Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm caused by others. Beneficiaries of security may be of persons and social groups and institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by its environment. Security refers to protection from hostile forces, but it has a wide range of other senses: for example, as the absence of harm; the term is used to refer to acts and systems whose purpose may be to provide security. The word'secure' entered the English language in the 16th century, it is derived from Latin securus, meaning freedom from anxiety: se + cura. A security referent is the focus of a security discourse. Security referents may be persons or social groups, institutions, ecosystems, or any other phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by the forces of its environment; the referent in question may combine many referents, in the same way that, for example, a nation state is composed of many individual citizens. The security context is the relationships between its environment.
From this perspective and insecurity depend first on whether the environment is beneficial or hostile to the referent, how capable is the referent of responding to its/their environment in order to survive and thrive. The means by which a referent provides for security vary widely, they include, for example: Coercive capabilities, including the capacity to project coercive power into the environment. Any action intended to provide security may have multiple effects. For example, an action may have wide benefit, enhancing security for several or all security referents in the context. Approaches to security are the subject of debate. For example, in debate about national security strategies, some argue that security depends principally on developing protective and coercive capabilities in order to protect the security referent in a hostile environment. Others argue that security depends principally on building the conditions in which equitable relationships can develop by reducing antagonism between actors, ensuring that fundamental needs can be met, that differences of interest can be negotiated effectively.
The table shows some of the main domains. The range of security contexts is illustrated by the following examples: Computer security known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, the Internet; the field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. It concerns the protection of hardware, data and the procedures by which systems are accessed; the means of computer security include the physical security of systems and security of information held on them. Corporate security refers to the resilience of corporations against espionage, theft and other threats; the security of corporations has become more complex as reliance on IT systems has increased, their physical presence has become more distributed across several countries, including environments that are, or may become, hostile to them. Ecological security known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms.
The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown. Food security refers to the ready supply of, access to, safe and nutritious food. Food security is gaining in importance as the world's population has grown and productive land has diminished through overuse and climate change. Home security refers to the security systems used on a property used as a dwelling; the concept is supported by the United Nations General Assembly, which has stressed "the right of people to live in freedom and dignity" and recognized "t
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may connect over a network to a server on a different device. Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, application servers. Client–server systems are today most implemented by the request–response model: a client sends a request to the server, which performs some action and sends a response back to the client with a result or acknowledgement. Designating a computer as "server-class hardware" implies that it is specialized for running servers on it.
This implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers, but alternatively, large computing clusters may be composed of many simple, replaceable server components. The use of the word server in computing comes from queueing theory, where it dates to the mid 20th century, being notably used in Kendall, the paper that introduced Kendall's notation. In earlier papers, such as the Erlang, more concrete terms such as " operators" are used. In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5, one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET, is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host"; the use of "serving" dates to early documents, such as RFC 4, contrasting "serving-host" with "using-host". The Jargon File defines "server" in the common sense of a process performing service for requests remote, with the 1981 version reading: SERVER n. A kind of DAEMON which performs a service for the requester, which runs on a computer other than the one on which the server runs.
Speaking, the term server refers to a computer program or process. Through metonymy, it refers to a device used for running several server programs. On a network, such a device is called a host. In addition to server, the words serve and service are used, though servicer and servant are not; the word service may refer to either the abstract form of e.g. Web service. Alternatively, it may refer to a computer program that turns a computer into a server, e.g. Windows service. Used as "servers serve users", in the sense of "obey", today one says that "servers serve data", in the same sense as "give". For instance, web servers "serve web pages to users" or "service their requests"; the server is part of the client–server model. The nature of communication between a client and server is response; this is in contrast with peer-to-peer model. In principle, any computerized process that can be used or called by another process is a server, the calling process or processes is a client, thus any general purpose computer connected to a network can host servers.
For example, if files on a device are shared by some process, that process is a file server. Web server software can run on any capable computer, so a laptop or a personal computer can host a web server. While request–response is the most common client–server design, there are others, such as the publish–subscribe pattern. In the publish–subscribe pattern, clients register with a pub–sub server, subscribing to specified types of messages. Thereafter, the pub–sub server forwards matching messages to the clients without any further requests: the server pushes messages to the client, rather than the client pulling messages from the server as in request–response; the purpose of a server is to share data as well as to distribute work. A server computer can serve its own computer programs as well; the following table shows several scenarios. The entire structure of the Internet is based upon a client–server model. High-level root nameservers, DNS, routers direct the traffic on the internet. There are millions of servers connected to the Internet, running continuously throughout the world and every action taken by an ordinary Internet user requires one or more interactions with one or more server.
There are exceptions. Hardware requirement for servers vary depending on the server's purpose and its software. Since servers are accessed over a network, many run unattended without a computer monitor or input device, audio hardware and USB interfaces. Many servers do not have a graphical user interface, they are managed remotely. Remote management can be conducted via various methods including Microsoft Management Console, PowerShell, SSH and browser-based out-of-band management systems such as Dell's iDRAC or HP's iLo. Large traditional single servers would need to be run for long periods without interruption. Ava
Google Docs is a word processor included as part of a free, web-based software office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service. This service includes Google Sheets and Google Slides, a spreadsheet and presentation program respectively. Google Docs is available as a web application, mobile app for Android, iOS, BlackBerry, as a desktop application on Google's ChromeOS; the app is compatible with Microsoft Office file formats. The application allows users to create and edit files online while collaborating with other users in real-time. Edits are tracked by user with a revision history presenting changes. An editor's position is highlighted with cursor. A permissions system regulates. Updates have introduced features using machine learning, including "Explore", offering search results based on the contents of a document, "Action items", allowing users to assign tasks to other users. Google's Drive originated from Writely and XL2Web. Writely was a web-based word processor created by the software company Upstartle and launched in August 2005.
It began as an experiment by programmers Sam Schillace, Steve Newman and Claudia Carpenter, trying out the then-new Ajax technology and the "content editable" function in browsers. On March 9, 2006, Google announced. In July 2009, Google dropped the beta testing status from Google Docs. In March 2010, Google acquired an online document collaboration company. DocVerse allowed multiple user online collaboration on Microsoft Word documents, as well as other Microsoft Office formats, such as Excel and PowerPoint. Improvements based on DocVerse were announced and deployed in April 2010. In June 2012, Google acquired Quickoffice, a "leader in office productivity solutions", with particular emphasis on Quickoffice's "seamless interoperability with popular file formats". In October 2012, Google renamed the Drive products and Google Documents became Google Docs. At the same time, Chrome apps were released, which provided shortcuts to the service on Chrome's new tab page. In February 2019, Google announced grammar suggestions in Docs, expanding their spell check by using machine translation techniques to help catch tricky grammatical errors.
Google Docs is available as a web application supported on Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Apple Safari web browsers. Users can access all Docs, as well as other files, collectively through the Google Drive website. In June 2014, Google rolled out a dedicated website homepage for Docs, that contains only files created with the service. In 2014, Google launched a dedicated mobile app for Docs on the Android and iOS mobile operating systems. In 2015, the mobile website for Docs was updated with a "simpler, more uniform" interface, while users can read files through the mobile websites, users trying to edit will be redirected towards the dedicated mobile app, thus preventing editing on the mobile web. Google Docs and the other apps in the Google Drive suite serve as a collaborative tool for cooperative editing of documents in real-time. Documents can be shared and edited by multiple users and users are able to see character-by-character changes as other collaborators make edits.
Changes are automatically saved to Google's servers, a revision history is automatically kept so past edits may be viewed and reverted to. An editor's current position is represented with an editor-specific color/cursor, so if another editor happens to be viewing that part of the document they can see edits as they occur. A sidebar chat functionality allows collaborators to discuss edits; the revision history allows users to see the additions made to a document, with each author distinguished by color. Only adjacent revisions can be compared, users cannot control how revisions are saved. Files can be exported to a user's local computer in a variety of formats. Files can be archived for organizational purposes. Launched in September 2016, "Explore" enables additional functionality through machine learning. In Google Docs, Explore shows relevant Google search results based on information in the document, simplifying information gathering. Users can mark specific document text, press Explore and see search results based on the marked text only.
The "Explore" features in Docs follow the launch of a more basic research tool introduced in 2012. In December 2016, Google introduced a quick citations feature to Google Docs; the quick citation tool allows users to "insert citations as footnotes with the click of a button" on the web through the Explore feature introduced in September. The citation feature marked the launch of the Explore functionalities in G Suite for Education accounts. In June 2014, Google introduced "Suggested edits" in Google Docs. In October 2016, Google announced "Action items" for Docs. If a user writes phrases such as "Ryan to follow up on the keynote script", the service will intelligently assign that action to "Ryan". Google states this will make it easier for other collaborators to see which person is responsible for what task; when a user visits Google Drive, Sheets or Slides, any files with tasks assigned to them will be highlighted with a badge. In March 2014, Google introduced add-ons. In order to view and edit documents offline on a computer, users need to be using the Google Chrome web browser.
A Chrome extension, Google Docs Offline, allows users to enable offline support
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, it directs users to enter personal information at a fake website, the look and feel of which are identical to the legitimate site. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques being used to deceive users. Users are lured by communications purporting to be from trusted parties such as social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators. Attempts to deal with phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, technical security measures — because phishing attacks often exploit weaknesses in current web security; the word itself is a neologism created as a homophone of fishing, due to the similarity of using a bait in an attempt to catch a victim. Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing.
In contrast to bulk phishing, spear phishing attackers gather and use personal information about their target to increase their probability of success. Threat Group-4127 used spear phishing tactics to target email accounts linked to Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign, they attacked more than 1,800 Google accounts and implemented the accounts-google.com domain to threaten targeted users. Clone phishing is a type of phishing attack whereby a legitimate, delivered, email containing an attachment or link has had its content and recipient address taken and used to create an identical or cloned email; the attachment or link within the email is replaced with a malicious version and sent from an email address spoofed to appear to come from the original sender. It may claim to be a resend of an updated version to the original; this technique could be used to pivot from a infected machine and gain a foothold on another machine, by exploiting the social trust associated with the inferred connection due to both parties receiving the original email.
The term whaling has been coined for spear phishing attacks directed at senior executives and other high-profile targets. In these cases, the content will be crafted to target an upper manager and the person's role in the company; the content of a whaling attack email may be an executive issue such as a subpoena or customer complaint. Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of subdomains are common tricks used by phishers. In the following example URL, http://www.yourbank.example.com/, it appears as though the URL will take you to the example section of the yourbank website. Another common trick is to make the displayed text for a link suggest a reliable destination, when the link goes to the phishers' site. Many desktop email clients and web browsers will show a link's target URL in the status bar while hovering the mouse over it; this behavior, may in some circumstances be overridden by the phisher.
An attacker can potentially use flaws in a trusted website's own scripts against the victim. These types of attacks are problematic, because they direct the user to sign in at their bank or service's own web page, where everything from the web address to the security certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it difficult to spot without specialist knowledge; such a flaw was used in 2006 against PayPal. To avoid anti-phishing techniques that scan websites for phishing-related text, phishers sometimes use Flash-based websites; these hide the text in a multimedia object. Covert redirect is a subtle method to perform phishing attacks that makes links appear legitimate, but redirect a victim to an attacker's website; the flaw is masqueraded under a log-in popup based on an affected site's domain. It can affect OAuth OpenID based on well-known exploit parameters as well; this makes use of open redirect and XSS vulnerabilities in the third-party application websites.
Users may be redirected to phishing websites covertly through malicious browser extensions. Norma
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0