New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines colloquially known as Eastern, was a major American airline from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in an unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Eastern was one of the "Big Four" domestic airlines created by the Spoils Conferences of 1930, was headed by World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker in its early years, it had a near monopoly in air travel between New York and Florida from the 1930s until the 1950s and dominated this market for decades afterward. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, during the deregulation, labor disputes and high debt loads strained the company under the leadership of former astronaut Frank Borman. Frank Lorenzo acquired Eastern in 1985 and moved many of its assets to his other airlines, including Continental Airlines and Texas Air. After continued labor disputes and a crippling strike in 1989, Eastern ran out of money and was liquidated in 1991. American Airlines obtained many of Eastern's routes from Miami to Latin America and the Caribbean, while Delta Air Lines, Eastern's main competitor at Hartsfield Airport in Atlanta, acquired many of Eastern's Lockheed L-1011 aircraft.
USAir acquired 11 of Eastern's 25 Boeing 757-225 aircraft. Eastern pioneered hourly air shuttle service between New York City, Washington, DC and Boston in 1961 as the Eastern Air Lines Shuttle, it took over the South American route network of Braniff International upon its shutdown in 1982 and served London Gatwick in 1985 via a DC-10 "Golden Wings" service. Although Eastern announced on their March 2, 1986 timetable that it would serve Madrid, Spain effective May 1, 1986, the service did not commence; the only scheduled trans-Atlantic service Eastern provided was Miami to London Gatwick, commencing on July 15, 1985 and was discontinued in 1986 and replaced with codeshare flights from Atlanta via British Caledonian Airways. Eastern Air Lines was a composite of assorted air travel corporations, including Florida Airways and Pitcairn Aviation. In the late 1920s, Pitcairn Aviation won a contract to fly mail between New York City and Atlanta, Georgia on Mailwing single-engine aircraft. In 1929, Clement Keys, the owner of North American Aviation, purchased Pitcairn.
In 1930, Keys changed the company's name to Eastern Air Transport. After being purchased by General Motors and experiencing a change in leadership after the Airmail Act of 1934, the airline became known as Eastern Air Lines. In 1938 World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker bought Eastern from General Motors; the complex deal was concluded when Rickenbacker presented Alfred P. Sloan with a certified check for $3.5 million. In March 1939 Eastern had 15 weekday departures from Newark, two from Chicago to Miami, one from Tampa to Atlanta and one from Tallahassee to Memphis; those flights and their returns were Eastern's whole scheduled operation. As Eastern was the fourth largest airline in the country by passenger-miles. Rickenbacker pushed Eastern into a period of innovation. In the late 1950s Eastern's position was eroded by subsidies to rival airlines and the arrival of the jet age. On October 1, 1959, Rickenbacker's position as CEO was taken over by Malcolm A. MacIntyre, a brilliant lawyer but a man inexperienced in airline operations.'
Rickenbacker's ouster was due to his reluctance to acquire expensive jets as he underestimated their appeal to the public. A new management team headed by Floyd D. Hall took over on 16 December 1963, Rickenbacker left his position as Director and Chairman of the Board on December 31, 1963, aged 73. In 1956 Eastern bought Colonial Airlines. In November 1959, Eastern Air Lines opened its Chester L. Churchill-designed Terminal 1 at New York City's Idlewild International Airport. In 1960, Eastern's first jets, Douglas DC-8-21s, started to take over the longer flights, like the non-stops from Chicago and New York to Miami; the DC-8s were joined in 1962 by the Boeing 720 and in 1964 by the Boeing 727-100, which Eastern had helped Boeing to develop. On February 1, 1964, Eastern was the first airline to fly the 727. Shortly after that, "Captain Eddie" Rickenbacker retired and a new image was adopted, which included the now famous hockey stick design Caribbean Blue over Ionosphere Blue. Eastern was the first US carrier to fly the Airbus A300 and the launch customer for the Boeing 757.
On April 30, 1961, Eastern inaugurated Eastern Air Lines Shuttle. 95-seat Lockheed Constellation 1049s and 1049Cs left New York-LaGuardia every two hours, 8 am to 10 pm, to Washington National and to Boston. Flights soon became hourly, 7 am to 10 pm out of each city. Shuttle emphasized convenience and simplicity—revolutionary in an era when air travel was considered a luxury. Internationalization began as Eastern opened routes to markets such as Santo Domingo and Nassau, Bahamas. Services from San Juan, Puerto Rico's Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport were expanded. In 1967, Eastern purchased Mackey Airlines, a small air carrier operating in Florida and the Bahamas as part of this expansion. Eastern bought the Lockheed L-1011 Airbus A300 widebody jets. Although Eastern had purchased four 747s, the delivery slots were sold to Trans World Airlines when Eastern decided to purchase the L-1011. Due to massive delays in the L-1011 program due to problems wit
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
The Lockheed Constellation is a propeller-driven, four-engine airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California. Lockheed built 856 in numerous models—all with the same triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. Most were powered by four 18-cylinder Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclones; the Constellation was used as a civil airliner and as a military and civilian air transport, seeing service in the Berlin and the Biafran airlifts. The Constellation series was the first pressurized-cabin civil airliner series to go into widespread use, its pressurized cabin enabled large numbers of commercial passengers to fly well above most bad weather for the first time, thus improving the general safety and ease of air-travel. Three of them served as the presidential aircraft for Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur, a four-engine, pressurized airliner, since 1937. In 1939, Trans World Airlines, at the instigation of major stockholder Howard Hughes, requested a 40-passenger transcontinental airliner with a range of 3,500 mi —well beyond the capabilities of the Excalibur design.
TWA's requirements led to the L-049 Constellation, designed by Lockheed engineers including Kelly Johnson and Hall Hibbard. Willis Hawkins, another Lockheed engineer, maintains that the Excalibur program was purely a cover for the Constellation; the Constellation's wing design was close to that of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, differing in size. The triple tail kept the aircraft's height low enough to fit in existing hangars, while features included hydraulically boosted controls and a de-icing system used on wing and tail leading edges; the aircraft had a maximum speed of over 375 mph, faster than that of a Japanese Zero fighter, a cruise speed of 340 mph, a service ceiling of 24,000 ft. According to Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky, Lockheed may have undertaken the intricate design, but Hughes' intercession in the design process drove the concept, capabilities and ethos; these rumors were discredited by Johnson. Howard Hughes and Jack Frye confirmed that the rumors were not true in a letter in November 1941.
With the onset of World War II, the TWA aircraft entering production were converted to an order for C-69 Constellation military transport aircraft, with 202 aircraft intended for the United States Army Air Forces. The first prototype flew on January 9, 1943, a short ferry hop from Burbank to Muroc Field for testing. Edmund T. "Eddie" Allen, on loan from Boeing, flew left seat, with Lockheed's own Milo Burcham as copilot. Rudy Thoren and Kelly Johnson were on board. Lockheed proposed the model L-249 as a long-range bomber, it received the military designation XB-30. A plan for a long-range troop transport, the C-69B, was canceled. A single C-69C, a 43-seat VIP transport, was built in 1945 at the Lockheed-Burbank plant; the C-69 was used as a high-speed, long-distance troop transport during the war. A total of 22 C-69s were completed before the end of hostilities, but not all of these entered military service; the USAAF cancelled the remainder of the order in 1945. However, some aircraft remained in USAF service into the 1960s, serving as passenger ferries for the airline that relocated military personnel, wearing the livery of the Military Air Transport Service.
At least one of these airplanes had rear-facing passenger seats. After World War II, the Constellation came into its own as a fast civilian airliner. Aircraft in production for the USAAF as C-69 transports were finished as civilian airliners, with TWA receiving the first on 1 October 1945. TWA's first transatlantic proving flight departed Washington, D. C. on December 3, 1945, arriving in Paris on December 4 via Shannon. TWA transatlantic service started on February 6, 1946 with a New York-Paris flight in a Constellation. On June 17, 1947, Pan American World Airways opened the first-ever scheduled round-the-world service with their L-749 Clipper America; the famous flight "Pan Am 1" operated until 1982. As the first pressurized airliner in widespread use, the Constellation helped to usher in affordable and comfortable air travel. Operators of Constellations included TWA, Eastern Air Lines, Pan Am, Air France, BOAC, KLM, Lufthansa, Iberia Airlines, Panair do Brasil, TAP Portugal, Trans-Canada Air Lines, Aer Lingus, VARIG, Cubana de Aviación, Línea Aeropostal Venezolana.
Sleek and powerful, Constellations set a number of records. On April 17, 1944, the second production C-69, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye, flew from Burbank, California, to Washington, D. C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes. On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field in Ohio to give Orville Wright his last flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, he commented. On September 29, 1957, a TWA L-1649A flew from Los Angeles to London in 32 minutes; the L-1649A holds the record for the longest-duration, non-stop passenger flight aboard a piston-powered airliner. On TWA's first London-to-San Francisco flight on October 1–2, 1957, the aircraft stayed aloft for 23 hours and 19 minutes. Jet airliners such as the de Havilland Comet, Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, Convair 880, Sud Aviation Caravelle rendered the Constellation obsolete; the first routes lost to jet
The Morning Call
The Morning Call is a daily newspaper based in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The Morning Call serves a nine-county region of eastern Pennsylvania and western New Jersey and is the largest circulation newspaper of the Lehigh Valley, the third most populous region of Pennsylvania, it ranks among the nation's top 100 largest-circulation daily newspapers, with circulation of 80,548 daily readers and 119,216 Sunday readers. The newspaper is owned by Tribune Publishing, whose other publications include the Chicago Tribune, The Baltimore Sun, Orlando Sentinel, Sun-Sentinel, Hartford Courant, Daily Press and The Virginian-Pilot; the Morning Call's history goes back to 1883 when an Allentown newspaper, was founded. The editor and chief reporter of The Critic was Samuel S. Woolever. In what would become a family dynasty that would oversee the company for four decades, in 1894 Muhlenberg College senior David A. Miller went to work for The Critic as its sole reporter, its owners were Charles Weiser and Kirt W. DeBelle, business manager.
A reader contest was involved in the naming of the newspaper when, in late 1894, the company said that a school boy or girl in Lehigh County would receive $5 in gold if he or she could guess the publication's new name. The identity of the lucky winner is lost on Jan.. 1, 1895, Allentown City Treasurer A. L. Reichenbach, who had supervised the contest, read out the new name: "The Morning Call." That same year, David A. Miller and his brother Samuel Miller were able to purchase their first shares of The Morning Call, it was the start of a series of stock buyouts that would leave the newspaper in the hands of the Miller brothers by 1904. In that nine-year period, the Miller brothers worked to gather subscribers. In one case, David A. Miller attended a corn husking party and had every family there signed up by the time he left. By 1920, World War I and the work of the Millers had raised circulation to 20,000. A series of newspaper mergers that year, funded by Gen. Harry Clay Trexler, led to the Millers' sale of The Morning Call to the Trexler interests.
It was only after Trexler's death in 1933, at the urging of David A. Miller's sons, Donald P. and Samuel W. that David A. Miller returned to the newspaper in 1934. In 1935 The Morning Call acquired the sole remaining Allentown newspaper, the Chronicle and News, renamed it the Evening Chronicle. In 1938 the Sunday Call-Chronicle was first published. In 1951, David A. Miller assumed the official title of president of the Call-Chronicle newspapers, he would keep that post until his death in 1958 at the age of 88. That September his sons and Samuel, were named publishers. After Samuel's death in 1967, Donald P. Miller continued to run the newspaper, he did so with his son, Edward D. Miller, until the late 1970s when Edward became executive editor and publisher; the Evening Chronicle went to press for the last time in 1980. In 1981 Edward D. Miller left the newspaper, Donald P. Miller returned as chairman; the publisher and chief executive officer was Bernard C. Stinner, they retained control of the newspaper until 1984, when it was sold to The Times Mirror Company, joining the Los Angeles Times, The Baltimore Sun, the Hartford Courant and Southern Connecticut Newspapers Inc. publishers of the Stamford Advocate and Greenwich Times.
Gary K. Shorts was publisher and chief executive officer from 1987 until succeeded by Guy Gilmore in 2000. Susan Hunt was named publisher in June 2001. In 2000, Times Mirror was acquired by the Tribune Company, merging 11 newspapers, 22 television stations, four radio stations, a cable TV company, Tribune Interactive. In September 1996, The Morning Call launched mcall.com. In February 2006, Timothy R. Kennedy was named publisher. In 2010, Timothy E. Ryan, the publisher and CEO of The Baltimore Sun Media Group became The Morning Call’s publisher and CEO. In August 2014, The Morning Call became part of the company now known as tronc, Inc. as Tribune Co. spun-off its publishing businesses. In January 2016, Richard Daniels, president & CEO of the Hartford Courant Media Group, became publisher & CEO of The Morning Call after serving in that role on an interim basis since September 2015. In March 2016, editor David M. Erdman was elevated to the dual role of Publisher & Editor-in-Chief of The Morning Call.
In May 2016, Erdman retired after a 35-year career with the company. Robert York, a San Diego Union-Tribune executive whose newspaper career includes taking photos, editing and advertising, was named the new Publisher & Editor-in-Chief and started in that role in August 2016. York vacated the role in July 2018 to become Editor-in-Chief of the New York Daily News. In August 2018, Theresa Rang was named interim Editor-in-Chief of "The Morning Call," a role she filled until being named Editor-in-Chief in January 2019. In February 2019, Timothy J. Thomas, an executive with the Baltimore Sun Media Group for two decades, was named interim general manager of The Morning Call Media Group; the Morning Call in store and distribution box prices are: $2.50 Saturday & Sunday. The Morning Call is one of the 9 newspapers. Media in the Lehigh Valley Official website
Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner
The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner is a 19-seat, twin-turboprop airliner first produced by Swearingen Aircraft and by Fairchild Aircraft at a plant in San Antonio, United States. The Metroliner was an evolution of the Swearingen Merlin turboprop-powered business aircraft. Ed Swearingen, a Texas fixed-base operator, started the developments that led to the Metro through gradual modifications to the Beechcraft Twin Bonanza and Queen Air business aircraft, which he dubbed Excalibur. A new fuselage and vertical fin were developed, married to salvaged and rebuilt Queen Air wings and horizontal tails, Twin Bonanza landing gear. Through successive models the engines were changed to Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 Garrett TPE331 turboprops; these were marketed as business aircraft seating eight to ten passengers. An all-new aircraft was built and named the SA226-T Merlin III with a new nose, landing gear, cruciform horizontal tail and inverted inlet Garrett engines. A stretch of the Merlin III was designed, sized to seat 22 passengers and called the SA226-TC Metro.
Because FAA regulations limited an airliner to no more than 19 seats if no flight attendant was to be carried, the aircraft was optimized for that number of passengers. The standard engines offered were two TPE331-3UW turboprops driving three-bladed propellers. A corporate version called the SA226-AT Merlin IVA was marketed and sales of this version were double that of the Metro. Prototype construction of the Metro began in 1968 and the first flight was on August 26, 1969. Swearingen Aircraft encountered financial difficulties at this stage, late in 1971 Fairchild, bought 90% of Swearingen and the company was renamed Swearingen Aviation Corporation, it was at this point that the cash-strapped company was able to put the Metro into production. In 1974, the original Metro models were replaced by the SA226-TC Metro II after about 20 Metros and about 30 Merlin IVAs had been built. Among the changes made were larger, squared-oval windows and optional provision for a small Rocket-Assisted Take Off rocket in the tail cone, this being offered to improve takeoff performance out of "hot & high" airfields in the event of an engine failure.
The Metro and Metro II were limited to a maximum weight of 12,500 pounds in the US and countries using imperial units, 5,700 kg in countries using SI units. When this restriction was lifted the Metro II was re-certified as the Metro IIA in 1980 with a maximum weight of 13,100 pounds and the Metro II's TPE331-3 engines replaced by -10 engines of increased power; the SA227-AC Metro III followed initially certified in 1980 for up to 14,000 pounds, this increasing to 14,500 pounds as engines and structures were upgraded. An option to go as high as 16,000 pounds was offered. Externally, improvements incorporated into the Metro III were a 10 ft increase in wing span, four-bladed props, redesigned "quick-access" engine cowlings and numerous drag-reducing airframe modifications, including landing gear doors that closed after the gear was extended. Once again a corporate version was offered as the Merlin IVC. A version with strengthened floors and the high gross weight option was offered as a cargo aircraft known as the Expediter.
Both the Expediter and the Merlin IVC were designated the SA227-AT. Due to reliability problems with Garrett engines in the second half of the 1980s, the Metro IIIA was offered with two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45R turboprops in place of the Garrett units. A special model was the SA227-BC Metro III built for Mexican airline AeroLitoral, which took delivery of 15 of the 18 of this model that were produced. Improvements beyond the Metro III provided better systems, more power and a further increase in takeoff weight; this design effort resulted in the SA227 CC and SA227-DC models called the Metro IV renamed Metro 23, so named as they were designed for certification under FAR Part 23 standards. A Metro 23 EF with an external pod under the lower fuselage for greater baggage capacity was offered as well as an Expediter 23 and Merlin 23; the SA227-CC was an interim model with TPE331-11U engines and only a handful were built. In the 1960s Swearingen Aircraft developed a prototype SA-28T eight-seat jet aircraft with a flapless delta wing.
It shared the cockpit with the Merlin/Metro. The two engines were to be Garrett TFE731 turbofans in development. Early flights were to be undertaken with General Electric CJ610 engines fitted. Development continued after Fairchild acquired the company, but the project was shut down nine weeks from first flight, it was cut up as scrap and the fuselage used as a Metro display at trade shows. At the 1987 Paris Air Show, Fairchild released details of proposed developments of the Metro designated the Metro V and Metro VI; these versions would have featured a longer fuselage with a taller "stand-up" cabin providing 69 in of interior height for passengers. A Merlin V corporate version of the Metro V was plan