Coaxial cable, or coax is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables have an insulating outer sheath or jacket; the term coaxial comes from the outer shield sharing a geometric axis. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, who patented the design in 1880. Coaxial cable is a type of transmission line, used to carry high frequency electrical signals with low losses, it is used in such applications as telephone trunklines, broadband internet networking cables, high speed computer data busses, carrying cable television signals, connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas. It differs from other shielded cables because the dimensions of the cable and connectors are controlled to give a precise, constant conductor spacing, needed for it to function efficiently as a transmission line. Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals.
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network connections, digital audio, distribution of cable television signals. One advantage of coaxial over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors; this allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. Coaxial cable provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference. Coaxial cable conducts electrical signal using an inner conductor surrounded by an insulating layer and all enclosed by a shield one to four layers of woven metallic braid and metallic tape; the cable is protected by an outer insulating jacket. The shield is kept at ground potential and a signal carrying voltage is applied to the center conductor; the advantage of coaxial design is that electric and magnetic fields are restricted to the dielectric with little leakage outside the shield.
Conversely and magnetic fields outside the cable are kept from interfering with signals inside the cable. Larger diameter cables and cables with multiple shields have less leakage; this property makes coaxial cable a good choice for carrying weak signals that cannot tolerate interference from the environment or for stronger electrical signals that must not be allowed to radiate or couple into adjacent structures or circuits. Common applications of coaxial cable include video and CATV distribution, RF and microwave transmission, computer and instrumentation data connections; the characteristic impedance of the cable is determined by the dielectric constant of the inner insulator and the radii of the inner and outer conductors. In radio frequency systems, where the cable length is comparable to the wavelength of the signals transmitted, a uniform cable characteristic impedance is important to minimize loss; the source and load impedances are chosen to match the impedance of the cable to ensure maximum power transfer and minimum standing wave ratio.
Other important properties of coaxial cable include attenuation as a function of frequency, voltage handling capability, shield quality. Coaxial cable design choices affect physical size, frequency performance, power handling capabilities, flexibility and cost; the inner conductor might be stranded. To get better high-frequency performance, the inner conductor may be silver-plated. Copper-plated steel wire is used as an inner conductor for cable used in the cable TV industry; the insulator surrounding the inner conductor may be solid plastic, a foam plastic, or air with spacers supporting the inner wire. The properties of the dielectric insulator determine some of the electrical properties of the cable. A common choice is a solid polyethylene insulator, used in lower-loss cables. Solid Teflon is used as an insulator; some coaxial lines have spacers to keep the inner conductor from touching the shield. Many conventional coaxial cables use braided copper wire forming the shield; this allows the cable to be flexible, but it means there are gaps in the shield layer, the inner dimension of the shield varies because the braid cannot be flat.
Sometimes the braid is silver-plated. For better shield performance, some cables have a double-layer shield; the shield might be just two braids, but it is more common now to have a thin foil shield covered by a wire braid. Some cables may invest in more than two shield layers, such as "quad-shield", which uses four alternating layers of foil and braid. Other shield designs sacrifice flexibility for better performance; those cables cannot be bent as the shield will kink, causing losses in the cable. When a foil shield is used a small wire conductor incorporated into the foil makes soldering the shield termination easier. For high-power radio-frequency transmission up to about 1 GHz, coaxial cable with a solid copper outer conductor is available in sizes of 0.25 inch upward. The outer conductor is corrugated like a bellows to permit flexibility and the inner conductor is held in position by a plastic spiral to approximate an air dielectric. One brand name for such cable is Heliax. Coaxial cables require an internal structure of an insulating material to maintain the spacing between the center conductor and shield.
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
T-Mobile US, Inc. shortened to T-Mobile, is a United States-based wireless network operator whose majority shareholder is the German telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom. Its headquarters are located in Washington, in the Seattle metropolitan area. T-Mobile is the third largest wireless carrier in the United States with 79.7 million customers as of the end of Q4 2018. T-Mobile US provides wireless voice and data services in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands under the T-Mobile and Metro by T-Mobile brands, serves as the host network for many mobile virtual network operators; the company has annual revenues of over $40 billion. In 2015, Consumer Reports named T-Mobile the number one American wireless carrier. In 2017, T-Mobile was ranked #1 in Customer Service Satisfaction by Nielsen. T-Mobile US traces its roots to the 1994 establishment of VoiceStream Wireless PCS as a subsidiary of Western Wireless Corporation. Spun off from parent Western Wireless on May 3, 1999, VoiceStream Wireless was purchased by Deutsche Telekom AG in 2001 for $35 billion and renamed T-Mobile USA, Inc. in July, 2002.
In 2013, T-Mobile and MetroPCS finalized a merger of the two companies. The two companies began trading as T-Mobile US. VoiceStream Wireless PCS was established in 1994 as a subsidiary of Western Wireless Corporation to provide digital wireless personal communications services in 19 FCC-defined metropolitan service areas in several western and southwestern states. VoiceStream Wireless' digital, urban service areas complemented the analog, rural service areas marketed by Western Wireless under the Cellular One brand. Western Wireless spun off its VoiceStream Wireless division into a new company called VoiceStream Wireless Corporation in May 1999. In 2000, VoiceStream Wireless acquired two regional GSM carriers. Omnipoint Corporation, a regional network operator in the Northeastern U. S. was acquired on February 25, 2000. Aerial Communications Inc.. The combined company retired the Omnipoint and Aerial brands and completed integrating the three companies by converting to a single customer billing platform, implementing standard business practices and launching the VoiceStream brand and "GET MORE" marketing strategy in all markets.
On June 1, 2001, Deutsche Telekom completed the acquisition of VoiceStream Wireless Inc. for $35 billion and Southern U. S. regional GSM network operator Powertel, Inc. for $24 billion. By the end of 2001, VoiceStream Wireless had 19,000 employees serving 7 million subscribers. On September 2, 2001, VoiceStream Wireless Inc. took the name, T-Mobile USA, Inc. and began rolling out the T-Mobile brand, starting with locations in California and Nevada. T-Mobile USA, Inc. was an operating entity of T-Mobile International AG, before becoming a direct subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom AG. On September 17, 2007, the company announced the acquisition of SunCom Wireless Holdings, Inc. for $2.4 billion. By September 8, 2008, SunCom's operations were integrated with those of the company; the acquisition added SunCom's 1.1 million customers to the company's customer base and expanded the company's network coverage to include southern Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northeastern Georgia, Puerto Rico and the U.
S. Virgin Islands. On March 20, 2011, DT accepted a $39 billion stock and cash purchase offer from AT&T for the company; the acquisition was subject to regulatory approvals, a reverse breakup fee in certain circumstances, customary regulatory and closing conditions. If the merger had been completed, AT&T Mobility would have had a customer base of 130 million users, making it the largest wireless carrier in the U. S. On August 31, 2011, the United States Department of Justice issued to block AT&T's merger with T-Mobile on the grounds that it would "substantially lessen competition" in the wireless market. Further reports indicated that the FCC would oppose the merger. On December 19, 2011, in the face of this heavy resistance from the U. S. government, AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson announced that the company had withdrawn its $39 billion bid. In an official statement, Stephenson addressed the continuing spectrum shortage, hinting that the company will continue to seek other options to solve the shortage in the short term.
On October 3, 2012, MetroPCS Communications reached an agreement to merge with T-Mobile USA. MetroPCS shareholders would hold a 26% stake in the merged company, which retained the T-Mobile brand. While the merged company was still the fourth largest carrier in the United States, the acquisition gave T-Mobile access to more spectrum and financial resources to maintain competitiveness and expand its LTE network; the merger between T-Mobile USA Inc. and MetroPCS was approved by MetroPCS shareholders on April 24, 2013. The deal was structured as a reverse takeover; the merger agreement gave Deutsche Telekom the option to sell its 72% stake in the merged company, valued at around $14.2 billion, to a third party before the end of the 18-month lock-up period. In March 2013, T-Mobile introduced a major overhaul of its plan structure, marketed by branding themselves as being "the Un-carrier". Among the changes, a new contract-free pricing structure with simpler plans were introduced, in which a phone's cost is paid over a t
A telephone company known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access. Many telephone companies were at one time government agencies or owned but state-regulated monopolies; the government agencies are referred to in Europe, as PTTs. Telephone companies are common carriers, in the United States are called local exchange carriers. With the advent of mobile telephony, telephone companies now include wireless carriers, or mobile network as. Most telephone companies now function as internet service providers and the distinction between a telephone company and an ISP may disappear over time, as the current trend for supplier convergence in the industry continues. In 1913, a telephone trust ended and more than 20,000 independent telephone companies were able to use the trunk lines of Bell Telephone Company. Comedian Lily Tomlin satirized the telephone industry with a skits playing the telephone operator Ernestine.
Ernestine, who became one of Tomlin's trademark characters, was most famous for the following line: "We don't care. We're the phone company." In the satirical 1967 film The President's Analyst, "TPC, The Phone Company", is depicted as plotting to enslave humanity by replacing with implanted mobile In the 1988 video game Zak McKracken and the Alien Mindbenders, The Phone Company was used by the Caponian aliens to secretly reduce the intelligence of humans. Citations BibliographyHuurdeman, Anton A; the Worldwide History Of Telecommunications, Wiley-IE, 2 ISBN 0-471-20505-2, ISBN 978-0-471-20505-0business broadband
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service is an American multinational package delivery and supply chain management company. Along with the central package delivery operation, the UPS brand name is used to denote many of its divisions and subsidiaries, including its cargo airline, freight-based trucking operation, retail-based packing and shipping centers; the global logistics company is headquartered in the U. S. city of Sandy Springs, a part of the Greater Atlanta metropolitan area. On August 28, 1907, James Casey founded the American Messenger Company with Claude Ryan in Seattle, capitalized with $100 in debt. Most deliveries at this time were made on foot and bicycles were used for longer trips; the American Messenger Company focused on package delivery to retail stores with special delivery mail delivered for its largest client the United States Postal Service. In 1913, the company acquired a Model T Ford as its first delivery vehicle. Casey and Ryan merged with a competitor, Evert McCabe, formed Merchants Parcel Delivery.
Consolidated delivery was introduced, combining packages addressed to a certain neighborhood onto one delivery vehicle. In 1916, Charlie Soderstrom joined Merchants Parcel Delivery bringing in more vehicles for the growing delivery business. In 1919, the company expanded for the first time outside of Seattle to Oakland and changed its name to United Parcel Service; the name change to United Parcel Service was to remind the company expansion that operations were still United under the same organisation and Parcel identified the type of business offered as part of its Service. Common carrier service was acquired in 1922 from a company in California. UPS became one of the only companies in the United States to offer common carrier service. At first common carrier was only limited to a small area around Los Angeles but by 1927 expanded to areas up to 125 miles outside the city. In 1924, a conveyor belt system was debuted for the handling of packages for UPS operations. In 1930, a consolidated service began in New York City, soon after in other major cities in the East and the Midwest.
The use of common carrier for delivery between all customers placed UPS in direct competition with the United States Postal Service and the Interstate Commerce Commission. The common carrier service was applied in cities where UPS could use the service without the authority of the ICC and state commerce commissions; the first city for UPS to use common carrier status outside California was Chicago, Illinois in 1953. Air service through UPS was first used in 1929 through private airlines. However, The Great Depression and a lack of volume ended the air service. In 1953, UPS resumed air service called UPS Blue Label Air with two-day service to major cities along the East Coast and West Coast. In 1975, UPS moved its headquarters to Greenwich and began serving all of the 48 contiguous states of the United States; the expanded operations to all 48 states made UPS the first package delivery company to serve every address in the Continental United States. UPS went international in 1975 establishing operations in Canada and in 1976 operations were established in Germany.
On February 28, UPS Ltd. began operations in Ontario. UPS Canada's head office is located in Ontario. In 1976, UPS established a domestic operation in West Germany. UPS Next Day Air Service was launched in 1985 for all 48 states plus Puerto Rico. In 1988, UPS Airlines was launched with authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration. UPS Airlines became the fastest-growing airline in FAA history and today is the 10th largest airline in the United States. Domestic air service was added to Germany in 1989. In 1991, UPS moved its headquarters to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta. In 1992, UPS rebranded them UPS Supply Chain Solutions. Haulfast provided the pallet trucking network for the CarryFast group of companies. By 1993, UPS was delivering up to documents per day; the large volume of UPS customers in the 1990s made UPS develop new technology for better efficiency. A handheld device called Delivery Information Acquisition Device was created to record and upload delivery information to the UPS network upon pickup by every UPS driver.
In 1992, UPS began tracking all ground shipments electronically. In 1994, UPS.com debuted, provided the perfect interface to make what was internal operational information available for customer access. In 1995, UPS acquired SonicAir to compete with Choice Logistics. In the same year, UPS launched UPS Logistics Group to facilitate global supply chain management solutions and consulting for customer needs. In 1997, a walkout by the 185,000 members of the Teamsters shut down UPS for 16 days. In 1998, UPS Capital was established to enable companies to grow their business through a comprehensive menu of integrated financial services through UPS. UPS acquired Challenge Air in 1999 to expand its operations in Latin America. On November 10, 1999, UPS became a public company in the largest initial public offering of the century. In 2001, UPS acquired. Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. In 2003 3,000 Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. were rebranded as The UPS Store. In 2004, UPS entered the heavy freight business with purchase of Menlo Worldwide Forwarding, a former subsidiary of Menlo Worldwide.
UPS rebranded it as UPS Supply Chain Solutions. The purchase price was the assumption of US$110 million in long-term debt. On August 5, 2005, UPS announced that it has completed its acqui