The Loop is the central business district of Chicago, Illinois. It is one of the citys 77 designated community areas, the Loop is home to Chicagos commercial core, City Hall, and the seat of Cook County. In the late century, cable car turnarounds and prominent elevated railway encircled the area. In what is now the Loop, on the bank of the Chicago River, near todays Michigan Avenue Bridge. It was the first settlement in the sponsored by the United States. Other research has concluded that the Loop was not used as a proper noun until after the 1895–97 construction of the Union elevated railway loop, Loop architecture has been dominated by skyscrapers and high-rises since early in its history. Some of the buildings in this district were instrumental in the development of towers. Chicagos street numbering system – dividing addresses into North, East, Chicago is still the nations rail transportation hub and passenger lines once reached seven Loop-area stations by the 1890s. Transfers from one to the other was a business for taxi drivers until the long-distance lines gave way to Amtrak in the 1970s with the majority of trains concentrated at Chicago Union Station.
This area abounds in shopping opportunities, including the Loop Retail Historic District and it includes Chicagos former Marshall Fields department store location in the Marshall Field and Company Building, the original Sullivan Center Carson Pirie Scott store location. Chicagos Downtown Theatre District is found within this area, along with numerous restaurants, Chicago has a famous skyline which features many of the tallest buildings in the world as well as the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. Chicagos skyline is spaced out throughout the area, giving it a graceful beautiful appearance. Chicagos third tallest building, the Aon Center, is located just south of Illinois Center, the complex is at the east end of the Loop, east of Michigan Avenue. Two Prudential Plaza is located here, just to the west of the Aon Center, the Loop contains a wealth of outdoor sculpture, including works by Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Henry Moore, Marc Chagall, Magdalena Abakanowicz, Alexander Calder, and Jean Dubuffet.
Chicagos waterfront, which is almost exclusively recreational beach and park areas from north to south, the area hosts the annual music festival Lollapalooza which features popular alternative rock, heavy metal, EDM, hop hop and punk rock artists. Trips down the Chicago River, including tours, by commercial boat operators are great favorites with both locals and tourists alike. The Loop is the seat of Chicagos government and it is the government seat of Cook County and houses an office for the governor of the State of Illinois. The century old City Hall/County Building houses the chambers of the Mayor, City Council, across the street, the Richard J. Daley Center accommodates a famous Picasso sculpture and the state law courts
O'Hare International Airport
It is the primary airport serving the Chicago metropolitan area, with Midway International Airport, about 10 miles closer to the Loop, serving as a secondary airport. It is operated by the City of Chicago Department of Aviation, OHare was the busiest airport in the world by number of takeoffs and landings in 2014, topping Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, however, it lost the title to Atlanta a year later. Until 1998, OHare was the worlds busiest airport in number of passengers and it was surpassed mainly due to limits the federal government imposed on the airport to reduce flight delays. As of 2016, OHare is the sixth-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, the third-busiest airport in the United States, OHare has eight runways, more than any major international airport. OHare is a hub for American Airlines and United Airlines, as well as a hub for regional carrier Air Choice One. OHare was voted the Best Airport in North America for 10 years by two sources, Readers of the U. S.
Edition of Business Traveler Magazine and Global Traveler Magazine, in contrast and Leisure magazines 2009 Americas Favorite Cities ranked Chicagos Airport System the second-worst for delays, behind the New York City airport system. OHare accounts for nearly 20% of the flight cancellations and delays. OHare was constructed in 1942–43 as part of a plant for Douglas C-54s during World War II. The site was chosen for its proximity to the city and transportation, the two-million-square-foot factory needed easy access to the workforce of the nations then-second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure. Orchard Place was a small farming community. Douglas Companys contract ended in 1945 and though plans were proposed to build commercial aircraft, with the departure of Douglas, the airfield took the name of Orchard Field Airport, the source of its three-letter IATA code ORD. In 1945, the city of Chicago chose Orchard Field as the site for a facility to meet future aviation demands, Matthew Laflin Rockwell was the director of planning for the U. S.
Army Corps of Engineers and responsible for the site selection and design. He was the great-grandson of Matthew Laflin, a founder and pioneer of Chicago, in 1949, the airport was renamed OHare International Airport to honor Edward OHare, the U. S. Navys first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II. (This is similar to, sourced from McCoy Air Force Base, being used for todays Orlando International Airport, by the early 1950s Midway Airport, Chicagos main airport since 1931, was the worlds busiest airport and was too crowded despite multiple expansions. Midways runways were known to be too short for the planned first generation of jets, so the city of Chicago, traveling with him, LT Whitey Feightner was redirected to land at OHare. The runway had just been completed and was covered with peach baskets to prevent aircraft from landing until it was opened, LT Feightner was told to ignore the baskets and land on the new runway, and his F7U became the first aircraft to land there.
OHare opened a $1 million Skymotive terminal for corporate aircraft in 1955, the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 10 weekday departures on United,9 on American,6 on Capital,3 Eastern,3 TWA,2 Delta,2 North Central, and 1 Braniff
The Chicago River is a system of rivers and canals with a combined length of 156 miles that runs through the city of Chicago, including its center. The River is noteworthy for its natural and man-made history, in 1999, this system was named a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The river is memorialized, in part, by two blue stripes on the Municipal Flag of Chicago. The source of the North Branch is in the suburbs of Chicago where its three principal tributaries converge. The Skokie River—or East Fork—rises from an area, historically a wetland, near Park City. It flows southward, paralleling the edge of Lake Michigan, through wetlands, the Greenbelt Forest Preserve, South of Highland Park the river passes the Chicago Botanic Gardens and through an area of former marshlands known as the Skokie Lagoons. The Middle Fork arises near Rondout and flows southwards through Lake Forest and these two tributaries merge at Watersmeet Woods west of Wilmette.
From there the North Branch flows south towards Morton Grove, the West Fork rises near Mettawa and flows south through Bannockburn and Northbrook, meeting the North Branch at Morton Grove. South of Belmont the North Branch is lined with a mixture of residential developments, retail parks, the North Branch Canal—or Ogdens Canal—was completed in 1857, and was originally 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep allowing craft navigating the river to avoid the bend. The 1902 Cherry Avenue Bridge, just south of North Avenue, was constructed to carry the Chicago, Milwaukee and it is a rare example of an asymmetric bob-tail swing bridge and was designated a Chicago Landmark in 2007. From Goose Island the North Branch continues to south east to Wolf Point where it joins the Main Stem. The source of the Main Stem of the Chicago River is Lake Michigan, acoustic velocity meters at the Columbus Drive Bridge and the T. J. On the south bank of the river is the site of Fort Dearborn, notable buildings surrounding this area include the NBC Tower, the Tribune Tower, and the Wrigley Building.
The river turns slightly to the south west between Michigan Avenue and State Street, passing the Trump International Hotel and Tower,35 East Wacker, turning west again the river passes Marina City, the Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building, and Merchandise Mart, and 333 Wacker Drive, since the early 2000s, the south shore of the Main Stem has been developed as the Chicago Riverwalk. It provides a linear, lushly landscaped park intended to offer an escape from the busy Loop. Different sections are named Market, Civic and Confluence, the sections between State Street and Lake Street are currently under construction and scheduled to be completed by the end of 2016. The plans reflect ideas first proposed by the Burnham Plan as early as 1909, the source of the South Branch of the Chicago River is the confluence of the North Branch and Main stem at Wolf Point
West Side, Chicago
The West Side is one of the three major sections of the city of Chicago in Cook County, along with the North Side and the South Side. The West Side consists of communities that are of historical, cultural, on the municipal flag of Chicago, the West Side is represented by the central white stripe. Major shifts continue to happen due to such as rapid gentrification, selective corporate investments. There are a range of services available on the West Side, especially educational, one of the nations largest urban medical districts, the Illinois Medical District, is on the West Side. Three of Chicagos largest parks, along much of the citys boulevard system, are in this part of the city, Humboldt Park, Garfield Park. The West Side is very accessible by the interstate and public transportation via the Chicago Transit Authoritys many bus routes, the Chicago L, the Metra commuter rail, and the Eisenhower Expressway. Additionally, Cook County Jail, the United States largest single site jail, as with the other sides of the city, there is no consensus as to the exact boundaries of the West Side.
The citys annexation of land beyond the western border at Wood Street gave way to the development of the West Side. The city legislature added more land in 1869 through the annexation of West Town area, Madison Street is designated as the north-south axis and State Street as the east-west axis, but State Street is not included in and geographically very distant from the West Side. The most commonly referenced borders by officials that are assigned to the West Side are North Avenue to the north, the western border is where the edge of the city meets the western suburbs of Oak Park and Cicero. These two suburbs border the communities of Austin and Little Village, the eastern border is often the most disputed border by residents, real estate brokers, and city officials. In certain texts, the communities within West Town and Pilsen are grouped together as the Near Northwest Side, using the Chicago River as an eastern border of the West Side becomes suitable. Regardless of how the boundaries are defined, the West Side is the smallest in area of the three sections of the city, with an area of 34.7 square miles.
Within these community areas are smaller neighborhoods, some of which match the community areas name and boundaries, a majority of the West Sides Black residents live in the Near West Side, Garfield Park, Austin and the southern portion of Humboldt Park. As demographic maps from the 2010 U. S. Census show, according to the 2010 U. S. Census, the West Side has a total of 480,687 residents, making it the least populated side of the city. However, the West Sides density is high at 13,852 residents per square mile. 44% of residents are non-Hispanic Black, 34% of residents are Latino/Hispanic, 3% of residents are Asians who mostly reside in the Near West Side in the University Village neighborhood near the University of Illinois at Chicago and the Illinois Medical District. 2% of residents are of Native American descent, multiracial backgrounds, through legal trickery such as the Treaty of Chicago, U. S. government officials were able to obtain land around Lake Michigan
Avondale is one of 77 officially designated Chicago, Illinois community areas. It is located on the Northwest Side of Chicago, Avondale began as an early racially integrated village in rural Jefferson Township. However, it was not until Jefferson Township was annexed by the city of Chicago in 1889 that the area underwent its first true dense urban development. The plentiful jobs available in the area were responsible for drawing the initial wave of European immigrants, mostly Poles and other East Europeans, a small but noticeable group of Italians would settle in Avondale as well. Avondale was the site of Lucy Gonzales Parsons death on March 7,1942 and her lover, George Markstall, died the next day from injuries he received while trying to save her. She was believed to be 89 years old, beginning in the 1980s, Latino settlement began in Avondale. Avondale was the site of one of Chicagos Seven Lost Wonders, Avondale has traditionally had a large Polish population, with patches of German and Italians settlement as well.
In recent years this neighborhood has witnessed an increase in its social diversity. The collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe witnessed an influx of Eastern European immigrants such as Czechs, Slovaks and Belarusians, the emigration of peoples from the Soviet Bloc in Avondale since has grown to include Russophone nationals from Central Asia and even Mongolia. A strong Filipino community is present in Avondale as well, which is home to Chicagos Filipino TV outlet, because of gentrification, the last decade has seen a reversal of this trend, as the non-Hispanic white population has been expanding faster than the Hispanic population. Avondale is served by the Chicago L at two stations along the Blue Line, the neighborhoods derive their Polish names from the two contiguous Polish Roman Catholic parishes- Saint Hyacinths Basilica and St. Wenceslaus Church. Milwaukee Avenue is the main commercial strip, which includes a number of sausage shops, restaurants. In English the area is referred to as the Polish Village - the name featured on signs hung on street lamps over the district.
Pulaski Avenue, named after the Polish Revolutionary War hero, runs through the area, the Polish communities of Jackowo and Wacławowo appeared in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as Polish settlement spread further northwest along Milwaukee Avenue. Local landmarks and institutions increasingly became revitalized and renewed while taking on an increasingly ethnic hue by catering to these recent arrivals from Poland and it now stands near the corners of Belmont and Pulaski in mute testament to this bygone renaissance. Avondales connection to Chicago Polonia has brought the vicinity some notable visitors who came to reach out to Chicagos Polish community and this has included General Józef Haller de Hallenburg, Prime Minister Stanisław Mikołajczyk as well as Nobel Peace Prize winner and former President of Poland Lech Wałęsa. Both former Premier Jarosław Kaczyński as well as his twin brother President Lech Kaczyński paid official visits through the area. Future Pope John Paul II trekked to St.
Hyacinths several times as the Archbishop of Cracow, Avondale once served as the place for the political elites to publicly cavort for the support of the Polish American electorate with politicians both local and national visiting the district
Grant Park (Chicago)
Grant Park is a large urban park in the Loop community area of Chicago. Located in Chicagos central business district, the parks most notable features are Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain, the Art Institute of Chicago, originally known as Lake Park, and dating from the citys founding, it was renamed in 1901 to honor Ulysses S. Grant. The parks area has expanded several times through land reclamation. It is bordered on the north by Randolph Street, on the south by Roosevelt Road and McFetridge Drive, on the west by Michigan Avenue, the park contains performance venues, art work and harbor facilities. It hosts public gatherings, and several annual events. The park is often called Chicagos front yard and it is governed by the Chicago Park District. The original plans for the town of Chicago left the area east of Michigan Avenue unsubdivided and vacant, when the former Fort Dearborn Reserve became part of the townsite in 1839, the plan of the area east of Michigan Avenue south of Randolph was marked Public ground.
Forever to remain vacant of buildings, the city officially designated the land as a park on April 29,1844, naming it Lake Park. When the Illinois Central Railroad was built into Chicago in 1852, the resulting lagoon became stagnant, and was largely filled in 1871 with debris from the Great Chicago Fire, increasing the parkland. In 1896, the city began extending the park into the lake with landfill, on October 9,1901, the park was renamed Grant Park in honor of American Civil War commanding General and United States President Ulysses S. Grant. At the 1868 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Grant had been nominated for his first presidential term, the legal restrictions prohibiting any buildings in the park were ignored in the 19th century, as various civic buildings were sited there. At various times, a post office, exposition center, armory, a 1904 plan prepared by the Olmsted Brothers recommended locating the Field Museum as the parks centerpiece, an idea integrated into Daniel Burnham and Edward H.
Bennetts 1909 Plan of Chicago. Chicago businessman Aaron Montgomery Ward ultimately fought four court battles, opposed by nearly every civic leader, the one exception Ward consented to was for the Art Institute of Chicago, constructed in 1892. More landfill in the 1910s and 1920s provided sites for the Adler Planetarium, Field Museum of Natural History, and Shedd Aquarium, in 2004, a section of northern Grant Park, previously occupied by Illinois Central railyards and parking lots, was covered and redeveloped as Millennium Park. The park has been the site of large civic events. It served as the ground for the citys funeral procession for Abraham Lincoln. In 1911, the hosted the major Chicago International Aviation Meet. The park was the scene of clashes between Chicago Police and demonstrators during the 1968 Democratic National Convention, pope John Paul II celebrated an outdoor mass to a large crowd here in 1979
Urban planning is referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design, urban planning guides orderly development in urban and rural areas. Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations and management. Urban planners work with the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering. Early urban planners were often members of these cognate fields, today urban planning is a separate, independent professional discipline. The discipline is the category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, economic development, environmental planning. There is evidence of planning and designed communities dating back to the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley, Minoan. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were out at right angles in a grid pattern.
The idea of a planned out urban area evolved as different civilizations adopted it, beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were primarily centered on orthogonal plans. The ancient Romans, inspired by the Greeks, used orthogonal plans for their cities, city planning in the Roman world was developed for military defense and public convenience. The spread of the Roman Empire subsequently spread the ideas of urban planning, as the Roman Empire declined, these ideas slowly disappeared. However, many cities in Europe still held onto the planned Roman city center, cities in Europe from the 9th to 14th centuries, often grew organically and sometimes chaotically. But many hundreds of new towns were built according to preconceived plans. Most of these were realized from the 12th to 14th centuries, from the 15th century on, much more is recorded of urban design and the people that were involved. In this period, theoretical treatises on architecture and urban planning start to appear in which questions are addressed and designs of towns.
During the Enlightenment period, several European rulers ambitiously attempted to redesign capital cities, during the Second French Republic, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III, redesigned the city of Paris into a more modern capital, with long, wide boulevards. Planning and architecture went through a shift at the turn of the 20th century. The industrialized cities of the 19th century grew at a tremendous rate, the pace and style of this industrial construction was largely dictated by the concerns of private business
Municipal annexation in the United States
Municipal annexation is a process by which a municipality expands its boundaries into adjacent areas not already incorporated into the municipality. This has been a response of cities to urbanization in neighboring areas. It may be done because the urban areas seek municipal services or because a city seeks control over its suburbs or neighboring unincorporated areas. In the United States, all governments are considered creatures of the state according to Dillons Rule. Dillons Rule implies, among other things, that the boundaries of any jurisdiction falling under state government can be modified by state government action, for this reason, examples of municipal annexation are distinct from annexations involving sovereign states. In 1909 the city of Atlanta, located only in Fulton County, annexed part of neighboring DeKalb County, the annexed portion of Westchester County is now Bronx county, the unannexed portion of Queens County is now Nassau County. As a result, Westchester County does not currently include any portion of the city of New York and it is sometimes called a flagpole annexation because the territory resembles a flagpole, in which the connection is the pole and the annexed territory the flag.
In some states, municipalities are prohibited from annexing land not directly connected to their existing territory, a shoestring or flagpole annexation allows the municipality to do so. Such annexations are sometimes used when a municipality seeks to acquire unincorporated developed land, a related strategy is called strip annexation, which involves annexing a narrow strip that encloses a large block of unincorporated land. The strip protected the county island from being annexed by other municipalities, the annexation was challenged in court and, although found legal, eventually led to legislation in 1980 outlawing strip annexation. Some municipalities rushed to annex before the law took effect, such as Scottsdale, oHare Airport is municipally connected to the city of Chicago via a narrow strip of land, approximately 200 feet wide, along Foster Avenue from the Des Plaines river to the airport. This land was annexed in the 1950s to assure the airport was contiguous with the city to keep it under city control, the strip is bounded on the north by Rosemont and the south by Schiller Park.
The Boston neighborhoods of Allston and Brighton were part of an independent town of Brighton before being annexed by Boston, at the time Brookline extended to the Charles River and separated Boston and Brighton. As a result, an annexation was obtained by Boston from Brookline when Brighton joined Boston. This was made necessary by Brooklines refusal to join Boston a year before Brightons annexation, south San Diego, located next to the Mexico–United States border, is physically separated from the rest of San Diego by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. A narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city. Amalgamation Enclave and exclave Notes Further reading Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier, The Suburbanization of the United States, New York, Oxford University Press, MRSC PUBLICATIONS › Annexation Handbook Publication, Municipal Research & Services Center of Washington
Millennium Park is a public park located in the Loop community area of Chicago in Illinois, US, and originally intended to celebrate the second millennium. It is a prominent civic center near the citys Lake Michigan shoreline that covers a 24. 5-acre section of northwestern Grant Park, the area was previously occupied by parkland, Illinois Central rail yards, and parking lots. The park, which is bounded by Michigan Avenue, Randolph Street, Columbus Drive and East Monroe Drive, as of 2009, Millennium Park trailed only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction. In 2015, the became the location of the citys annual Christmas tree lighting. Planning of the began in October 1997. Construction began in October 1998, and Millennium Park was opened in a ceremony on July 16,2004, the three-day opening celebrations were attended by some 300,000 people and included an inaugural concert by the Grant Park Orchestra and Chorus. The park has received awards for its accessibility and green design, Millennium Park has free admission, and features the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Cloud Gate, the Crown Fountain, the Lurie Garden, and various other attractions.
The park is connected by the BP Pedestrian Bridge and the Nichols Bridgeway to other parts of Grant Park, because the park sits atop a parking garage and the commuter rail Millennium Station, it is considered the worlds largest rooftop garden. Some observers consider Millennium Park to be the citys most important project since the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 and it far exceeded its originally proposed budget of $150 million. The final cost of $475 million was borne by Chicago taxpayers, the city paid $270 million, private donors paid the rest, and assumed roughly half of the financial responsibility for the cost overruns. The construction delays and cost overruns were attributed to planning, many design changes. Many critics have praised the completed park, in 2017, Millennium Park became the top tourist destination in Chicago, the Midwest, and placed among the top ten in the United States with 25 million annual visitors. From 1852 until 1997, the Illinois Central Railroad owned a right of way between downtown Chicago and Lake Michigan, in the area that became Grant Park and used it for railroad tracks.
Lake Front Park, the White Stockings new ball grounds, was built in 1878 with a right field due to the railroad tracks. Daniel Burnham planned Grant Park around the Illinois Central Railroad property in his 1909 Plan of Chicago, in 1997, when the city gained airspace rights over the tracks, it decided to build a parking facility over them in the northwestern corner of Grant Park. Eventually, the city realized that a civic amenity might lure private dollars in a way that a municipal improvement would not. The park was planned under the name Lakefront Millennium Park. The park was conceived as a 16-acre landscape-covered bridge over a parking structure to be built on top of the Metra/Illinois Central Railroad tracks in Grant Park
Lake View, Chicago
Lakeview, is one of the 77 community areas of Chicago, located on the citys North Side. It is bordered by West Diversey Parkway on the south, West Irving Park Road on the north, North Ravenswood Avenue on the west, and the shore of Lake Michigan on the east. The Uptown community area is to Lakeviews north, Lincoln Square to its northwest, North Center to its west and Lincoln Park to its south. The 2014 population of Lakeview was 97,968 residents, making it the second largest of the Chicago community areas by population, though, has a higher population density than the larger-in-area Austin neighborhood. Lakeview unofficially includes smaller neighborhood enclaves, Sheridan Station Corridor, Northhalsted, Southport Corridor, Boystown, famous for its large LGBT population, holds the pride parade held each June. Wrigleyville, another district, surrounds Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs. Lakeview is home to the Belmont Theater District showcasing over 30 theaters, in 2013 Money Magazine named Lakeview as number 3 of its top 10 Big-city neighborhoods for its selection of Best Places to Live.
Lakeview was used as a camp and trail path for the Miami, Ottawa, in 1837, Conrad Sulzer of Winterthur, Zürich, became the first white settler to live in the area. It gained what was characterized as a resort atmosphere, the early settlement continued to grow, especially because of increased immigration of farming families from Germany and Sweden. Lakeview experienced a boom as Chicago suffered a deadly and devastating cholera outbreak. The Hotel Lakeview served as refuge for many Chicagoans but became filled to capacity, homestead lands were sold and housing was built. Access to the new community was provided by a plank road connected to present-day West Fullerton Parkway. With infrastructure and growing population, residents realized it was time to organize formal governance to provide public services. Lakeviews first township election was held in 1857, the main building was Town Hall on the intersection of present-day West Addison and North Halsted streets. A building still bearing that name today as the former headquarters of the Chicago Police Departments 23rd District.
During the Civil War, the bustling intersection of North Broadway, North Clark Street. When the camp opened in May 1864, it served as a facility for the volunteer 132nd. The few residents of the known as Lakeview Township often complained of rebel sing-alongs held in the camp from time to time
Eastern Europe, known as East Europe, is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, cultural. There are almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region, a related United Nations paper adds that every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct. One definition describes Eastern Europe as an entity, the region lying in Europe with main characteristics consisting in Byzantine, Orthodox. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc, a similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists generally view such definitions as outdated or relegating, several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they often lack precision or are extremely general. These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts, even scientists, recently becoming more and more imprecise.
The Ural Mountains, Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains are the land border of the eastern edge of Europe. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, provides entries for 23 EU languages, of these, those in italics are classified as Eastern Europe in this source. Other official web-pages of the European Union classify some of the countries as strictly Central European. The East–West Schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches which began in the 11th century and lasts until this very day and it divided Christianity in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east, due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, often problematic, for example, Greece is overwhelmingly Orthodox, the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East–West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media.
The Baltic states have seats in the Nordic Council as observer states and they are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight whereas Eastern European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations may be included in the definitions of Eastern Europe, the extent of their geographic or political affiliation with Europe varies by country and source. All three states are members of the European Unions Eastern Partnership program and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, on 12 January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia and Georgia may enter the EU in the future. Georgia — in modern geography, Georgia has been classified as part of Eastern Europe. Under the European Union’s geographic criteria, Georgia is viewed as part of Eastern Europe and is the only Caucasus country to be actively seeking EU membership and it is a member of Council of Europe and Eurocontrol
Wrigley Field /ˈrɪɡli/ is a baseball park located on the North Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is the home of the Chicago Cubs, one of the citys two Major League Baseball franchises and it first opened in 1914 as Weeghman Park for Charles Weeghmans Chicago Whales of the Federal League, which folded after the 1915 baseball season. The Cubs played their first home game at the park on April 20,1916, chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr. of the Wrigley Company acquired complete control of the Cubs in 1921. It was named Cubs Park from 1920 to 1926, before being renamed Wrigley Field in 1927, in the North side community area of Lakeview in the Wrigleyville neighborhood, Wrigley Field is on an irregular block bounded by Clark and Addison Streets and Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. Wrigley Field is nicknamed The Friendly Confines, a phrase popularized by Mr. Cub, Hall of Fame shortstop and first baseman Ernie Banks. The oldest park in the National League, the current seating capacity is 41,268, it is the second-oldest in the majors after Fenway Park, between 1921 and 1970, it was the home of the Chicago Bears of the National Football League.
The elevation of its field is 600 feet above sea level. Baseball executive Charles Weeghman hired his architect Zachary Taylor Davis to design the park, the original tenants, the Chicago Whales came in second in the Federal League rankings in 1914 and won the league championship in 1915. In late 1915, Weeghmans Federal League folded, the resourceful Weeghman formed a syndicate including the chewing gum manufacturer William Wrigley Jr. to buy the Chicago Cubs from Charles P. Taft for about $500,000. Weeghman immediately moved the Cubs from the dilapidated West Side Grounds to his two-year-old park, in 1918, Wrigley acquired the controlling interest in the club. In November 1926, he renamed the park Wrigley Field, in 1927, an upper deck was added, and in 1937, Bill Veeck, the son of the club president, planted ivy vines against the outfield walls. The Ricketts family has been pursuing a Wrigley Field renovation since buying the team. Their current plan, revealed during the annual Cubs Convention in January 2013, calls for a $575-million, the team could not come to terms with the rooftop owners who have a lease with the team until 2023 in exchange for paying 17% of the gross revenues.
In May 2014 the Cubs announced they would pursue the original 2013 plan to modify the park, the 1060 Project – Phase One started Monday, September 29,2014. During the off-season, the bleachers in both outfields were expanded and the footprint was extended further onto both Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. A3,990 sq ft Jumbotron scoreboard was added to the left field bleachers and it is topped with a sign advertising Wintrust Financial, a Rosemont-based bank and a Cubs Legacy Partner, the W in Wintrust flashes after every Cubs win. A2,400 sq ft video scoreboard was added in the right field bleachers. After the close of the extended 2015 season, work began on Phase Two of the project, the previous clubhouse space was utilized to enlarge the dugout and add two underground batting cages, an auditorium, and more team office space