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Communipaw

Communipaw is an unincorporated community and neighborhood located within Jersey City in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. It is located west of Liberty State Park and east of Bergen Hill, the site of one of the earliest European settlements in North America, it gives its name to the historic avenue which runs from its eastern end near Liberty State Park Station through the neighborhoods of Bergen-Lafayette and the West Side that becomes the Lincoln Highway. Communipaw Junction, or The Junction, is an intersection where Communipaw, Summit Avenue, Garfield Avenue, Grand Street meet, where the toll house for the Bergen Point Plank Road was situated. Communipaw Cove at Upper New York Bay, is part of the 36-acre state nature preserve in the park and one of the few remaining tidal salt marshes in the Hudson River estuary. Communipaw was part of Bergen City, New Jersey during its brief incarnation between 1855-1870 before merging with Jersey City, was urbanized during the late half of the 19th century.

Some streets of the neighborhood are part of the Communipaw-Lafayette Historic District. Lafayette Park is named for the Marquis de Lafayette, stationed in Bergen in 1799, re-visited in 1824, it is a city square, similar to Van Vorst Hamilton Park. Whitlock Cordage is an intact complex of industrial buildings built in the Lafayette section along the long ago filled Morris Canal; the Housing Trust of America purchased the property to preserve the structures as affordable housing. The section near Johnston Avenue was the site of a stop on the Underground Railroad and African-American burial ground. Ficken's Warehouse, once the site of Bergen City's main post office, is on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hudson County, New Jersey. Berry Lane Park was an industrial area. At the time of European settlement in the 17th century, Communipaw was the site of the summer encampament and council fire of the Hackensack Indians, a phratry of the Lenape. They, along with the Raritan, Wecquaesgeek and other groups who circulated in the region were collectively known as the River Indians by the immigrating population.

It is that the name is based in the Algonquian language Lenape. Earlier spellings are numerous and have included Gamoenapa, Gemoenepaen, Comounepaw, Comounepan Communipau, Goneuipan There are a variety of interpretations of the meaning, though most sources relate it to being from gamunk, "on the other side of the river", pe-auke, "water-land", meaning "big landing-place from the other side of the river".. Henry Hudson, commissioned by the Dutch East India Company, anchored along the shore at Communipaw in 1609 during his explorations of the Upper New York Bay, North River and Hudson Valley. On September 12 he sailed up to Communipaw, where Robert Juet, his mate, wrote in the log that it was "...a good land to fall in with, a pleasant land to see." In 1634 one of the first "bouweries", or homesteads, in the colony of New Netherland was built at Communipaw as part of Pavonia, a patroonship of Amsterdam businessman Michael Pauw. For a time it bore the name of the Dutchman who settled there, Jan Everts Bout, was called Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, or "Jan the Laugher's Point" in reference to his boisterous character.

Plantations, worked by enslaved Africans, spread across the low-lying areas between the shoreline and the hill. It was here that Tappan and Wecquaesgeek fleeing dominant tribes from the north had taken refuge in 1643, they were attacked in the incident known as the Pavonia Massacre, subsequently leading to Kieft's War. The village of Communipaw was part of the colony under the jurisdiction of the Dutch West India Company. In 1653 it became part of the Commonality of New Amsterdam, which included all the settlements at Pavonia, Staten Island, Long Island), it became a separate village in 1658, under the jurisdiction of Bergen, established at contemporary Bergen Square. By 1669, regulated ferry service to New Amsterdam had been established. After the last English takeover of New Netherland in 1674 it became part of the Province of New Jersey, in the county of Bergen, though it retained its Dutch character for hundreds of years. Washington Irving visited it for inspiration. Writing in the early 19th century, he referred to Communipaw as being the stronghold of traditional Dutch culture.

John Quidor, an American Romantic painter, created works inspired the village: Embarkation from Communipaw and The Voyage from Communipaw to Hell Gate. Suydam Street, which can be translated as "south dam", runs for one block south of Communipaw Avenue is taken early Dutch family, whose descendant, Rev. J. Howard Suydam, D. D, was historian of the Holland Society of New York; the waters of the Upper New York Bay facing the village hosted vast oyster beds that were harvested well into the 19th century. As it was industrialized, first with the construction of ports and with rail infrastructure, the shoreline was expanded with landfill, notably by the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. Communipaw Terminal known as the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, was the waterfront terminus; the cove just to the south of the station is sometimes still called Communipaw Cove. The railroad mai

Phyllic alteration

Phyllic alteration is a hydrothermal alteration zone in a permeable rock, affected by circulation of hydrothermal fluids. It is seen in copper porphyry ore deposits in calc-alkaline rocks. Phyllic alteration is characterised by the assemblage of quartz + sericite + pyrite, occurs at high temperatures and moderately acidic conditions. Hydrogen-ion metasomatism is the process. While the mineralogy of the rock is altered throughout, texture is preserved and primary porphyry structure may still be visible. If a rock undergoes phyllic alteration orthoclase feldspar and various silicates are altered in addition to plagioclase. Plagioclase will be altered to sericite by sericitic alteration, mafic minerals are replaced by quartz. Tourmaline may appear as radiating aggregate or prismatic crystals between the quartz-sericite assemblage. Phyllic alteration is closely associated with argillic alteration, which occurs at lower temperatures and dominantly affects plagioclase. Phyllic alteration forms in the base-metal zone of a porphyry system.

Alteration assemblages vary with degree of fluid interaction. In deep environments, the most altered areas are veins and thin selvages, or halos, that surround them; the selvages are <10 cm in diameter and composed of major sericite and minor quartz. Vein orientation is preserved from original rock, but minerals within are replaced by pyrite. With decreasing depth, selvages contain more quartz and pyrite. Outside of selvages, most alteration occurs in replacement of mafic minerals by chlorite and of plagioclase by sericite. Sericitic alteration Argillic alteration Sericite at Mindat

Changpa

The Changpa or Champa are a semi-nomadic Tibetan people found in the Changtang in Ladakh and in Jammu and Kashmir. A smaller number resides in the western regions of the Tibet Autonomous Region and were relocated for the establishment of the Changtang Nature Reserve; as of 1989 there were half a million nomads living in the Changtang area. The homeland of the Changpa is a high altitude plateau known as the Changtang, which forms a portion of western and northern Tibet extending into southeastern Ladakh, Changpa means "northerners" in Tibetan. Unlike many other nomadic groups in Tibet, the Changpa are not under pressure from settled farmers as the vast majority of land they inhabit is too inhospitable for farming. Most of the Tibetan Changtang is now protected nature reserves consisting of the Changtang Nature Reserve, the second-largest nature reserve in the world, four new adjoining smaller reserves totalling 496,000 km2 of connected Nature Reserves, which represents an area as large as Spain, bigger than 197 countries.

Since the reserves have been established there has been a welcome increase in the numbers of endangered species. The protected areas stretch across parts of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in China The Changpa of Ladakh are high altitude pastoralists, raising yaks and goats. Among the Ladakh Changpa, those who are still nomadic are known as Phalpa, they take their herds from in the Hanley Valley to the village of Lato. Hanley is home to six isolated settlements, where the Fangpa reside. Despite their different lifestyles, both these groups intermarry; the Changpa speak Changskhat, a dialect of Tibetan, practice Tibetan Buddhism. Only a small part of Changthang crosses the border into Ladakh, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, it is, however, on a important route for travelers journeying from Ladakh to Lhasa, now has many different characteristics due to being part of India. The Changpa of the Ladakh would migrate with their herds into Tibet, but with Chinese takeover of Tibet, this route has been closed.

As of 2001, the Changpa were classified as a Scheduled Tribe under the Indian government's reservation program of affirmative action. For many Changpas, rearing of animals, consuming and selling their produce is the only means of livelihood; the Changpas rear the pedigreed and prized Changra goats that yield the rare Pashmina fibre. The Cashmere goats are not raised for their fibre; the pashmina fibre is the finest fibre of all goat hair. Pashmina or cashmere is one of the most expensive natural fabrics in the world, yet the lives of those who produce this rare fibre are the toughest ones. Traditionally, the Changpas made sheep wool plain and twill weave ‘nambu’ fabric for their local dress -. Ceremonial attire was made from trade textiles like brocade velvet. Few readings suggest that traditionally, the Changpas only sold raw pashmina because they found working with it difficult and lacked craftsmanship. Pashmina is a soft and warm fibre and comes from an high altitude region called Changthang in Ladakh.

The place has a harsh climate. The people have adapted themselves to this place; the local people in Changthang have adapted themselves to move from one place to another, such as the Changpa tribe. The Changpa people graze; the Pashmina is combed off the sheep in the spring season. During winters the temperature drops to – 40 degree Celsius and hence the wool is allowed to grow on the sheep to protect it from the cold. Before summer the local people comb the wool off the sheepwith the help of a local comb specially designed for Pashmina wool known as Tat; this combing helps. After the wool is cut it is sold to entrepreneurs coming from Srinagar and the All Changthang Pashmina Grower Co-operative Marketing Society; the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council in Leh has founded the ACPGCMS. A former member of ACPGCMS says, “This is an initiative by LAHDC to help raise the income of the Changpa tribe through the sale of Pashmina. Earlier entrepreneurs from outside would come and buy the Pashmina at lower prices.”

The society helps the people of Changthang when they require money in Winter and the people pay back through Pashmina wool in Summer. After the Pashmina is taken from the Changthang people it is made to go through the process of scouring and exported to places such as Delhi and Srinagar; the Pashmina is sold to local people who have shops and make products such as socks and shawls. But most of the raw Pashmina is exported to Srinagar where they use it to make full products such as Cashmere Shawls and Stoles which are sold in Leh. Due to few facilities and industries in Leh, Pashmina is important for family businesses in Srinagar. A shopkeeper from Srinagar who has his shop in Leh says, “I have owned this shop since 1982 and my main source of income is from selling Pashmina products; the rawPashmina material is taken from the Changthang tribe and the process of spinning and knitting is done in Kashmir. Tourists are interested in buying Pashmina products.” On the other hand another shopkeeper from Srinagar who sells Pashmina products says, “Pashmina is the finest and warmest wool.

It is the king of all wools. People in Srinagar working in Pashmina mills are all above 50 years as the new generation are not interested in this work because they are not satisfied with the profits that are earned”. Earlier, due to lack of facilities in Leh all the raw materials used to be exported outside and the products would