A community of practice is a group of people who share a craft or a profession. The concept was first proposed by cognitive anthropologist Jean Lave and educational theorist Etienne Wenger in their 1991 book Situated Learning. Wenger significantly expanded on the concept in his 1998 book Communities of Practice. A CoP can evolve because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created deliberately with the goal of gaining knowledge related to a specific field, it is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that members learn from each other, have an opportunity to develop and professionally. CoPs can exist in physical settings, for example, a lunch room at work, a field setting, a factory floor, or elsewhere in the environment, but members of CoPs do not have to be co-located, they form a "virtual community of practice" when they collaborate online, such as within discussion boards and newsgroups, or a "mobile community of practice" when members communicate with one another via mobile phones and participate in community work on the go.
Communities of practice are not new phenomena: this type of learning has existed for as long as people have been learning and sharing their experiences through storytelling. The idea is rooted in American pragmatism C. S. Peirce's concept of the "community of inquiry", but John Dewey's principle of learning through occupation. Since the publication of "Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation", communities of practice have been the focus of attention, first as a theory of learning and as part of the field of knowledge management. See Hildreth & Kimble for a review of how the concept has changed over the years. Cox offers a more critical view of the different ways in which the term communities of practice can be interpreted. To understand how learning occurs outside the classroom while at the Institute for Research on Learning and Wenger studied how newcomers or novices to informal groups become established members of those groups. Lave and Wenger first used the term communities of practice to describe learning through practice and participation, which they named situated learning.
The structure of the community was created over time through a process of legitimate peripheral participation. Legitimation and participation together define the characteristic ways of belonging to a community whereas peripherality and participation are concerned with location and identity in the social world. Lave and Wenger's research looked at, they found that when newcomers join an established group or community, they spend some time observing and performing simple tasks in basic roles as they learn how the group works and how they can participate. Lave and Wenger described this socialization process as legitimate peripheral participation; the term "community of practice" is that group that Lave and Wenger referred to, who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community with their variety of experiences. In his work, Wenger abandoned the concept of legitimate peripheral participation and used the idea of an inherent tension in a duality instead, he identifies four dualities that exist in communities of practice, participation-reification, designed-emergent, identification-negotiability and local-global, although the participation-reification duality has been the focus of particular interest because of its links to knowledge management.
He describes the structure of a CoP as consisting of three interrelated terms:'mutual engagement','joint enterprise' and'shared repertoire'. Mutual Engagement: Firstly, through participation in the community, members establish norms and build collaborative relationships; these relationships are the ties. Joint Enterprise: Secondly, through their interactions, they create a shared understanding of what binds them together; the joint enterprise is negotiated by its members and is sometimes referred to as the'domain' of the community. Shared Repertoire: Finally, as part of its practice, the community produces a set of communal resources, termed their shared repertoire. For Etienne Wenger, learning is central to human identity. A primary focus of Wenger’s more recent work is on learning as social participation – the individual as an active participant in the practices of social communities, in the construction of his/her identity through these communities. In this context, a community of practice is a group of individuals participating in communal activity, experiencing/continuously creating their shared identity through engaging in and contributing to the practices of their communities.
The structural characteristics of a community of practice are again redefined to a domain of knowledge, a notion of community and a practice. Domain A domain of knowledge creates common ground, inspires members to participate, guides their learning and gives meaning to their actions. Community The notion of a community creates the social fabric for that learning
Baird Textile Holdings Ltd v Marks & Spencer plc EWCA Civ 274 is an English contract law case on the possibility of an implied contract after a course of dealings between two businesses. Baird Textile Holdings Ltd had supplied clothes to Spencer plc. for thirty years. All of a sudden, M&S said. Baird sued M&S on the grounds; the problem was, there was no express contract. Baird argued; the judge found there was no such contract, Baird appealed to the Court of Appeal. Sir Andrew Morritt V-C, found. Contracts are only implied. Here, any such agreement to keep up the purchase of clothes, subject to reasonable notice for termination, would be too uncertain. Uncertainty was confirmed by an absence of intention to be bound. Furthermore, an argument of estoppel could not succeed because estoppel is not capable of creating its own cause of action. Concerning estoppel, Judge LJ held that “The interesting question…is whether equity can provide a remedy which cannot be provided by contract, it seems clear that the principles of the law of estoppel have not yet been developed…” questioning estoppel and the applicability of equity.
Richard Field QC, Charles Bear and Herbert Smith acted for Baird and Michael Brindle QC, Andrew Burrows and Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer acted for M&S. The Aramis 1 Lloyd’s Rep 213, Bingham LJ Text of the Baird Textile Holdings Ltd v. Marks & Spencer plc. judgment from www.ucc.ie
Corymbia is a genus of about one hundred species of tree that, along with Eucalyptus and several smaller groups, are referred to as eucalypts. Until 1990, corymbias were included in the genus Eucalyptus and there is still considerable disagreement among botanists as to whether or not separating them is valid; as at January 2020, Corymbia is an accepted name at the Australian Plant Census. Eucalypts in the genus Corymbia are trees, sometimes mallee-like, that either have rough, fibrous or flaky bark, or smooth bark, shed in small flakes or short strips. Young plants and coppice regrowth have leaves; the adult leaves are arranged alternately, with oil glands. The flower buds are arranged in groups on a branching peduncle, each branch with seven buds, but with the pedicels of differing lengths, so that the inflorescence is flat-topped or convex; the anthers are open by parallel slits. As in Eucalyptus, the five sepals are fused to form an outer calyptra and the five petals an inner calyptra, the two calyptra being shed separately or together as the flower opens.
As in Eucalyptus the fruit is a woody capsule, but in this case the disc is always depressed and the valves are always enclosed. The genus Corymbia was first formally described in 1995 by Ken Hill and Lawrie Johnson in the journal Telopea; the type species is C. gummifera. The genus name, Corymbia is from the Latin word corymbus, meaning "a corymb"; the bloodwoods had been recognised as a distinct group within the large and diverse genus Eucalyptus since 1867. Molecular research in the 1990s, showed that they, along with the rest of the section Corymbia, are more related to Angophora than to Eucalyptus, are now regarded as a separate genus by the Australian Plant Census. All three genera, Angophora and Eucalyptus, are related, are referred to as "eucalypts". Botanists Ken Hill and Lawrie Johnson were the first to define the genus Corymbia in 1995, identifying the bloodwoods, ghost gums and spotted gums as a group distinct from Eucalyptus. Since 1995, there have been ongoing investigations into the relationships between the genera.
Genetic analysis of ETS and ITS sequences of DNA in 2006 by Carlos Parra-O and colleagues of 67 taxa yielded Corymbia and Angophora as each other's closest relatives, with the genus Eucalyptus as an earlier offshoot. The small genera Eucalyptopsis and Allosyncarpia formed a clade which arose earlier still. In 2009, Parra-O and colleagues added more taxa and published a combined analysis of nuclear rDNA and morphological characters published to clarify relationships within the genus; this confirmed two main clades, which they defined as Blakella. Species of Corymbia occur in the Northern Territory. There are about 100 species, all endemic to Australia except for four species that occur in New Guinea, one, endemic to that country. Lucid Online Player - EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia A New Name for the Bloodwood and Ghost Gum Eucalypts Currency Creek Arboretum Eucalypt Research at Currency Creek Arboretum
The following are the statistics for the 2012 CECAFA Cup, which took place in Kampala, Uganda from 24 November to 8 December 2012. All statistics are correct as of 20:00 UTC+3 on 8 December 2012. Goals scored from penalty shoot-outs are not counted. 5 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Total number of goals scored: 62 Average goals per match: 2.38 Total number of braces: 8 Total number of hat-tricks: 1 – Mrisho Ngassa Total number of penalty kicks awarded: 4 Total number of penalty kicks scored: 4 Penalty kick success rate: 100% Most goals scored by a team: 13 – Uganda Most goals scored by an individual: 5 – John Bocco, Mrisho Ngassa, Robert Ssentongo Fewest goals scored by a team: 0 – Eritrea, South Sudan Most goals conceded by a team: 13 – Somalia Fewest goals conceded by a team: 1 – Burundi, Uganda Best goal difference: +12 – Uganda Worst goal difference: -12 – Somalia Most goals scored in a match by both teams: 7 – Somalia and Tanzania Most goals scored in a match by one team: 7 – Tanzania against Somalia Most goals scored in a match by the losing team: 2 – Eritrea against Malawi Biggest margin of victory: 7 – Somalia 0–7 Tanzania Most clean sheets achieved by a team: 5 – Uganda Fewest clean sheets achieved by a team: 0 – Somalia, South Sudan Most clean sheets given by an opposing team: 3 – South Sudan Fewest clean sheets given by an opposing team: 0 – Burundi, Uganda Most consecutive clean sheets achieved by a team: 5 – Uganda Most consecutive clean sheets given by an opposing team: 3 – South Sudan First goal of the tournament: Yonathan Kebede for Ethiopia against South Sudan First brace of the tournament: Christophe Nduwaragira for Burundi against Somalia First hat-trick of the tournament: Mrisho Ngassa for Tanzania against Somalia Fastest goal in a match from kickoff: 1st minute – Mrisho Ngassa for Tanzania against Somalia Fastest goal in a match after coming on as a substitute: 9 minutes – Clifton Miheso for Kenya against South Sudan Latest goal in a match without extra time: 90+1st minute – Hermon Tecleab for Eritrea against Malawi Latest winning goal in a match without extra time: 90th minute – Geoffrey Kizito for Uganda against Kenya Most goals scored by one player in a match: 5 – Mrisho Ngassa for Tanzania against Somalia Own goals scored: 1 – Nadir Haroub Most wins: 6 – Uganda Fewest wins: 0 – Eritrea, South Sudan Most losses: 3 – Ethiopia, South Sudan Fewest losses: 0 – Uganda Most draws: 4 – Zanzibar Fewest draws: 0 – Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda Most points in the group stage: 9 – Burundi, Uganda Fewest points in the group stage: 0 – Somalia, South Sudan Total number of yellow cards: 38 Average yellow cards per match: 1.46 Total number of red cards: 1 Average red cards per match: 0.04 First yellow card of the tournament: Robel Girma for Ethiopia against South Sudan First red card of the tournament: Adeyum Saleh Ahmed for Zanzibar against Kenya Fastest yellow card from kick off: 3rd minute – John Bocco for Tanzania against Zanzibar Fastest yellow card after coming on as a substitute: 1 minute – Imran Nshimiyimana for Rwanda against Eritrea Latest yellow card in a match without extra time: 90+1st minute – Masoud Nassor for Zanzibar against Rwanda Latest yellow card in a match with extra time: 112th minute – Adeyum Saleh Ahmed for Zanzibar against Kenya Fastest dismissal from kick off: 112th minute – Adeyum Saleh Ahmed for Zanzibar against Kenya Latest dismissal in a match without extra time: 112th minute – Adeyum Saleh Ahmed for Zanzibar against Kenya Latest dismissal in a match with extra time: 112th minute – Adeyum Saleh Ahmed for Zanzibar against Kenya Shortest time difference between two yellow cards given to the same player: 54 minutes – Adeyum Saleh Ahmed for Zanzibar against Kenya Most yellow cards: 7 – Kenya Most red cards: 1 – Zanzibar Fewest yellow cards: 0 – Somalia Most yellow cards: 2 – Joackins Atudo, Robel Girma Most red cards: 1 – Adeyum Saleh Ahmed Most yellow cards: 4 – Rwanda vs Zanzibar Most red cards: 1 – Zanzibar vs Kenya Fewest yellow cards: 0 – Rwanda vs Malawi, Somalia vs Tanzania, Tanzania vs Burundi, Tanzania vs Sudan, Uganda vs Ethiopia, Zanzibar vs Eritrea Most cards in one match: 4 cards.
Updated to games played on 8 December 2012. Team rendered in italics represent the host nation; the competition's winning team is rendered in bold. – Total games lost not counted in total games played – Total number of games drawn for all teams = Total number of games drawn ÷ 2 – As per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws. 2012 CECAFA Cup scorers 2012 CECAFA Cup schedule
Maynard Public Library is a public library at 77 Nason Street in Maynard, Massachusetts. The library is part of the Minuteman Library Network; the Maynard Public Library was founded in 1881. The library building at 77 Nason Street – Roosevelt Elementary School – was renovated and reopened as a library in 2006. From 1962 to 2006 the library had been in the building; the original library location was inside the Acton Street School, at 5 Acton Street. From 1885 to 1918 the library was a room inside the Riverside Cooperative Building, at the southwest corner of Nason and Summer Streets. From there, it moved to a second floor space in the Naylor Block building, at the corner of Nason and Main Streets; the space was 37 x 39 feet. In 1960 there was a proposal for the Town of Maynard to build adjoining library; the dedication ceremony for the library was July 29, 1962. Town of Maynard Annual Reports mention that in 1891 the collection consisted of 3,416 books, had reached 15,000 books by 1960. One floor, it occupied both floors of the building by 1974.
Totaling 6,000 square feet, with a collection size of 30,000 items. The library became a full member of the Minuteman Library Network in summer. 1995. In 1999, under the direction of Library Trustees William Cullen, Elizabeth Binstock, AnneMarie Lesniak-Betley and Director Stephen Weiner, a movement to build a new library facility began. In 2002 a grant of 2 million dollars was awarded to the Town by the state of Massachusetts, while the Friends of the Maynard Public Library secured 600,000 dollars in donations; the abandoned 24.000 square foot Roosevelt school on Nason Street was chosen as the new library site. Construction began in September 2004 and was completed in May, 2006; the new Maynard Public Library, built inside the renovated Roosevelt school building, opened its doors on July 16, 2006. Official library website
Revolutionary France enacted laws that first emancipated Jews in France, establishing them as equal citizens to other Frenchmen. In countries that Napoleon Bonaparte's ensuing First French Empire conquered during the Napoleonic Wars, he emancipated the Jews and introduced other ideas of freedom from the French Revolution. For instance, he overrode old laws restricting Jews to reside in ghettos, as well as lifting laws that limited Jews' rights to property and certain occupations. In an effort to promote Jewish integration into French society, Napoleon implemented several policies that eroded Jewish distinction. For example, he restricted the Jewish practice of money-lending, restricted the regions to which Jews were allowed to migrate, required Jews to adopt formal names, he implemented a series of consistories—which served as an effective channel utilized by the French government to regulate Jewish religious life. Historians have disagreed about Napoleon's intentions in these actions, as well as his personal and political feelings about the Jewish community.
Some have said he did not have sympathy for the Jews. His actions were opposed by the leaders of monarchies in other countries. After his defeat by Great Britain, a counter-revolution swept many of these countries and they restored discriminatory measures against the Jews; the French Revolution abolished the different treatment of people according to religion or origin that had existed under the monarchy. Roman Catholicism had been the established state religion tied to the monarchy, which represented both religious and political authority; the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guaranteed freedom of religion and free exercise of worship, provided that it did not contradict public order. At that time, most other European countries implemented measures that restricted the rights of people in their nations who practiced minority religions. In the early 19th century, through his conquests in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte spread the modernist ideas of revolutionary France: equality of citizens and the rule of law.
Napoleon's personal attitude towards the Jews has been interpreted in various ways by different historians, as at various times he made statements both in support and opposition to the Jewish people. Orthodox Rabbi Berel Wein in Triumph of Survival: The Story of the Jews in the Modern Era 1650-1990 claims that Napoleon was interested in seeing the Jews assimilate, rather than prosper as a distinct community: "Napoleon's outward tolerance and fairness toward Jews was based upon his grand plan to have them disappear by means of total assimilation and conversion."Napoleon was concerned about the role of Jews as money lenders, wanting to end that. The treatment of the Alsace Jews and their debtors was raised in the Imperial Council on 30 April 1806, his liberation of the Jewish communities in Italy and his insistence on the integration of Jews as equals in French and Italian societies demonstrate that he distinguished between usurers, whom he compared to locusts, those of the Jews who accepted non-Jews as their equals.
His letter to Champagny, Minister of the Interior of 29 November 1806, expresses his thoughts: reduce, if not destroy, the tendency of Jewish people to practice a great number of activities that are harmful to civilisation and to public order in society in all the countries of the world. It is necessary to stop the harm by preventing it. Once part of their youth will take its place in our armies, they will cease to have Jewish interests and sentiments. Through his policies overall, Napoleon improved the condition of the Jews in France and Europe, they admired him. Starting in 1806, Napoleon passed a number of measures enhancing the position of the Jews in the French Empire, he recognized a representative group elected by the Jewish community, the Sanhedrin, as their representatives to the French government. In conquered countries, he abolished laws restricting Jews to living in ghettos. In 1807, he designated Judaism as one of the official religions of France, along with Roman Catholicism, Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism.
In 1808 Napoleon rolled back a number of reforms, declaring all debts with Jews to be annulled, reduced or postponed. The Infamous Decree imposed a ten-year ban on any kind of Jewish money-lending activity. Jewish individuals who were in subservient positions—such as a Jewish servant, military officer, or wife—were unable to engage in any kind of money-lending activity without the explicit consent of their superiors. Napoleon's goal in implementing the Infamous Decree of 1808 was to integrate Jewish culture and customs into those of France. By restricting money-lending activity, Jews would be forced to engage in other practices for a living. In order to engage in money-lending activity, the decree required Jews to apply for an annual license, granted only with the recommendation of the Jews' local consistory and with the surety of the Jews' honesty; this caused so much financial loss. On a different note, the Infamous Decree pl