Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community. Its overriding philosophy is based upon the belief that a person's social identity and personality are molded by community relationships, with a smaller degree of development being placed on individualism. Although the community might be a family, communitarianism is understood, in the wider, philosophical sense, as a collection of interactions, among a community of people in a given place, or among a community who share an interest or who share a history. Communitarianism opposes extreme individualism and disagrees with extreme laissez-faire policies that neglect the stability of the overall community; the philosophy of communitarianism originated in the 20th century, but the term "communitarian" was coined in 1841, by John Goodwyn Barmby, a leader of the British Chartist movement, who used it in referring to utopian socialists and other idealists who experimented with communal styles of life.

However, it was not until the 1980s that the term "communitarianism" gained currency through association with the work of a small group of political philosophers. Their application of the label "communitarian" was controversial among communitarians, because, in the West, the term evokes associations with the ideologies of socialism and collectivism; the term is used in two senses: Philosophical communitarianism considers classical liberalism to be ontologically and epistemologically incoherent, opposes it on those grounds. Unlike classical liberalism, which construes communities as originating from the voluntary acts of pre-community individuals, it emphasizes the role of the community in defining and shaping individuals. Communitarians believe that the value of community is not sufficiently recognized in liberal theories of justice. Ideological communitarianism is characterized as a radical centrist ideology, sometimes marked by leftism on economic issues and conservatism or centrism on social issues.

This usage was coined recently. When the term is capitalized, it refers to the Responsive Communitarian movement of Amitai Etzioni and other philosophers. Czech and Slovak philosophers like Marek Hrubec, Lukáš Perný and Luboš Blaha extend communitarianism to social projects tied to the values and significance of community or collectivism, to various types of socialism and communism, for example: Historical roots of collectivist projects from Plato, through Babeuf, Bakunin, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen to Karl Marx Contemporary theoretical communitarianism, originating in the 1980s Pro-liberal, pro-multicultural Anti-liberal, pro-national The vision of practical, self-sustaining communities as described by Thomas More, Tommaso Campanella and practised by Christian Utopians or utopian socialists like Charles Fourier, Robert Owen; this line includes various forms of self-help instititutions, or communities. While the term communitarian was coined only in the mid-nineteenth century, ideas that are communitarian in nature appear much earlier.

They are found in some classical socialist doctrine, further back in the New Testament. Communitarianism has been traced back to early monasticism. A number of early sociologists had communitarian elements in their work, such as Ferdinand Tönnies in his comparison of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Emile Durkheim's concerns about the integrating role of social values and the relations between the individual and society. Both authors warned of the dangers of anomie and alienation in modern societies composed of atomized individuals who had gained their liberty but lost their social moorings. Modern sociologists saw the rise of a mass society and the decline of communal bonds and respect for traditional values and authority in the United States as of the 1960s. Among those who raised these issues were Robert Nisbet, Robert N. Bellah Habits of the Heart, Alan Ehrenhalt. In his book Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam documented the decline of "social capital" and stressed the importance of "bridging social capital," in which bonds of connectedness are formed across diverse social groups.

In the twentieth century communitarianism began to be formulated as a philosophy by Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker movement. In an early article the Catholic Worker clarified the dogma of the Mystical Body of Christ as the basis for the movement's communitarianism. Along similar lines, communitarianism is related to the personalist philosophy of Emmanuel Mounier. Responding to criticism that the term'community' is too vague or cannot be defined, Amitai Etzioni, one of the leaders of the American communitarian movement, pointed out that communities can be defined with reasonable precision as having two characteristics: first, a web of affect-laden relationships among a group of individuals, relationships that crisscross and reinforce on

Lazzaro Calvi

Lazzaro Calvi was an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance period. He was trained with his father Agostino Calvi and Perin del Vaga. Older sources claim he lived till the improbable age of 105 yearsHis elder brother Pantaleone was a painter, they worked together at Genoa and the different cities of the republic, as well as at Monaco and Naples. Pantaleono acting as the decorator for Luzzato’s works, they painted a façade of the Palazzo Doria. They painted a Continence of Scipio for a palace in Genoa. Lazzaro, irritated by the success of some of his contemporaries, prompted him to the commission the poisoning of Giacomo Bargone. While engaged in these schemes, he was engaged to paint the Birth and Life of St. John the Baptist, together with Andrea Semini and Luca Cambiaso, for the chapel of the Nobili Centurioni. Lazzaro was so mortified at this challenge, that he became a mariner, withdrew himself from painting for twenty years, he returned, however, to his profession. His last works were for the church of Santa Cattaprina.

Pantaleone's sons: Aurelio, Marcantonio and Felice. Of these, Marcantonio Calvi was the most distinguished painting with his brothers decorations in palazzo Doria, by himself in Pegli, San Pietro d'Ancona, other palaces of Liguria, including the loggia degli Spinola, he moved to Venice. The brothers painted in the Convent of Gesu e Maria in Genoa, in the church of Santa Caterina. Bryan, Michael. Robert Edmund Graves. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London. P. 218. CS1 maint: location Boni, Filippo de'. Biografia degli artisti ovvero dizionario della vita e delle opere dei pittori, degli scultori, degli intagliatori, dei tipografi e dei musici di ogni nazione che fiorirono da'tempi più remoti sino á nostri giorni. Seconda Edizione.. Venice. P. 171. Filippo Boni Biografia degli artisti ovvero dizionario

Charlotte Mailliard Shultz

Charlotte Mailliard Shultz, CVO is an American heiress and socialite. She is the Chief of Protocol for the state of California, the Chief of Protocol for the City and County of San Francisco, she is married to former United States Secretary of State George P. Shultz. In 2007, she was named Honorary Commander of the Royal Victorian Order by Queen Elizabeth II. Mailliard Shultz was President of the board of the War Memorial Performing Arts Center and a member of the boards of the San Francisco Symphony, Grace Cathedral, the Commonwealth Club of California, the San Francisco Ballet. A native Texan, Mailliard Shultz has quipped about San Francisco, "...if I don't pay my dues, they may send me back to Texas!" Born Charlotte Smith on September 26, 1933, in Borger, where her father ran the general store, she went on to graduate from the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville in fashion design and merchandising. She moved to San Francisco, where she met her first husband, John Ward Mailliard III, who died of cancer in 1986.

In 1988, she married owner of the Fairmont Hotel. As a couple and Charlotte donated and raised numerous funds for building the new San Francisco Public Library. Melvin Swig died in 1993. In 1997, Mailliard married George Shultz. Mailliard's role as Chief of Protocol for San Francisco has been called the "city's premier party-giver" by the Chronicle, her role as Chief of Protocol began as a volunteer for then-San Francisco mayor Jack Shelley, spanning over seven mayoral administrations until mayor Frank Jordan's term. Jordan chose Richard Goldman as his Chief of Protocol. Mayor Willie Brown re-appointed Mailliard to the post in 1996. In total, she served as Chief of Protocol for eight mayoral administrations and during that time brought back the city's Black and White Ball, organized the 50th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge with the Golden Gate Bridge Walk, welcomed British royalty and Pope John Paul II on their visits to the city. In 2003, in San Francisco, a surprise party was held to honor her work on behalf of the city.

Baseball legend Willie Mays, mayor Gavin Newsom, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and wife Maria Shriver were in attendance. It was announced that the staircase of San Francisco City Hall would be known as the Charlotte Mailliard Shultz Staircase. In 2004, Governor Schwarzenegger appointed her as Chief of Protocol for the State of California. Mailliard's marriage, at age 63, to former Secretary of State George Shultz, a widower, at Grace Cathedral in 1997 was considered San Francisco's "social event of the year", he gave her a diamond and ruby engagement ring. Guests included Nancy Reagan, California governor Pete Wilson, U. S. Representative Nancy Pelosi; the couple has continued to be involved in San Francisco social events, such as hosting receptions at their Russian Hill penthouse on top of The Summit for Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair's visit in 2006 or for a group of US and foreign diplomats in 2015. "New York Times Wedding Announcement: George P. Shultz, Charlotte Swig",

"The High Priestess of Partydom",, February 4, 1996.