Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission is a public organization in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications. It was created in 1976. Prior to 1976, it was known as the Canadian Radio and Television Commission, established in 1968 by the Parliament of Canada to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors, its headquarters is located in the Central Building of Les Terrasses de la Chaudière in Gatineau, Quebec. The CRTC was known as the Canadian Radio-Television Commission. In 1976, jurisdiction over telecommunications services, most of which were delivered by monopoly common carriers, was transferred to it from the Canadian Transport Commission although the abbreviation CRTC remained the same. On the telecom side, the CRTC regulated only held common carriers: BC Tel, which served British Columbia, in which a U. S. company held a substantial stake Bell Canada, which served much of Ontario and Quebec, the eastern part of the Northwest Territories telephone operations owned by crown corporation Canadian National Railways in Newfoundland, the Northwest Territories and northern B.
C.. Other telephone companies, many of which were publicly owned and within a province's borders, were regulated by provincial authorities until court rulings during the 1990s affirmed federal jurisdiction over the sector, which included some fifty small independent incumbents, most of them in Ontario and Quebec. Notable in this group were: Newfoundland Telephone Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Island Telephone New Brunswick Telephone Manitoba Telephone System SaskTel Alberta Government Telephones Northern Telephone Télébec municipal telephone services in Prince Rupert, B. C. and Thunder Bay The CRTC regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry out the policies assigned to it. The CRTC reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage, responsible for the Broadcasting Act, has an informal relationship with Industry Canada, responsible for the Telecommunications Act. Provisions in these two acts, along with less-formal instructions issued by the federal cabinet known as orders-in-council, represent the bulk of the CRTC's jurisdiction.
In many cases, such as the cabinet-directed prohibition on foreign ownership for broadcasters and the legislated principle of the predominance of Canadian content, these acts and orders leave the CRTC less room to change policy than critics sometimes suggest, the result is that the commission is the lightning rod for policy criticism that could arguably be better directed at the government itself. Complaints against broadcasters, such as concerns around offensive programming, are dealt with by the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, an independent broadcast industry association, rather than by the CRTC, although CBSC decisions can be appealed to the CRTC if necessary. However, the CRTC is sometimes erroneously criticized for CBSC decisions — for example, the CRTC was erroneously criticized for the CBSC's decisions pertaining to the airing of Howard Stern's terrestrial radio show in Canada in the late 1990s, as well as the CBSC's controversial ruling on the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing".
The commission is not equivalent to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission, which has additional powers over technical matters, in broadcasting and other aspects of communications, in that country. In Canada, Innovation and Economic Development Canada is responsible for allocating frequencies and call signs, managing the broadcast spectrum, regulating other technical issues such as interference with electronics equipment; the CRTC has in the past regulated the prices cable television broadcast distributors are allowed to charge. In most major markets, prices are no longer regulated due to increased competition for broadcast distribution from satellite television; the CRTC regulates which channels broadcast distributors must or may offer. Per the Broadcasting Act the commission gives priority to Canadian signals—many non-Canadian channels which compete with Canadian channels are thus not approved for distribution in Canada; the CRTC argues that allowing free trade in television stations would overwhelm the smaller Canadian market, preventing it from upholding its responsibility to foster a national conversation.
Some people, consider this tantamount to censorship. The CRTC's simultaneous substitution rules require that when a Canadian network licences a television show from a US network and shows it in the same time slot, upon request by the Canadian broadcaster, Canadian broadcast distributors must replace the show on the US channel with the broadcast of the Canadian channel, along with any overlays and commercials; as Grey's Anatomy is on ABC, but is carried in Canada on CTV at the same time, for instance, the cable, satellite, or other broadcast distributor must send the CTV feed over the signal of the carried ABC affiliate where the ABC version is somehow different commercials. Viewers via home antenna who receive both Amer
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of 25 incorporated municipalities within the central city of Toronto and the four regional municipalities which surround it: Durham, Halton and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516; the regional span of the Greater Toronto Area is sometimes combined with the city of Hamilton, located west of Halton Region, to form the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The Greater Toronto Area anchors a much larger urban agglomeration known as the Golden Horseshoe; the term "Greater Toronto" was first used in writing as early as the 1900s, although at the time, the term only referred to the old City of Toronto and its immediate townships and villages, which became Metropolitan Toronto in 1954 and became the current city of Toronto in 1998. The use of the term involving the four regional municipalities came into formal use in the mid-1980s, after it was used in a discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region and was made official as a provincial planning area.
However, it did not come into everyday usage until the mid- to late 1990s. In 2006, the term began to be supplanted in the field of spatial planning as provincial policy began to refer to either the "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" or the still-broader "Greater Golden Horseshoe"; the latter includes communities like Barrie, Kitchener-Waterloo and the Niagara Region. The GTA continues, however, to be in official use elsewhere in the Government of Ontario, such as the Ministry of Finance; some municipalities considered part of the GTA are not within the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, whose land area and population is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa is the centre of its own CMA, yet deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area, while other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA; these different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out Toronto's urban population.
Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie, or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo, are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs near the GTA. All the aforementioned places are part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration, the fourth most populous in North America; when the Hamilton and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 59 million people in 2011; the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" refers to the GTA, the City of Hamilton. The term has been adopted by several organizations for the purposes of regional planning; the GTHA and the Regional Municipality of Niagara form the inner ring of the larger Greater Golden Horseshoe region. The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral, Seneca and Huron nations were living in the vicinity.
The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois. While it is unclear as to, the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question it occurred in the 17th century; the area would become crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes. For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders; the French would establish two trading forts, Magasin Royal in the 1720s, although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces. The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.
In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit. York County, would be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise all of what is now Halton Region, Peel Region, York Region and parts of Durham Region; the Town of York would be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813. In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County. York County would serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern. In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York; the idea towards a streamlined local government to control local infrastructure was made as early as 1907 by member of federal Parliament, founder of the Toronto Globe, William Findlay Maclean, who called for the expansion of the government of the former City of Toronto in order to c
Corus Entertainment is a Canadian mass media and broadcasting company. Formed in 1999 as a spin-off from Shaw Communications, it is headquartered at Corus Quay in Toronto and has prominent holdings in the radio and television industries. Corus Entertainment's voting majority is held by the company's founder JR Shaw and his family, a 40% stake of Corus stock is owned by Shaw Communications. Corus has a large presence in Canadian broadcasting, as owner of the national Global Television Network, 39 radio stations, a portfolio of 45 specialty television services. Corus is dominant in Canada's children's television industry through its ownership of the domestic YTV, Treehouse networks, the animation studio Nelvana and book publisher Kids Can Press, localized versions of the Cartoon Network, Disney Channel, Disney Junior, Disney XD, Nickelodeon brands; the second incarnation of Shaw's media division—formed from the properties of the bankrupt Canwest Global—was subsumed by Corus on April 1, 2016, giving it control of the over-the-air Global network and 19 additional specialty channels.
In September 1998, JR Shaw and Shaw Media CEO John Cassaday announced plans for Shaw Communications to spin-out its media properties, including radio stations and television specialty channels, into a new company. The spin-out would leave Shaw as a "pure play" telecommunications company; the decision to spin out the properties, into what would be known as Corus Entertainment, was meant to comply with Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission recommendations at the time which discouraged vertical integration by cable companies who owned media properties. Corus would be a separate, publicly-traded company, first listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange in September 1999, but would still be controlled by the Shaw family. In September 1999, Corus acquired the broadcasting assets of the Power Corporation of Canada, which included four television stations and sixteen radio stations. One of these stations, CHAU-TV, was re-sold to Télé Inter-Rives. In October 1999, it was announced that as part of the break-up of Western International Communications, Corus would acquire the company's 12 radio stations and most of its specialty channels, including stakes in Family Channel, SuperChannel and MovieMax!.
In September 2000, after negotiations and rumoured offers by other studios, Corus announced that it would acquire the Toronto-based animation studio Nelvana for $540 million. Corus stated that it planned to use the purchase to help launch a preschool-oriented cable network in the United States. In March 2001, in response to complaints by the CRTC over its near-monopoly on ownership of children's specialty channels in Canada, Corus sold Family Channel to Astral Media for $126.9 million. Corus sold its stake in the Western Canadian pay-per-view service Viewers Choice to Shaw for $22.6 million, acquired the Women's Television Network from Shaw for $132.6 million. In August 2002, Corus sold CKGE-FM to Durham Radio. In May 2002, Corus announced that it has acquired a 50% stake in Locomotion, a Latin American and Spanish channel focusing of animated series targeting teens and young adults. Hearst Corporation owned the other half. In March 2004, Corus and Astral announced that it would swap radio stations in Quebec.
Corus sold its Red Deer, Alberta stations CKGY-FM and CIZZ-FM to Newcap Radio. In July 2007, Corus acquired CJZZ from Canwest. In June 2008, CHRC was sold to the ownership group of the Quebec Remparts hockey team. In August 2007, Corus announced a partnership with Hearst Corporation to launch Cosmopolitan TV. In March 2008, CTVglobemedia sold Canadian Learning Television to Corus for $73 millionCorus launched a Canadian version of Nickelodeon on November 2, 2009, replacing Discovery Kids. In 2010, Corus's sister company Shaw Communications re-entered the broadcasting industry through its acquisition of the media assets of the bankrupt Canwest, which re-formed the Shaw Media division. On April 30, 2010, Corus announced that it would sell its Québec radio stations, with the exception of CKRS, to Cogeco for $80 million, pending CRTC approval. Corus cited their low profitability in comparison to their stations elsewhere as reasoning for the sale. On June 25, it was reported that Corus had agreed to sell CKRS to Radio Saguenay, a local business group.
The sale of the Corus Québec stations was approved by the CRTC on December 17, 2010, on the condition that Cogeco-owned CJEC-FM and Corus-owned CFEL-FM and CKOY-FM be sold to another party by December 2011. On January 13, 2011, competing broadcaster Astral Media announced that they would seek legal action to stop the sale of these stations to Cogeco, citing the fact that it would own more stations than Astral in the Montreal market, making the competition unfair. On November 9, 2010, Hasbro Studios signed an agreement with Corus to broadcast their productions on its networks. On March 26, 2012, Corus and Shaw launched ABC Spark, a localized version of U. S. cable network ABC Family, with Shaw owning 49%. In March 2013, as part of Bell Media's proposed acquisition of Astral Media, Corus reached a tentative deal to acquire Astral's stakes in Historia, Séries+, the Teletoon Canada group, for $400.6 million
National Film Board of Canada
The National Film Board of Canada is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary films, web documentaries, alternative dramas. In total, the NFB has produced over 3,000 productions since its inception, which have won over 5,000 awards; the NFB reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. It has English-language and French-language production branches. 1939: The government of Canada proposes the creation of a National Film Commission to complement the activities of the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau. The legislation stipulates that the NFB was to “make and distribute films designed to help Canadians in all parts of Canada to understand the ways of living and the problems of Canadians in other parts.” Legislation stated that the NFB would co-ordinate the film activities of federal departments. 1950: Canada's Parliament passes the National Film Act, which states that NFB's mandate is "to produce and distribute and to promote the production and distribution of films designed to interpret Canada to Canadians and to other nations."
This act stipulates that the NFB is to engage in film research. 1965: As a result of a report written by producer Gordon Sheppard on Canadian cultural policies and activities, the NFB began regionalizing its English production activities, with producers appointed in major cities across Canada. 1984: Minister of Communications Francis Fox released a National Film and Video Policy, which added two new elements to the mandate, with the NFB tasked with being "a world centre of excellence in production of films and videos" and "a national training and research centre in the art and technique of film and video." 2008: The NFB announces a Strategic Plan that includes its first digital strategy. The National Film Board maintains its head office in Saint-Laurent, a borough of Montreal, in the Norman McLaren electoral district, named in honour of the NFB animation pioneer; the NFB HQ building is named for McLaren, is home to much of its production activity. In the second quarter of 2018, the NFB is scheduled to move to its headquarters to the new Îlot Balmoral building located at Montreal's Quartier des spectacles, adjacent to the Place des Festivals square.
The NFB will occupy the first six floors of the building, which will allow it to have closer contact with the public, will feature expanded digital media research and production facilities. In addition to the English and French-language studios in its Montreal HQ, there are centres throughout Canada. English-language production occurs at centres in Toronto, Edmonton and Halifax; as of October 2009, the Atlantic Centre operates an office in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. In June 2011, the NFB appointed a producer to work with film and digital media makers across Saskatchewan, to be based in Regina. Outside Quebec, French language productions are made in Moncton and Toronto; the NFB offers support programs for independent filmmakers: in English, via the Filmmaker Assistance Program and in French through its Aide du cinéma indépendant – Canada program. The organization has a hierarchical structure headed by a Board of Trustees, chaired by the Government Film Commissioner and NFB Chairperson.
It is overseen by the Board of Trustees Legal Affairs. Funding is derived from government of Canada transfer payments, from its own revenue streams; these revenues are from print sales, film production services and royalties, total up to $10 million yearly. As a result of cuts imposed by 2012 Canadian federal budget, by 2015 the NFB's public funding will be reduced by $6.7 million, to $60.3 million. As part of the 2016 Canadian federal budget, the NFB will receive an additional $13.5 million in funding, spread out over a five-year period. In 1938, the Government of Canada invited John Grierson, a British documentary film producer who introduced the term "documentary" to English-speaking film criticism, to study the state of the government's film production. Up to that date, the Government Motion Picture Bureau, established in 1918, had been the major Canadian film producer; the results of Grierson's report were included in the National Film Act of 1939. In 1939, the Act led to the establishment of the National Film Commission, subsequently renamed the National Film Board.
The NFB was founded in part to create propaganda in support of the Second World War. In 1940, with Canada at war, the NFB launched its Canada Carries On series of morale boosting theatrical shorts; the success of Canada Carries On led to the creation of The World in Action, more geared to international audiences. In this period, other NFB films were issued as newsreels, such as The War Is Over, intended for theatrical showings; these films were based on current news and tackled wartime events as well as contemporary issues in Canadian culture. Early in its history, the NFB was a English-speaking institution. Based in Ottawa, 90% of its staff were English and the few French Canadians in production worked with English crews. There was a French Unit, responsible for versioning films into French but it was headed by an Anglophone, and in NFB annual reports of the time, French films were listed under "foreign languages". Screenwriter Jacques Bobet, hired in 1947
Ontario Hockey League
The Ontario Hockey League is one of the three major junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League. The league is for players aged 16–21. There are 20 teams in the OHL; the league was founded in 1980, when its predecessor league, the Ontario Major Junior Hockey League formally split away from the Ontario Hockey Association, joining the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League and its direct affiliation with Hockey Canada. The OHL traces its history of Junior A hockey back to 1933 with the partition of Junior A and B. In 1970, the OHA Junior A League was one of five Junior A leagues operating in Ontario; the OHA was promoted to Tier I Junior A for the 1970–71 season and took up the name Ontario Major Junior Hockey League. Since 1980 the league has grown into a high-profile marketable product, with many games broadcast on television and radio. Leagues for ice hockey in Ontario were first organized in 1890 by the newly created Ontario Hockey Association. In 1892 the OHA recognized junior hockey - referring to skill rather than age.
In 1896 the OHA moved to the modern age-limited junior hockey concept, distinct from senior and intermediate divisions. Since the evolution to the Ontario Hockey League has developed through four distinct eras of junior-aged non-professional hockey in Ontario. In 1933, the junior division was divided into two levels, Junior A and Junior B. In 1970 the Junior A level was divided into two levels, Tier I and Tier II. In 1974 the Tier I/Major Junior A group separated from the OHA and became the independent'Ontario Major Junior Hockey League'. In 1980, the OMJHL became the'Ontario Hockey League.' From 1974 until 1978, Clarence "Tubby" Schmalz was the league's commissioner. For one season, former IHL commissioner Bill Beagan served as commissioner of the OMJHL. Beginning with the 1979-80 season, David Branch has been the Commissioner of the OHL. Branch was appointed on August 11, 1979, assumed the commissioner's role on September 17, 1979. Cornwall Royals 1981-1992 - moved to Newmarket Newmarket Royals 1992-1994 - moved to Sarnia Niagara Falls Flyers 1980-1982 - moved to North Bay as Centennials North Bay Centennials 1982-2002 - moved to Saginaw Brantford Alexanders 1980-1984 - moved to Hamilton as Steelhawks Hamilton Steelhawks 1984-1988 - moved to Niagara Falls as Thunder Niagara Falls Thunder 1988-1996 - moved to Erie Guelph Platers 1980-1989 - moved to Owen Sound as Platers and as Attack 2000 Toronto Marlboros 1980-1989 - moved to Hamilton as Dukes Dukes of Hamilton 1989-1991 - moved to Guelph as Storm Detroit Junior Red Wings 1992-1995 - renamed as Whalers and moved to Plymouth in 1997 and to Flint in 2015 as Firebirds Brampton Battalion 1998-2013 - moved to North Bay as Battalion Mississauga IceDogs 1998-2007 - moved to Niagara as IceDogs Toronto St. Michael's Majors 1996-2007 - moved to Mississauga as St Michael's Majors and 2012 as Steelheads Belleville Bulls 1981-2015 - moved to Hamilton as Bulldogs The 20 OHL clubs play a 68-game unbalanced schedule, which starts in the third full week of September, running until the third week of March.
Ninety percent of OHL games are scheduled between Thursday and Sunday to minimize the number of school days missed for its players. 20% of players on active rosters in the National Hockey League have come from the OHL, about 54% of NHL players are alumni of the Canadian Hockey League. The J. Ross Robertson Cup is awarded annually to the winner of the Championship Series; the Cup is named for John Ross Robertson, president of the Ontario Hockey Association from 1901 to 1905. The OHL playoffs consist of the top 16 teams in 8 from each conference; the teams play a best-of-seven game series, the winner of each series advances to the next round. The final two teams compete for the J. Ross Robertson Cup; the OHL champion competes with the winners of the Western Hockey League, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, the host of the tournament to play for the Memorial Cup, awarded to the junior hockey champions of Canada. The host team of the tournament is alternated between the three leagues every season.
The most recent OHL team to win the Memorial Cup was the Windsor Spitfires in 2017. The Memorial Cup has been captured 17 times by OHL/OHA teams since the tournament went to a three-league format in 1972: The Cup was won 16 times by OHA teams in the period between 1945 and 1971: The OHL's predecessor, the OHA, had a midget and juvenile draft dating back to the 50s, until voted out in 1962. In 1966 it was resumed. Starting in the 70s the draft went through several changes; the draft was for 17-year-old midgets not associated with teams through their sponsored youth programs. In 1971 the league first allowed "underage" midgets to be picked in the first three rounds. In 1972 disagreements about the Toronto team's rights to its "Marlie" players and claims to American player Mark Howe led to a revised system. In 1973 each team was permitted to protect 8 midget area players. In 1975 the league phased out the area protections, the 1976 OHA midget draft was the first in which all midget players were eligible.
In 1999 the league changed the draft to a bantam age. It is a selection of players who are residents of the province of Ontario, the states of Michigan and New York, other designated U. S. states east of the Mississippi Missouri. Prior to 2001
War on Poverty
The War on Poverty is the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on Wednesday, January 8, 1964; this legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty; as a part of the Great Society, Johnson believed in expanding the federal government's roles in education and health care as poverty reduction strategies. These policies can be seen as a continuation of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, which ran from 1933 to 1937, the Four Freedoms of 1941. Johnson stated, "Our aim is not only to relieve the symptom of poverty, but to cure it and, above all, to prevent it"; the legacy of the War on Poverty policy initiative remains in the continued existence of such federal programs as Head Start, Volunteers in Service to America, TRiO, Job Corps.
Deregulation, growing criticism of the welfare state, an ideological shift to reducing federal aid to impoverished people in the 1980s and 1990s culminated in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996, which President Bill Clinton claimed, "ended welfare as we know it." The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 which created the Community Action Program, Job Corps and Volunteers in Service to America, centerpiece of the "war on poverty" – August 20, 1964 Food Stamp Act of 1964 – August 31, 1964 Elementary and Secondary Education Act – April 11, 1965 Social Security Act 1965 – July 19, 1965The Office of Economic Opportunity was the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created during Johnson's Administration, including VISTA, Job Corps, Head Start, Legal Services and the Community Action Program. The OEO was established in 1964 and became a target of both left-wing and right-wing critics of the War on Poverty. Directors of the OEO included Sargent Shriver, Bertrand Harding, Donald Rumsfeld.
The OEO launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965. The project was designed to help end poverty by providing preschool children from low-income families with a program that would meet emotional, health and psychological needs. Head Start was transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health and Welfare by the Nixon Administration in 1969. President Johnson announced a second project to follow children from the Head Start program; this was implemented in 1967 with Project Follow Through, the largest educational experiment conducted. The policy trains disadvantaged and at-risk youth and has provided more than 2 million disadvantaged young people with the integrated academic and social skills training they need to gain independence and get quality, long-term jobs or further their education. Job Corps continues to help 70,000 youths annually at 122 Job Corps centers throughout the country. Besides vocational training, many Job Corps offer GED programs as well as high school diplomas and programs to get students into college.
In the decade following the 1964 introduction of the war on poverty, poverty rates in the U. S. dropped to their lowest level since comprehensive records began in 1958: from 17.3% in the year the Economic Opportunity Act was implemented to 11.1% in 1973. They have remained between 11 and 15.2% since. It is important to note, that the steep decline in poverty rates began in 1959, 5 years before the introduction of the war on poverty. The'absolute poverty line' is the threshold below which families or individuals are considered to be lacking the resources to meet the basic needs for healthy living. Poverty among Americans between ages 18–64 has fallen only marginally since 1966, from 10.5% to 10.1% today. Poverty has fallen among Americans under 18 years old from 23% in 1964 down to less than 17%, although it has risen again to 20% in 2009; the most dramatic decrease in poverty was among Americans over 65, which fell from 28.5% in 1966 to 10.1% today. In 2004, more than 35.9 million, or 12% of Americans including 12.1 million children, were considered to be living in poverty with an average growth of 1 million per year.
According to the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank, since the Johnson Administration $15 trillion has been spent on welfare, with poverty rates being about the same as during the Johnson Administration. A 2013 study published by Columbia University asserts that without the social safety net, the poverty rate would have been 29% for 2012, instead of 16%. According to OECD data from 2012, the poverty rate before taxes and transfers was 28.3%, while the poverty rate after taxes and transfers fell to 17.4%. The OEO was dismantled by President Nixon in 1973, though many of the agency's programs were transferred to other government agencies. According to the Readers' Companion to U. S. Women's History, Many observers point out that the War on Poverty's attention to Black America created the grounds for the backlash that began in the 1970s; the perception by the white middle class that it was footing the bill for ever-increasing services to the poor led to diminished support for welfare state programs those that targeted specific groups and neighborhoods.
Many whites viewed Great Society programs as supporting the economic and social needs of low-income urban minorities.