks in the current. Cooke & Wheatstone received a British patent covering telegraphy in 1837 and a second one in 1840 which described a type-printing telegraph with steel type fixed at the tips of petals of a rotating brass daisy-wheel, struck by an “electric hammer” to print Roman letters through carbon paper onto a moving paper tape. In 1841 Alexander Bain devised an electromagnetic printing telegraph machine, it used pulses of electricity created by rotating a dial over contact points to release and stop a type-wheel turned by weight-driven clockwork. The critical issue was to have the sending and receiving elements working synchronously. Bain attempted to achieve this using centrifugal governors to regulate the speed of the clockwork, it was patented, along with other devices, on April 21, 1841. By 1846, the Morse telegraph service was operational between Washington, D. C. and New York.
Royal Earl House patented his printing telegraph that same year. He linked two 28-key piano-style keyboards by wire; each piano key represented a letter of the alphabet and when pressed caused the corresponding letter to print at the receiving end. A "shift" key gave each main key two optional values. A 56-character typewheel at the sending end was synchronised to coincide with a similar wheel at the receiving end. If the key corresponding to a particular character was pressed at the home station, it actuated the typewheel at the distant station just as the same character moved into the printing position, in a way similar to the daisy wheel printer, it was thus an example of a synchronous data transmission system. House's equipment could transmit around 40 readable words per minute, but was difficult to manufacture in bulk; the printer could print out up to 2,000 words per hour. This invention was first put in operation and exhibited at the Mechanics Institute in New York in 1844. Landline teleprinter operations began in 1849, when a circuit was put in service between Philadelphia and New York City.
In 1855, David Edward Hughes introduced an improved machine built on the work of Royal Earl House. In less than two years, a number of small telegraph companies, including Western Union in early stages of development, united to form one large corporation – Western Union Telegraph Co. – to carry on the business of telegraphy on the Hughes system. In France, Émile Baudot designed in 1874 a system using a five-unit code, which began to be used extensively in that country from 1877; the British Post Office adopted the Baudot system for use on a simplex circuit between London and Paris in 1897, subsequently made considerable use of duplex Baudot systems on their Inland Telegraph Services. During 1901, Baudot's code was modified by Donald Murray, prompted by his development of a typewriter-like keyboard; the Murray system employed an intermediate step, a keyboard perforator, which allowed an operator to punch a paper tape, a tape transmitter for sending the message from the punched tape. At the receiving end of the line, a printing mechanism would
Majuro is the capital and largest city of the Marshall Islands. It is a large coral atoll of 64 islands in the Pacific Ocean, it forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. The atoll encloses a lagoon of 295 square kilometres; as with other atolls in the Marshall Islands, Majuro consists of narrow land masses. The main population center, Delap-Uliga-Djarrit, is made up of three contiguous motus and has a population of 20,301 people as of 2012. Majuro has a port, shopping district, an international airport. At the western end of the atoll, about 50 kilometres from D–U–D by road, is the island community of Laura, an expanding residential area with a popular beach. Laura has the highest elevation point on the atoll, estimated at less than 3 metres above sea level. Djarrit is residential. Being north of the Equator, Majuro has a tropical rainforest climate but not an equatorial climate because trade winds are prevailing throughout the year though they are interrupted during the summer months by the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone across the area.
Typhoons are rare. Temperatures are consistent throughout the course of the year with average temperatures around 27 °C. Does the temperature fall below 21 °C. Majuro sees 3,200 millimetres of precipitation annually. Humans have inhabited the atoll for at least 2,000 years. Majuro Atoll was claimed by the German Empire with the rest of the Marshall Islands in 1884, the Germans established a trading post; as with the rest of the Marshalls, Majuro was captured by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1914 during World War I and mandated to the Empire of Japan by the League of Nations in 1920. The island became a part of the Japanese mandated territory of Nanyo. On January 30, 1944, United States troops invaded, but found that Japanese forces had evacuated their fortifications to Kwajalein and Enewetak about a year earlier. A single Japanese warrant officer had been left as a caretaker. With his capture, the islands were secured; this gave the U. S. Navy use of one of the largest anchorages in the Central Pacific.
The lagoon became a large forward naval base of operations and was the largest and most active port in the world until the war moved westward when it was supplanted by Ulithi. Following World War II, Majuro came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, it supplanted Jaluit Atoll as the administrative center of the Marshall Islands, a status that it retains after the independence of the Marshall Islands in 1986. The major population centers are the D–U–D communities: the islets of Delap–Uliga–Djarrit; as of 2011, Majuro had a population of 27,797. Most of the population is Christian; the majority follows the United Church of Christ. The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of the Marshall Islands is located in Majuro. Islamic influence has been increasing. There is a sizable number of Ahmadi Muslims; the first mosque opened in Majuro in September 2012. There are LDS churches, Baptist churches, Seventh-Day Adventist churches, the Salvation Army.
Majuro's economy is driven by the service sector. On September 15, 2007, Witon Barry, of the Tobolar Copra processing plant in the Marshall Islands' capital of Majuro, said power authorities, private companies and entrepreneurs had been experimenting with coconut oil as an alternative to diesel fuel for vehicles, power generators and ships. Coconut trees abound in the Pacific's tropical islands. Copra from 6 to 10 coconuts makes 1 litre of oil. Air Marshall Islands has its headquarters in Majuro; the College of the Marshall Islands is located in Uliga. The University of South Pacific has a presence on Majuro. Marshall Islands Public School System operates public schools. High schools: The Marshall Islands High School is near the north end of Majuro. Laura High School Life Skills AcademyPrimary schools: Ajeltake Elementary School Delap Elementary School DUD Kindergarten Ejit Elementary School Laura Elementary School Long Island Elementary School Majuro Middle School Rairok Elementary School Rita Elementary School Uliga Elementary School Woja Maj.
Elementary SchoolIn the 1994-1995 school year Majuro had 10 private elementary schools and six private high schools. There is a Seventh Day Adventist High School and Elementary School in Delap, where English is taught to all students. There is a Seventh Day Adventist Elementary school in Laura. Majuro Hospital has 81 beds, it is the main hospital for Majuro, as well as many of the outer islands. The Majuro Water and Sewer Company obtains water from a catchment basin on the International Airport runway, it supplies 14 US gallons per person per day. This compares with New York City's 118 US gallons per person per day. Water is supplied 12 hours daily; the threat of drought is commonplace. Marshall Islands International Airport, offering domestic and international services, is on Majuro Atoll, it is served by four passenger airlines: United Airlines, Nauru Airlines, Air Marshall Islands, Asia Pacific Airlines. Air Marshall Islands flies to most of the Marshalls' inhabited atolls once a week, it offers daily service between Majuro and Kwajalein except Thur
Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.
Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls, with a combined land area of 10 km2; the capital rotates yearly between the three atolls. Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, northwest of the Cook Islands. Swains Island is geographically part of Tokelau, but is subject to an ongoing territorial dispute and is administered by the United States as part of American Samoa. Tokelau has a population of 1,500 people, the fourth-smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency; as of the 2016 census, around 45% of residents were born overseas in Samoa and New Zealand. The nation has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations. 94% of the population speak Tokelauan as a first language. Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world, although it is a leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world.
Tokelau is referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government. It is a democratic nation with elections every three years. However, in 2007 the United Nations General Assembly included Tokelau on its list of non-self-governing territories, its inclusion on the list is controversial, as Tokelauans have twice voted against further self-determination and the islands' small population reduces the viability of self-government. The basis of Tokelau's legislative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, amended on a number of occasions. Since 1993, the territory has annually elected its own head of the Ulu-o-Tokelau; the Administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government and the territory was administered directly by a New Zealand government department. The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind"; the islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau – Atafu and Fakaofo – were settled about 1,000 years ago and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia. Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; the three atolls functioned independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island", held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on coconut. Commodore John Byron discovered Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of previous inhabitants. Captain Edward Edwards, knowing of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties.
On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying places, canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons. On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the USS Dolphin ship wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu: Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, quite small, put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon, they would come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation. On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island". On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island; the residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes.
They desired to barter, possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch"; the islanders were found to be similar in nature to those in Atafu. Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1870s. French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations; the Rev. Samuel James Whitmee, of the London Missionary Society, visited Tokelau in 1870. Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian "blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the atolls.
The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, few returned. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented. During this time