Parti Socialiste (Belgium)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic French-speaking political party in Belgium. As of the 2014 elections, it is the second largest party in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives and the largest Francophone party; the party is led by Elio Di Rupo, Prime Minister of Belgium from 6 December 2011 until 11 October 2014. The party supplies the Minister-president of the French Community, the Brussels-Capital Region. In the German-speaking community, the party is known as the Sozialistische Partei; the PS is commonly part of governing coalitions, dominates most local authorities because of the fragmented nature of Belgian political institutions in Francophone areas. In the years since 1999, the PS has controlled five regional executive bodies: the Government of the French Community, the Walloon Government, the Government of the Brussels-Capital Region, as well as the COCOF, a local subsidiary in Brussels of the French Community Government, the Government of the German-speaking Community; the party, or its members, have from time to time been brought into connection with criminal activities and political scandals concerning bribery and financial fraud.
The Carolorégienne affair caused Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe to step down as Minister-President of the Walloon region. The PS performed well in the 2003 general election, but were overtaken as the largest Francophone party by the Reformist Movement in the 2007 general election In the 10 June 2007 general elections, the party won 20 out of 150 seats in the Chamber of Representatives and 4 out of 40 seats in the Senate; the PS was a member of the Leterme I Government, Van Rompuy I Government, Leterme II Government and the Di Rupo I Government of 6 December 2011, with former PS leader Elio Di Rupo serving as Prime Minister of Belgium. Results for the Chamber of Representatives, in percentages for the Kingdom of Belgium; the ideology and image of the PS is a mix of social-democracy, combined with a modern electoral marketing. André Cools, 1978-1981 Guy Spitaels, 1981–1992 Philippe Busquin, 1992–1999 Elio Di Rupo, 1999–2011 Thierry Giet, 2011-2013 Paul Magnette, 2013–2014 Elio Di Rupo, 2014– Rudy Demotte André Flahaut Jean-Claude Marcourt Philippe Moureaux Laurette Onkelinx Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Chamber of Representatives Senate French-speaking electoral college German-speaking electoral college Charter of Quaregnon Official website Official website of German-speaking section
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history, sometimes involving neighbouring countries; the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as culture and education. Flanders, despite not being the biggest part of Belgium by area, is the area with the largest population. 7,876,873 out of 11,491,346 Belgian inhabitants live in the bilingual city of Brussels. Not including Brussels, there are five modern Flemish provinces. In medieval contexts, the original "County of Flanders" stretched around AD 900 from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary and expanded from there; this county still corresponds with the modern-day Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, along with neighbouring parts of France and the Netherlands.
Although this original meaning is still relevant, during the 19th and 20th centuries it became commonplace to use the term "Flanders" to refer to the entire Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, stretching all the way to the River Meuse, as well as cultural movements such as Flemish art. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the Belgian part of this area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region"; these entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages. In this period, cities such as Ghent and Antwerp made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe and weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export; as a consequence, a sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, due to massive national investments in port infrastructures, Flanders' economy modernised and today Flanders and Brussels are more wealthy than Wallonia and in general one of the wealthiest regions in Europe and the world. Geographically, Flanders is flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of 500 people per square kilometer, it touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own: Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the north consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands; the term "Flanders" has several main modern meanings: The "Flemish community" or "Flemish nation", i.e. the social and linguistic, scientific and educational and political community of the Flemings.
It comprises 6.5 million Belgians. The political subdivisions of Belgium: the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community; the first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels. The political institutions that govern both subdivisions: the operative body "Flemish Government" and the legislative organ "Flemish Parliament"; the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders. An ancien régime territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic; until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of what are now France and the Netherlands. One of the Flemish regions which are now part of France, in the Nord department; this is referred to as French Flanders, can be divided into two smaller regions: Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century.
The city of Lille identifies itself as "Flemish", this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The Flemish region which became part of the Dutch Republic, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland; the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries: the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became commonplace to refer to the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders"; the linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early'60's, from Kortrijk to Maastricht. Now, Flanders extends over the northern part of Belgium, including Belgian Limburg (corresponding to t
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties
The International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties is an annual conference attended by communist and workers' parties from several nations. It originated in 1998 when the Communist Party of Greece invited communist and workers' parties to participate in an annual conference where parties could gather to share their experiences and issue a joint declaration; the meetings are held annually, with participants from all around the globe. Additionally there are extraordinary meetings such as the meeting in Damascus 28–30 September 2009 on "Solidarity with the heroic struggle of the Palestinian people and the other people in Middle East". In December 2009, the communist and workers parties agreed to the creation of the International Communist Review, published annually in English and Spanish and has a website; the participants of the meeting have created a working group to address all aspects of organizing the meetings. As of May 2018, the working group is composed by communist and worker's parties of Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran, North Korea, Mexico, Palestine, Russian Federation, South Africa, Turkey, Venezuela and Ukraine.
The working group is in charge of defining the agenda for each meeting, as well as general organization. The 20th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties, with the theme "The contemporary working class and its alliance; the tasks of its political vanguard – the Communist and Worker’s Parties – in the struggle against exploitation and imperialist wars, for the rights of the workers and of the peoples, for peace, for socialism", took place in Athens, Greece from 23 to 25 November 2018. The 19th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties, with the theme "The 100th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution:the ideals of the Communist Movement,revitalizing the struggle against imperialistic wars, for peace, socialism", took place in St Petersburg, Russia from 2 to 3 November 2017 and in Moscow, Russia from 5 to 7 November 2017; the 18th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place in Hanoi, Vietnam from 28 to 30 October 2016. The 17th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place in Istanbul, Turkey from 30 October to 1 November 2015.
The 16th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place from 13 to 15 November 2014 in Guayaquil, Ecuador. It was attended by 85 delegates representing 53 parties from 44 countries; the 15th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place from 8 to 10 November 2013 in Lisbon, Portugal. The 14th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place from 22 to 25 November 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon; the 13th meeting was held in Athens, from 9 to 11 December 2011 and was hosted by the Communist Party of Greece. Under the motto "Socialism is the future!", it was attended by 80 parties, while additional eight parties sent a message. The 13th meeting was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 3 to 5 December 2010 and was hosted by the South African Communist Party; the 11th meeting was held in New Delhi, from 20 to 22 November 2009 and was hosted by both the Communist Party of India and the Communist Party of India. It was attended by 89 participants representing workers' parties and 48 countries.
The 10th meeting was held in São Paulo, from 21 to 23 November 2008 and was hosted by the Communist Party of Brazil. It was attended by dlegations of 65 communist and workers' parties from 55 countries; the 9th meeting was held in Minsk, from 3 to 5 November 2007 and was hosted by the Communist Party of Brazil. It was attended by 154 representatives of 72 communist and workers' parties, representing 59 countries; the following table is a list of participants in each meeting. Key: x = participated – = did not participate o = observer m = sent message List of communist parties List of communist parties represented in European Parliament International Communist Seminar Solidarity Network of Communist and Workers' Parties Information Bulletin International Communist Review
Christlich Soziale Partei (Belgium)
The Christian Social Party is a Christian-democratic political party operating in the German-speaking community of Belgium. Its president is Luc Frank. In the 2004 European Parliament election, standing as Christlich-Soziale Partei - Europäische Volkspartei, the party gained the single seat allocated by Belgian law to the German-speaking community; the CSP works together with its Francophone counterpart Humanist Democratic Centre in other elections. Robert J. Houben Official site
Political parties in Flanders
Flemish political parties operate in the whole Flemish Community, which covers the unilingual Flemish Region and the bilingual Brussels-Capital Region. In the latter, they compete with French-speaking parties that all operate in Wallonia. There are few parties that operate on a national level in Belgium. Flanders tends to vote for right-wing, conservative parties, whereas in French-speaking Belgium the socialist party is the most successful one. Flanders has a diverse multi-party system of politics. Many parties are active, none succeeds in obtaining more than one third of the votes, let alone a majority. Therefore, parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. Most current Flemish parties grew from the main political parties that for long dominated Belgian politics: the Catholic Party, the Liberal Party and the Socialist Party; these three groups still dominate Flemish politics, but they have evolved in character. In the 21st century however, conservative nationalist parties such as Vlaams Blok/Belang and the New Flemish Alliance which became the largest party in 2010, were successful and broke the domination of the traditional catholic and socialist parties.
The Christian-democratic party has its origins in the 19th century. In that period, it competed with the liberals, they for long took turns in leading Belgian government. By the end of the 19th century, the emerging socialist party took an important place in Belgian politics; this continued in the first half of the 20th century. In the 1930s, the Christian-democrats started feeling competition from Flemish nationalists. After World War II, the Catholic Party severed its formal ties with the Church, it became a mass party of the center, somewhat like a big tent political party in the United States. In 1978, the Christian Democratic Party, responding to linguistic tensions in the country, divided into two independent parties: the Parti Social Chrétien in French-speaking Belgium and the Christelijke Volkspartij in Flanders; the two parties maintain separate organizations. The CVP was the larger of the two, getting more than twice as many votes as the PSC. Following the 1999 federal elections, the CVP and PSC were ousted from office, bringing an end to a 40-year term on the government benches.
In 2001, the CVP changed its name to CD&V. They won again during the 2007 federal elections. On, CD&V and N-VA split and CD&V reached an record low during the 2010 federal elections whereas N-VA became the biggest party; the modern Socialist party have lost its original Marxist ideology. They are now social-democratic parties similar to those affiliated to the pan-European Party of European Socialists; the Socialists have been part of many postwar governments and have produced some of the country's most distinguished statesmen. As with the Belgian Christian Democrats, the Belgian Socialist Party split along linguistic lines in 1978. In the 1980s, the Flemish Socialists focused on international issues, on security in Europe in particular, where they opposed U. S. policies. However, first with Willy Claes Frank Vandenbroucke and with Erik Derycke as Foreign Minister, the party made a significant shift to the center adopting less controversial stances on foreign policy issues. In 2001, the Flemish Socialist Party changed its name to Socialist Party Different and is most known by the acronym SP.a.
The Flemish Liberals and Democrats who opened up their ranks to Volksunie defectors during the 1990s, was successful during that period and formed governments with Guy Verhofstadt as Prime Minister. They decreased further in the 2010 election; the Liberals chiefly appeal to business-people, property owners and the self-employed, in general. In American terms the Liberals' economic positions would be considered to reflect a moderate conservative ideology. Over the last decade, a number of parties originated, as break away parties from the VLD; these were Liberaal Appèl, founded by Ward Beysen, VLOTT, founded by Hugo Coveliers and Lijst Dedecker, founded by Jean-Marie Dedecker. These parties advocated classical liberal economics and a more rightwing approach to society, accused the VLD of shifting fundamentally to the left; the foremost nationalist party in Flanders is the Vlaams Belang, founded in 2004, after its predecessor Vlaams Blok was condemned by a High Court for "permanent incitation to discrimination and racism."
The Vlaams Belang is most strident in pursuing a nationalist agenda. The most militant Flemish regional party in Parliament in the 1950s and 1960s, the Volksunie, once drew nearly one-quarter of Belgium's Dutch-speaking electorate away from the traditional parties; the Volksunie was in the forefront of a successful campaign by the country's Flemish population for cultural and political parity with the nation's long dominant French-speaking population. However on the party suffered severe setbacks and in October 2001 the party disintegrated; the social-liberal wing founded Spirit called the Social Liberal Party, while the more traditional Flemish nationalist wing continued under the banner New Flemish Alliance. After a disappointing result in the regional elections of 2009, the Social Liberal Party decided to fuse with the Flemish ecologists of Groen. In the 2010 federal elections, the New Flemish Alliance became the bigge
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of 625–740 nanometres, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy; the red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide gives the red color to the planet Mars; the red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins. Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colors used in prehistoric art; the Ancient Egyptians and Mayans colored their faces red in ceremonies. It was an important color in China, where it was used to colour early pottery and the gates and walls of palaces.
In the Renaissance, the brilliant red costumes for the nobility and wealthy were dyed with kermes and cochineal. The 19th century brought the introduction of the first synthetic red dyes, which replaced the traditional dyes. Red became the color of revolution. Since red is the color of blood, it has been associated with sacrifice and courage. Modern surveys in Europe and the United States show red is the color most associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. See below for shades of pink The human eye sees red when it looks at light with a wavelength between 625 and 740 nanometers, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the light just past this range is called infrared, or below red, cannot be seen by human eyes, although it can be sensed as heat. In the language of optics, red is the color evoked by light that stimulates neither the S or the M cone cells of the retina, combined with a fading stimulation of the L cone cells.
Primates can distinguish the full range of the colors of the spectrum visible to humans, but many kinds of mammals, such as dogs and cattle, have dichromacy, which means they can see blues and yellows, but cannot distinguish red and green. Bulls, for instance, cannot see the red color of the cape of a bullfighter, but they are agitated by its movement.. One theory for why primates developed sensitivity to red is that it allowed ripe fruit to be distinguished from unripe fruit and inedible vegetation; this may have driven further adaptations by species taking advantage of this new ability, such as the emergence of red faces. Red light is used to help adapt night vision in low-light or night time, as the rod cells in the human eye are not sensitive to red. Red illumination was used as a safelight while working in a darkroom as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Today modern darkrooms use an amber safelight. On the color wheel long used by painters, in traditional color theory, red is one of the three primary colors, along with blue and yellow.
Painters in the Renaissance mixed red and blue to make violet: Cennino Cennini, in his 15th-century manual on painting, wrote, "If you want to make a lovely violet colour, take fine lac, ultramarine blue with a binder" he noted that it could be made by mixing blue indigo and red hematite. In modern color theory known as the RGB color model, red and blue are additive primary colors. Red and blue light combined together makes white light, these three colors, combined in different mixtures, can produce nearly any other color; this is the principle, used to make all of the colors on your computer screen and your television. For example, magenta on a computer screen is made by a similar formula to that used by Cennino Cennini in the Renaissance to make violet, but using additive colors and light instead of pigment: it is created by combining red and blue light at equal intensity on a black screen. Violet is made on a computer screen in a similar way, but with a greater amount of blue light and less red light.
So that the maximum number of colors can be reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB, which tells your computer the intensity of the red and blue components of that color. The intensity of each component is measured on a scale of zero to 255, which means the complete list includes 16,777,216 distinct colors and shades; the sRGB number of pure red, for example, is 255, 00, 00, which means the red component is at its maximum intensity, there is no green or blue. The sRGB number for crimson is 220, 20, 60, which means that the red is less intense and therefore darker, there is some green, which leans it toward orange; as a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to the eye, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles due to Rayleigh scattering, changing the final color of the beam, seen. Colors with a shorter wavelength, such as blue and green, scatter more and are removed from the light that reaches the eye.
At sunrise and sunset, when the