click links in text for more info


In telecommunication and signal processing companding is a method of mitigating the detrimental effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. The name is a portmanteau of the words compressing and expanding, which are the functions of a compander at the transmitting and receiving end respectively; the use of companding allows signals with a large dynamic range to be transmitted over facilities that have a smaller dynamic range capability. Companding is employed in telephony and other audio applications such as professional wireless microphones and analog recording. While the dynamic range compression used in audio recording and the like depends on a variable-gain amplifier, so is a locally linear process, companding is non-linear; the dynamic range of a signal is compressed before transmission and is expanded to the original value at the receiver. The electronic circuit that does this is called a compander and works by compressing or expanding the dynamic range of an analog electronic signal such as sound recorded by a microphone.

One variety is a triplet of amplifiers: a logarithmic amplifier, followed by a variable-gain linear amplifier and an exponential amplifier. Such a triplet has the property that its output voltage is proportional to the input voltage raised to an adjustable power. Companded quantization is the combination of three functional building blocks – namely, a signal dynamic range compressor, a limited-range uniform quantizer, a signal dynamic range expander that inverts the compressor function; this type of quantization is used in telephony systems. In practice, companders are designed to operate according to simple dynamic range compressor functions that are designed to be suitable for implementation using simple analog electronic circuits; the two most popular compander functions used for telecommunications are the A-law and μ-law functions. Companding is used in digital telephony systems, compressing before input to an analog-to-digital converter, expanding after a digital-to-analog converter; this is equivalent to using a non-linear ADC as in a T-carrier telephone system that implements A-law or μ-law companding.

This method is used in digital file formats for better signal-to-noise ratio at lower bit rates. For example, a linearly encoded 16-bit PCM signal can be converted to an 8-bit WAV or AU file while maintaining a decent SNR by compressing before the transition to 8-bit and expanding after a conversion back to 16-bit; this is a form of lossy audio data compression. Professional wireless microphones do this since the dynamic range of the microphone audio signal itself is larger than the dynamic range provided by radio transmission. Companding reduces the noise and crosstalk levels at the receiver. Companders are used in some noise reduction schemes; the use of companding in an analog picture transmission system was patented by A. B. Clark of AT&T in 1928: In the transmission of pictures by electric currents, the method which consists in sending currents varied in a non-linear relation to the light values of the successive elements of the picture to be transmitted, at the receiving end exposing corresponding elements of a sensitive surface to light varied in inverse non-linear relation to the received current.

In 1942, Clark and his team completed the SIGSALY secure voice transmission system that included the first use of companding in a PCM system. In 1953, B. Smith showed that a nonlinear DAC could be complemented by the inverse nonlinearity in a successive-approximation ADC configuration, simplifying the design of digital companding systems. In 1970, H. Kaneko developed the uniform description of segment companding laws that had by been adopted in digital telephony. In the 1980s, many of the music equipment manufacturers used companding when compressing the library waveform data in their digital synthesizers; this dates back to the late'80s when memory chips were one of the most costly components in the instrument. Manufacturers quoted the amount of memory in its compressed form: i.e. 24 MB of physical waveform ROM in a Korg Trinity is 48 MB when uncompressed. Roland SR-JV expansion boards were advertised as 8 MB boards with'16 MB-equivalent content'. Careless copying of this technical information, omitting the "equivalence" reference, can cause confusion.

Companding: Logarithmic Laws and Consequences

Walking Tall (2004 film)

Walking Tall is a 2004 American action film directed by Kevin Bray. A remake of the 1973 film of the same name, it stars The Johnny Knoxville, it can be said to be loosely based on the real-life story of Sheriff Buford Pusser and utilized many elements from his life. A number of aspects were changed, including the main character's name, the character returning to his hometown as a war veteran, the setting was moved from McNairy County, Tennessee to Kitsap County, United States. Former U. S. Army Special Forces sergeant Chris Vaughn returns to his small home town in Kitsap County, Washington. Looking for work, he finds the local cedar mill was closed down three years prior by its heir, Jay Hamilton, who opened a new casino that now accounts for the majority of revenue for the local area. Hamilton, Vaughn's school friend, invites him to a night of fun at the casino. While checking out the VIP lounge, Vaughn stumbles upon his childhood friend Deni, now working as a stripper, he notices the craps dealer using loaded dice and demonstrates this to the patrons by placing a bet and calling out the roll before throwing the dice.

When the floorman declares no payout, Vaughn instigates a fight. Although he beats down most of the security guards, he is subsequently subdued with a cattle prod and knocked unconscious; the security staff take Vaughn into the basement and Hamilton's right-hand man and head of security Booth tortures him by cutting his torso with a utility knife before dumping him on a roadside. He recovers quickly. Vaughn goes to the sheriff, Stan Watkins, to press charges against the guards, but Sheriff Watkins refuses to allow him to do so because the casino is viewed as too important to the town's economy, stating that because of its position, the casino is considered a "no fly zone". After this, Vaughn learns that his nephew, experimented with crystal meth, sold to his friends by the casino security guards. Infuriated, Vaughn goes to the casino, using a piece of lumber as a club, begins destroying casino property, brutally beats the security guards when they attempt to stop him. Vaughn is apprehended by his deputies as he is driving away from the scene.

In the ensuing trial, all of Hamilton's security and staff testify against Vaughn. When the judge allows Vaughn to present his defense, he fires his appointed attorney, implicitly under Hamilton's employ. After making a civic speech about the town's great former self, Vaughn tells the jury and the rest of the town that if he is cleared of the charges, he will run for sheriff and clean up the town. To further emphasize his plea, Vaughn reveals the grotesque scars on his torso from his being tortured by the casino staff, he is acquitted and wins the election for sheriff. Upon taking office, he summarily dismisses the entire police force and deputizes his friend, Ray Templeton, whom Vaughn feels he can trust, as well as help Vaughn learn about narcotics. Vaughn and Templeton find drugs on Booth and they take him into custody. In an attempt to make him reveal information on the town drug operation, they hold him captive in a garage and proceed to strip his truck into pieces in front of him, but he does not talk.

Vaughn assigns Templeton to stand watch over his house, as he knows Hamilton will target his family. Vaughn himself remains at the sheriff's office to supervise Booth, he is visited by Deni, stopping by under the pretense of bringing him food and reveals that she quit her job as the casino stripper. The two end up spending the night together in the office; the next morning and his deputies arrive at the Sheriff's office where they blow up Vaughn's truck and fire upon the building with machine guns. Recognizing his dangerous predicament, Booth pleads for Vaughn to let him out of his cell, prompting Vaughn to use Booth's perilous situation as leverage for information. Booth reveals that the old mill is where the drugs are being produced, but is killed by the indiscriminate fire of the attackers. Vaughn manages to kill all of the attackers with Deni's help. Vaughn's parents' house is attacked, but Templeton and Vaughn's father are able to dispatch the gunmen. After ensuring their safety, Vaughn heads for the mill where he discovers a meth lab as well as Hamilton, calmly waiting in a control room.

Hamilton attempts to kill Vaughn with the mill equipment by dropping him through a trap door, but Vaughn drags Hamilton down with him and the two fall through a chute. Vaughn, whose leg is injured, manages to tend to his injury in a nearby forest before Hamilton attacks him with an axe; the two fight for their lives, with Vaughn coming out on top by beating Hamilton with a nearby uprooted tree, breaking his leg. Vaughn repeats; this does change our relationship. This is my town. You're under arrest." And Hamilton is arrested and taken into custody, with Templeton's assistance, Vaughn shuts down the casino. In the closing scene it is revealed. Dwayne Johnson as Christopher "Chris" Vaughn, Jr. Johnny Knoxville as Ray Templeton Neal McDonough as Jay Hamilton Michael Bowen as Sheriff Stan Watkins Kevin Durand as Booth Kristen Wilson as Michelle Vaughn Ashley Scott as Deni Khleo Thomas as Pete Vaughn John Beasley as Christopher Vaughn Sr. Cobie Smulders as Beautiful Eye Candy in car In the original film, Pusser uses a wooden club to beat the criminals.

Director Kevin Bray wanted to update it by making it a baseball bat. There were objections, so the compr

Chaudhary Nisar Ali Khan

Chaudhary Nisar Ali Khan is a Pakistani politician who served as the Interior Minister from 2013 to 2017. He is an independent member-elect of the Provincial Assembly of Punjab - elected to represent PP-10 - having won in the General Election 2018, he received 53,145 votes from the constituency after being unsuccessful from three other seats. A former leader of the Pakistan Muslim League, Khan had been a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan between 1985 and May 2018, he was the Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly from 2008 to 2013. Born in Chakri Vakilan, Khan was educated at Army Burn Hall College. Khan has served in various federal cabinet positions since 1988, he served as the Science and Technology Minister in 1988. During Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's first and second ministries, he held the cabinet portfolio of Petroleum and Natural Resources Minister. During the Gillani ministry, he served as the Food and Livestock Minister with the additional portfolio of Communications Minister.

In June 2013, during the third Sharif ministry, he was appointed as the Interior Minister, which he held until the dissolution of the federal cabinet in July 2017 following the dismissal of Sharif by the Supreme Court. Khan was born on 31 July 1954 to Brigadier Fateh Khan in Rawalpindi District, he attended Aitchison College and Army Burn Hall College.. He was pervaiz Khattak in Atchison college, Lahore, he is the younger brother of General Iftikhar Ali Khan. He belongs to the Jatt family, he have straight forward person. Khan began his political career in the 1980s after becoming chairman of Rawalpindi district council, he became close to Nawaz Sharif during the rule of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. He was first elected to the National Assembly in the 1985 general election from constituency NA-52, he was re-elected to the National Assembly from the same constituency in the 1988 general election on the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad ticket. He was appointed as the Federal Minister for Science and Technology. After getting re-elected for the third time to the National Assembly in the 1990 general election on the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad ticket from constituency NA-52, Khan was made the Federal Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources and Provincial Coordinator, where he served from 1990 to 1993 during the first government of Sharif.

He was re-elected to the national assembly for the fourth time in the 1993 general election from constituency NA-52. He was re-elected to the National Assembly for the fifth time in the 1997 general election from constituency NA-52 and was for the second time appointed as the Federal Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources, where he served until he was dismissed in October 1999 after the coup d'état when Chief of Army Staff, Pervez Musharraf, overthrew the elected government of Sharif. Khan was placed under house arrest for many weeks, it was during his tenure as Member of the National Assembly, he became the most powerful man in PML-N after Nawaz Sharif. Khan was among Sharif's loyalists who kept the PML-N alive during the Musharraf rule. Musharraf was appointed as the Chief of Army Staff on the recommendation of Khan. Khan was re-elected to the National Assembly for the sixth time in the 2002 general election from constituency NA-52. However, he lost the election in constituency NA-53.

He was re-elected as a member of the National Assembly in the 2008 general election for the seventh time, both from constituency NA-52 and from constituency NA-53. Khan vacated the NA-52 seat and retained NA-53. Khan was appointed as the Federal Minister for Food and Livestock and Federal Minister for Communications in March 2008 in the government of Yousaf Raza Gillani, but his tenure was short-lived due to PML-N's decision to leave the Pakistan Peoples Party-led coalition government. In September 2008, he was appointed as the Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly after the resignation of Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi. In October 2011, he became the first-ever chairperson of the Public Accounts Committee of the National Assembly to present annual reports, but he resigned in November 2011 claiming that accountability was not possible under the Pakistan Peoples Party regime led by President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Gilani. For the 2013 general election, Khan was made part of PML-N’s central parliamentary board tasked with selecting candidates for the election.

Khan was re-elected to the National Assembly from constituency NA-52 for the eighth time in the election and was appointed as the Federal Minister for Interior and Narcotics Control in the Sharif cabinet, as he had a close relationship with the Pakistan Armed Forces. In 2013, Dawn reported that, although Khan had no post in PML-N, he was known for his assertiveness in the party’s affairs and had had differences with other PML-N leaders. Before the 2013 election, Khan lobbied to become the Chief Minister of Punjab and proposed that Shehbaz Sharif be made Minister for Water and Power, but Nawaz Sharif did not give the party ticket to Khan for the provincial seat. In spite of that, Khan contested the election for provincial assembly seat as an independent candidate and won. Dawn reported. In March 2015, The News International commended the 21-month progress of Khan as Interior Minister. However, Khan was held responsible

Lena Petermann

Lena Petermann is a German football striker playing for Montpellier in the Division 1 Feminine. Petermann started her club career at Hamburger SV. In 2013, she moved to the USA to play college football for the UCF Knights in Florida, were in her first year she was named the Conference rookie of the year. After a successful campaign with Germany women's national under-20 football team at the 2014 U-20 Women's World Cup she had an opportunity and decided to move back to Germany to pursue a professional career, by joining SC Freiburg; as an under-17 international she played the UEFA Women's Under-17 Championship in 2010 and 2011. As well as the 2010 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup, she played for Germany women's national under-20 football team and was part of the winning team of the 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup where she scored three goals. The first was in a 2–0 victory against the United States at the group stage, she scored the first goal of that match, her second goal came during the semifinal against France, with the scores at 1–1 and France dominating the match, she scored the winning goal at the 81st minute.

Her third goal was the title winning goal during the 1–0 triumph over Nigeria, scored at the 98th minute during the match extra-time. Petermann made her debut for the senior German team on 6 March 2015 at the Algarve Cup against China, she was part of the German squad of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Canada, where she scored her first two goals for Germany, both came at the group stage 4–0 win match against Thailand. Scores and results list Germany's goal tally first: Source: Germany U20FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup: Winner 2014 Lena Petermann – FIFA competition record Profile at DFB Player German domestic football stats at DFB U-20 Profile at DFB U-17 Profile at DFB Profile at UCF Knights

List of tropical cyclones in Pakistan

Pakistan lies in the temperate zone. The climate is arid, characterized by the extreme southwestern part of the country where Gwadar is the main port city. Though cyclones are rare in the Arabian sea which a part of North Indian Ocean, cyclones that form in this sea move towards Western India rather than Pakistan. Cyclones in the Arabian sea form from May till June and from September till October, monsoon season plays a vital role for the formation of cyclone in this basin. Tropical storms that hit Pakistan are remnants by the time reach Pakistan or make landfall in south eastern Sindh, not much populated they move towards the Balochistan coast. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the extreme south western part of the country where Gwadar is the main port city. Though cyclones are rare in the Arabian sea, a part of North Indian Ocean, cyclones that form in this sea move towardsWestern India rather than Pakistan. Cyclones in the Arabian sea form from May till June and from September till October, monsoon season plays a vital role for the formation of cyclone in this basin.

Each year before the onset of monsoon, 15 April to 15 July and after its withdrawal, 15 September to 15 December, there is always a distinct possibility of the cyclonic storm to develop in the north Arabian Sea. There is a 98 per cent chance of cyclones to turn towards the Indian state of Gujarat, one per cent chance of moving towards the Gulf and one per cent chance of moving towards the Pakistani coast. There is only one tropical cyclone warning centre in Pakistan, in Karachi in Sindh province. Cyclones hit the Sindh coast than the Balochistan coast in Pakistan. During the last 125 years a number of cyclonic storms have struck Pakistan's coastal areas; the years involved were 1895, 1902, 1907, 1944, 1948, 1964, 1985, 1999, 2007 and 2010. Other cyclones that are listed below caused rains as remnants. 10 July 1894 – A land depression moved westward through India, entering current-day Pakistan at Sindh. 18 June 1895 – A cyclonic storm hit the Makran coast in Balochistan province. 3 May 1901 – Originating off the southwest coast of India, a cyclone passed near Oman before making landfall along Balochistan.

The storm dissipated on 5 May. May 1902 – A cyclonic storm struck the coast in the vicinity of Karachi. June 1907 – A tropical storm struck the coast near Karachi. 27 July 1944 – A cyclone left some 10,000 people homeless in Karachi. 8 June 1948 – Moving ashore near Pasni along the Makran, a storm brought rainfall to Balochistan and Sindh. 12 June 1964 – A cyclone made landfall in Tharparkar and Hyderabad district in Sindh province. It left some 400,000 people homeless. 15 December 1965 – A cyclone struck Karachi, killing 10,000 people. It is the deadliest cyclone on record in Pakistan. May 1985 – A cyclonic storm made a landfall in the eastern direction of Karachi; the cyclonic storm in 1985, moving towards Karachi had weakened over the sea while still a few 100 Kilometers away south of Karachi. 16 November 1993 – A cyclone dissipated near the Sindh-Gujarat border. However it caused massive rainfall and flooding in Karachi but Thatta and Badin districts were the worst affected where the cyclone killed 609 people and displaced some 200,000 others.

9 June 1998 – Striking Gujarat in neighboring India, a cyclone electrocuted 12 people in Pakistan. 20 May 1999 – The strongest cyclone to hit Pakistan moved ashore near Keti Bandar at Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson scale. It killed 6,200 people in the country. At least $1 million in relief funds was to be supplied by the government. May 2001 – More than 100,000 people evacuated in southeastern Pakistan due to the threat from a powerful cyclone in the Arabian Sea; the storm struck Gujarat as a weakened cyclone on 29 May. 1 October 2004 – Cyclone Onil became the first named storm in the Indian Ocean, meandered for several days off the coast of Gujarat. In Pakistan, Onil brought gusty winds. In Karachi, nine people died from the storm, as flooded streets and power outages contributed to at least two electrocution deaths. June 2007 – Powerful Cyclone Gonu remained well southwest of Pakistan, but it still produced heavy rainfall and strong winds in the city of Gwadar in Balochistan, where it caused damage to dozens of boats and school buildings in the area.

It caused high winds with light rainfall in Karachi and other coastal areas. 23 June 2007 – Cyclone Yemyin, which developed over the Bay of Bengal and intensified into a cyclone over the Arabian Sea, killed 200 people alone in Karachi city due to heavy rainfall and intense windstorms as it was moving towards Balochistan province. It made landfall near the towns of Ormara and Pasni in the Balochistan province on 26 June where it killed 300 people. Overall it killed 730 people and affected the lives of 2 million people in Pakistan making it the third deadliest cyclone in the history of the country. In November 2009, remnants of Cyclone Phyan caused gusty winds along the Sindh coast including Karachi; however six Pakistani fishermen were trapped in the storm rescued by the Indian Navy. 6 June 2010 – Cyclone Phet made landfall near Karachi as a depression, having earlier dropped heavy rainfall along the Makran coast. Gwadar recorded 370 mm of rainfall, which damaged 10,000 houses, disrupted portions of the Makran Coastal Highway.

Phet killed at least 18 people in Pakistan – 11 by electrocution, 7 due to collapsed walls. The storm injured dozens of others and left thousands of Pakistanis homeless. Damage was estimated at RS7 billion. November 9 - 12, 2010 - The remnants of Cyclone Jal impacted Pakistan. List

Vancouver Police Union

The Vancouver Police Union is a trade union representing 1,450 front-line police officers, jail guards and special constables of the Vancouver Police Department in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The Vancouver Police Union received its charter from the Trades and Labour Council under the name Vancouver Police Federal Association, Local 12, on 15 July 1918, making it the second unionized police force in Canada. Unlike many other police unions, the VPU survived the backlash against police rank and file organizations following the British police strikes in 1918 and 1919, the Boston Police Strike, the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. Police unions were outlawed in many jurisdictions and subsequently reduced to "police associations." As a result, the VPU was the first police union certified under the new industrial relations regulatory regime in 1945, remained one of the few rank and file police organizations that were covered by labour legislation. It therefore enjoyed an advantage in collective bargaining with such things as mandatory arbitration in disputes with management compared with other police organizations.

The VPU is the collective bargaining agent for 1300 members of the Vancouver Police Department and negotiates labour contracts. It represents its members in disciplinary cases and cases relating to the Workers' Compensation Act and Employment Standards Act. Through its president and spokesperson, Tom Stamatakis, the union acts as a political lobby on behalf of its membership, has taken a strong position on issues such as the Insite safe injection site in Vancouver, calling it an "unmitigated disaster" for the Downtown Eastside and claiming that all it has accomplished is the creation of a "sense of entitlement" for the neighbourhood's drug addicted population; the union has questioned the credibility of Sam Sullivan in his capacity as chair of the police board. Critics of the Vancouver Police have been publicly denounced by the union lawyers Phil Rankin, Cameron Ward, John Richardson of the Pivot Legal Society. Union president Tom Stamatakis is the vice-president of the Canadian Police Association.

The Vancouver Police Union’s office address is 1819 Victoria Diversion, Vancouver, BC. Vancouver Police Union website