The Sonar is a 7 m one-design keelboat for three to five people. It is Bermuda-rigged, with a 100 % jib; the class is recognised by the International Sailing Federation. The Sonar showcased disabled sailing at the 1996 Paralympic Games where the sport was a demonstration event with just the Sonar; the Sonar has been the three person keelboat at every subsequent Paralympics. When being sailed by disabled it is crewed by 3, sailed without a spinnaker. Instead, when running downwind a whisker pole is used to hold the jib out to windward for maximum exposed sail area; the Sonar is well suited for disabled sailing because of its large open cockpit making adaptations easy. The Sonar was designed in 1979 by designer of the popular Laser dinghy. Since over 800 boats have been built. Most of the fleet is with smaller fleets in Britain and Canada. Since its adoption as a Paralympic class the Sonar has spread to many other countries as well; the Sonar was inducted into the American Sailboat Hall of Fame in 2004.
The Sonar has been used extensively for disabled sailing. The boat specifications are the same for open and disabled sailing events, but additional adaptations are allowed to be fitted to the boat to aid the crew who are not permitted to hike or use a spinnaker; the World Championships is recognised by World Sailing. The Sonar has been the equipment used for the three person keelboat discipline at every Paralympic Sailing Competition. International Sonar Class Association ISAF Sonar Microsite
Hatch Memorial Shell
The Edward A. Hatch Memorial Shell is an outdoor concert venue on the Charles River Esplanade in the Back Bay section of Boston, Massachusetts; the Hatch Shell is best known for hosting the Boston Pops Orchestra annually for the Boston Fourth of July celebration, but is used for free concerts most weekends and many weeknights during the summer months. The grass pavilion in front of the stage has no permanent seating. There is a memorial nearby to first permanent conductor of the Pops; the original, wooden shell was built in 1928 as a temporary venue for the Pops with expectations of construction of a permanent structure in the near future. It was first used for a concert on July 4, 1929, with Arthur Fiedler conducting the Boston Pops Orchestra. A second, temporary shell, made of metal, was built in 1934, but owing to sparse funding throughout the Great Depression, construction of a permanent Hatch Shell was delayed until 1939–1940. Today's permanent shell was designed by architect Richard J. Shaw, given by Maria Hatch in memory of her brother, dedicated on July 2, 1940.
In preparation for its 50th anniversary in 1991, it underwent significant renovation and repair along with modernization of its acoustics by Boston architecture firm Finegold Alexander. Bostonian Howard Brickman, a master craftsman specializing in wood floors, re-created the intricate interior paneling of the shell by hand. An 8-foot bronze statue of George S. Patton, by James Earle Fraser, commemorates the general's June 7, 1945 address at the site before a crowd of 20,000 persons. Uses of the Hatch Shell include concerts, movie showings and speeches, as a meeting place for large events, such as AIDS Walk Boston and the Larry Kessler 5K Run; the grass pavilion is used for picnics, casual sports and sunbathing, in a manner typical of urban parks. The Hatch Shell underwent a $2.4 million renovation in 2018, the first since 1989. The exterior panels of the shell were replaced, which required a laser scan of the shell and fabrication of 673 separate panels in 93 different shapes. Martha Burnham Humphrey, The Edward Hatch Memorial Shell: Richard Shaw, William R. Barss, acoustic consultant, Maurice Reidy, structural engineer: dedicated July 2, 1940, published in 1940.
Jim Vrabel, When in Boston: a time line & almanac, Bostonian Society, Northeastern University Press, 2004, page 294. Official site Fan siteBoston Landmarks Orchestra 2016
The International 420 Class Dinghy is a double-handed monohull planing dinghy with centreboard, bermuda rig and center sheeting. The name describes the overall length of the boat in centimeters; the hull is fiberglass with internal buoyancy tanks. The 420 is equipped with optional trapeze, it has a large sail-area-to-weight ratio, is designed to plane easily. It can be rigged to be sailed single-handed; the 420 was designed to be easier to handle than its larger higher-performance cousin, the 470. The 420 was designed by French engineer Christian Maury, as a stepping-stone for club and youth sailing to the 470; the 420 is an International class recognized by the International Sailing Federation. A derivative of the 420 called; this class is not recognised by International Sailing Federation or the International 420 Class Association and cannot be used at class events. The boats are similar in appearance but the Club 420 is stronger and heavier; the International 420 was designed by Christian Maury, after a specification drawn by Aristide Lehoerrff and Pierre Latxague, chief sailing instructors of the Centerport sailing school South-West France near St Jean de Luz.
It was built at first by French industrialist Lucien Lanaverre, a former cooper for the Bordeaux wine industry, who had converted to the new industry of GRP polyester moulding in the 1960s as an inexpensive general purpose two sail, transom sheeted, non-trapeze dinghy, with modest handled sail plan. The class developed in France, being adopted nationally as a youth trainer for the larger Olympic class International 470, designed by André Cornu. By the late 1960s the class was adopted by a few UK university sailing clubs for training and team racing, it has the famous Bermuda rig. The class adopted a policy of "prudent evolution" so as to allow development without making existing dinghies obsolete; the hull's seaworthiness and stability at speed proved to be better than most of its contemporaries, this together with its modest sail area make it fun to sail in heavy weather and thus an excellent youth trainer, qualities that led to its adoption for that role by the RYA in the mid-1970s. With its trapeze and spinnaker it provides the capability for advanced sailing techniques for international standard sailors, while still remaining affordable and accessible to beginners.
The International 420 maintains a large multinational class association. The combination of effective class management, the boat's inherent sailing qualities, prudent evolution have contributed to the class's continuing success; the boat has been used for team racing in both the ISAF Team Racing World Championship and the ISAF World Sailing Games however the class established it own team racing competition in 2015. Only the International 14 and Optimist class hold a team racing based World Championships; the class has been used extensively at the Youth Sailing World Championships which run by World Sailing this is different to the Class Worlds by way that equipment is supplied and entries are limited to one entry per nations but from more nations. Official international class website ISAF 420 Microsite Official UK class website Official Austrian class website International 420 Rigging Guide
Department of Conservation and Recreation
The Department of Conservation and Recreation is a state agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, situated in the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs. It is best known for its parkways; as of December 9, 2015, the Commissioner of the DCR is Leo Roy. The DCR's mission is "To protect and enhance our common wealth of natural and recreational resources for the well-being of all." The agency is the largest landowner in Massachusetts. The Department of Conservation and Recreation was formed in 2003 under Governor Mitt Romney, when the former the Metropolitan District Commission and the Department of Environmental Management were merged to form the DCR. Ownership and management for many nonpedestrian bridges was transferred to the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in 2009. Previous Commissioners: Leo Roy: December 2015 Carol Sanchez: April 2015 - November 2015 Jack Murray: June 2013 - 2015. Murray served as deputy DCR commissioner since managing operations of the state park system.
Ed Lambert: February 2011. Lambert was mayor of Fall River from 1996 to 2007, a state representative, had been director of The Urban Initiative at the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. Rick Sullivan: May 2007 Sullivan was mayor of Westfield before becoming DCR Commissioner and left DCR to become the Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs. Stephen Burrington: 2005 - 2007 Katherine Abbott: January 2004 - February 2005 The DCR is under the general management of the Commissioner of the DCR; the general administration divisions. It has two divisions Division of State Parks and Recreation Division of Water Supply Protectionand several bureaus and other work units, including Bureau of Engineering Bureau of Planning and Resource Protection Bureaus of Forestry and Fire Control Bureau of Ranger Services Universal Access Program many other units The Division of State Parks is responsible for the maintenance and management of over 310,000 acres of state-owned forests and parks; these areas are designated as either Woodlands, Parklands, or Reserves, are managed to maintain specific land-use characteristics.
From the agency's beginning in 2003 until 2012, DCR land management was organized into three divisions: State Parks and Recreation, Urban Parks and Recreation, Water Supply Protection. In 2012, State Parks and Urban Parks were unified into one division. Within the greater Boston area there are urban wilds, historic sites, other aesthetic or significant environmental properties; the origins of the collective environments in this part of the division date back to the creation of the Metropolitan Park Commission in 1893, forming the first such regional system in the United States.. Lands outside of the greater Boston area includes some 29 campgrounds, over 2,000 miles of trails, 87 beaches, 37 swimming and spray pools, 62 playgrounds, 55 ballfields, 145 miles of paved bike and rail trails and once private homes and estates that are now a part of the DCR's Historic Curatorship Program. List of Massachusetts State Parks The Division of Water Supply Protection manages 150,000 acres of watershed lands and is responsible for the protection of the drinking water supply for 2.5 million residents of Massachusetts in Greater Boston.
This division monitors lakes and ponds, well drillers, rainfall throughout the Commonwealth. Quabbin ReservoirWare River WatershedWachusett ReservoirSudbury River Watershed The Bureau of Engineering provides professional engineering and construction management services in support of DCR properties. In addition to providing engineering services for over 450,000 acres of parks, watersheds, beaches, 340 dams, numerous recreational facilities, the Bureau of Engineering manages over 525 lane miles of parkways and nearly 300 bridges and tunnels notable for their landmark stature and importance in the Commonwealth’s transportation system; the Bureau operates under the direction of a Chief Engineer and is sub-divided into six operating units: Bridge and Parkway Engineering Facilities Engineering Dams and Waterways Engineering Stormwater and Environmental Engineering Construction Permitting Construction ServicesThe Bureau is responsible for the management of the majority of the DCR's annual capital budget which has declined in recent years from a $150–200 Million high to a current $70–80 Million.
The Bureau of Engineering manages and/or operates a number of parkways across the Commonwealth, including: Alewife Brook Parkway Arborway Birmingham Parkway Blue Hills Parkway Blue Hills Reservation Parkways Boylston Street Breakheart Reservation Parkways Cambridge Parkway Carey Circle Charles River Reservation Parkways Charles Street Chestnut Hill Drive William J. Day Boulevard Fellsway Connector Parkways Fellsmere Park Parkways Fenway Fresh Pond Parkway Furnace Brook Parkway Hammond Pond Parkway Hull Shore Drive Jamaicaway Land Boulevard Lynn Fells Parkway Lynnway Lynn Shore Drive Memorial Drive Middlesex Fells Reservation Parkways Morrissey Boulevard Mount Greylock Summit Road Mount Wachusett Summit Road Mystic Valley Parkway Nahant Beach Boulevard Nantasket Avenue Neponset Valley Parkway North Beacon Street Norumbega Road Old Harbor Reservation Parkways Old Colony Parkway Park Drive Parkman Drive Quincy Shore Drive Recreation Road Revere Beach Boulevard Revere Beach Parkway Riverway Stony Brook Reservation Parkways Storrow Drive Truman Parkw
The Charles River is an 80-mile-long long river in eastern Massachusetts. From its source in Hopkinton the river flows in a northeasterly direction, traveling through 23 cities and towns before reaching the Atlantic Ocean at Boston; the Native-American name for the Charles River was Quinobequin, meaning "meandering". The Charles River is fed by 80 streams and several major aquifers as it flows 80 miles, starting at Teresa Road just north of Echo Lake in Hopkinton, passing through 23 cities and towns in eastern Massachusetts before emptying into Boston Harbor. Thirty-three lakes and ponds and 35 municipalities are or part of the Charles River drainage basin. Despite the river's length and large drainage area, its source is only 26 miles from its mouth, the river drops only 350 feet from source to sea; the Charles River watershed contains more than 8,000 acres of protected wetlands, referred to as Natural Valley Storage. These areas are important in preventing downstream flooding and providing natural habitats to native species.
Harvard University, Boston University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are located along the Charles River. Near its mouth, it forms the border between Cambridge and Charlestown; the river is lined by the parks of the Charles River Reservation. On the Charles River Esplanade stands the Hatch Shell, where concerts are given in summer evenings; the basin is known for its Independence Day celebration. The middle section of the river between the Watertown Dam and Wellesley is protected by the properties of the Upper Charles River Reservation and other state parks, including the Hemlock Gorge Reservation, Cutler Park, the Elm Bank Reservation. A detailed depth chart of the lower basin of the Charles River, from near the Watertown Dam to the New Charles River Dam, has been created by a partnership between the MIT Sea Grant College Program and the Charles River Alliance of Boaters. Online and hardcopy charts are available as a public service; the river is well known for its rowing, canoeing, paddleboarding and sailing, both recreational and competitive.
The river may be kayaked. The "Lower Basin" between the Longfellow and Harvard bridges is home to Community Boating, the Harvard University Sailing Center, the MIT Sailing Pavilion; the Head of the Charles Regatta is held here every October. In early June, the annual Hong Kong Boston Dragon boat Festival is held in Cambridge, near the Weeks Footbridge; the Charles River Bike Path runs 23 miles along the banks of the Charles, starting at the Museum of Science and passing the campuses of MIT, Harvard and Boston University. The path is popular with bikers. Many runners gauge their distance and speed by keeping track of the mileage between the bridges along the route. For several years, the Charles River Speedway operated along part of the river. On July 13, 2013, swimming for the general public was permitted for the first time in more than 50 years. Long before European settlers named and shaped the Charles, Native Americans living in New England made the river a central part of their lives; the native name for the Charles River was Quinobequin, meaning "meandering".
Captain John Smith explored and mapped the coast of New England, naming many features naming the Charles River the Massachusetts River, derived from the tribe living in the region. When Smith presented his map to King Charles I he suggested that the king should feel free to change any of the "barbarous names" for "English" ones; the King made many such changes, but only four survive today, one of, the Charles River which Charles named for himself. In portions of its length, the Charles drops in elevation and has little current. Despite this, early settlers in Dedham, found a way to use the Charles to power mills. In 1639, the town dug a canal from the Charles to a nearby brook. By this action, a portion of the Charles's flow was diverted, providing enough current for several mills; the new canal and the brook together are now called Mother Brook. The canal is regarded as the first industrial canal in North America, it remains in use for flood control. Waltham was the site of the first integrated textile factory in America, built by Francis Cabot Lowell in 1814, by the 19th century the Charles River was one of the most industrialized areas in the United States.
Its hydropower soon fueled many factories. By the century's end, 20 dams had been built across the river to generate power for industry. An 1875 government report listed 43 mills along the 9 1⁄2-mile tidal estuary from Watertown Dam to Boston Harbor. From 1816 to 1968, the U. S. Army operated a gun and ammunition storage and production facility known as the Watertown Arsenal. While it was key to many of the nation's war efforts over its several decades in operation, not the least of which being the American Civil War and World War I, its location in Watertown so near the Charles did great environmental harm; the arsenal was declared a Super Fund site, after its closure by the government it had to be cleaned at significant expense before it could be safely used again for other purposes. The many factories and mills along the banks of the Charles supported a buoyant economy in their time but
The International Laser Class sailboat called Laser Standard and the Laser One is a popular one-design class of small sailing dinghy. According to the Laser Class Rules the boat may be sailed by either one or two people, though it is sailed by two; the design, by Bruce Kirby, emphasizes performance. The dinghy is manufactured by independent companies in different parts of the world, including LaserPerformance, Performance Sailcraft Australia and Performance Sailcraft Japan; the Laser is one of the most popular single-handed dinghies in the world. As of 2018, there are more than 215,000 boats worldwide. A cited reason for its popularity is that it is robust and simple to rig and sail in addition to its durability; the Laser provides competitive racing due to the tight class association controls which eliminate differences in hull and equipment. The term "Laser" is used to refer to the Laser Standard. However, there are two other sail plan rigs available for the Laser Standard hull and a series of other "Laser"-branded boats which are of different hull designs.
Examples include Laser Pico. The Laser Standard, Laser Radial and Laser 4.7 are three types of'Laser' administered by the International Laser Class Association. The laser's hull is made out of Glass Reinforced Plastics; the deck has a foam layer underneath for strength. The boat's history began with a phone call between Canadians Bruce Ian Bruce. While discussing the possibility of a car-topped dinghy for a line of camping equipment, Bruce Kirby sketched what would be known as "the million dollar doodle"; the plans stayed with Kirby until 1970 when One Design and Offshore Yachtsman magazine held a regatta for boats under $1000, called "America's Teacup". After a few sail modifications, the Laser won its class; the prototype was named the "Weekender". In December 1970 Dave Balfour, a McGill engineering student, suggested the name Laser and contributed the Laser sail insignia; the Laser sailboat was unveiled at the New York Boat Show in 1971. The first world championship was held in 1974 in Bermuda.
Entrants came from 24 countries, first place was won by Peter Commette from the United States. The Laser became a men's Olympic-class boat at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, a special Olympic edition of the boat was released that year in commemoration. A version with a smaller sail, the Laser Radial, was first sailed as a women's Olympic-class boat at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Arguably the greatest champion of the Laser Class is Robert Scheidt from Brazil; the Laser is manufactured by different companies in different regions. They include LaserPerformance in Europe and the Americas, Performance Sailcraft Australia in Oceania and Performance Sailcraft; as a one-design class of sailboat, all Lasers are built to the same specifications. The hull is 4.2 metres long, with a waterline length of 3.81 m. The hull weight is 56.7 kg. The various sizes of Laser are all cat-rigged; the Laser Standard sail has a sail area of 7.06 m² and in higher winds, is most competitive when sailed by a fit and muscular person weighing no less than 80 kg.
The Laser uses a Portsmouth Yardstick of 1097 for racing involving other classes. The equivalent yardstick in North America is the D-PN, 91.1 for a Laser. Laser sailing and racing presents a unique set of skill based challenges. Fast Laser sailing requires an advanced level of fitness in order to endure the straight legged hiking and body-torque techniques essential in getting upwind and reaching quickly. Since 1998 Laser sailing has increased not only to be physical upwind and reaching, but to include far more demanding sailing and potential speed increases when sailing downwind. Traditionally sailing downwind has been considered processional in dinghy racing being pushed downwind, but Laser sailors, including Ben Ainslie and Robert Scheidt changed the techniques used to race a Laser downwind. The techniques these sailors introduced use a much more dynamic sailing method, concentrating on surfing the waves going downwind; the sailors will weave their way downwind looking to either side for the next large wave they can "hop" onto and surf downwind.
To maximize their speed, boats will be sailed by the lee, where the air flow over the sail is reversed from its usual direction and thus travels from the lee to the luff of the sail. This change in technique for downwind racing has changed most dinghy racing to be much more competitive on the downwind legs and resulted in a change of the international course shape from a traditional triangle to a trapezoid giving greater opportunity for increased upwind and straight downwind legs. In addition, downwind laser sailing can easily result in a death roll where the boat rocks and capsizes to windward, or the lesser known big brother of the death roll: the California Roll, where the boat capsizes to windward but the sailor is pushed under the boat before popping up the other side. A Laser's date and place of manufacture can be determined by looking at the serial number stamped into the transom or under the fairlead on the bow on
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py