England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
International trade is the exchange of capital and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product. While international trade has existed throughout history, its economic and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade; when trade takes place between two or more nations factors like currency, government policies, judicial system and markets influence the trade. International economic and trade organizations address the process of trade as the political relations between two countries influences the trade between them and the obstacles of trading affect the mutual relationship adversely. To smoothen and justify the process of trade between countries of different economic standing, some international economic organisations were formed; these organisations work towards the growth of international trade.
A product, transferred or sold from a party in one country to a party in another country is an export from the originating country, an import to the country receiving that product. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's current account in the balance of payments. Trading globally gives consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to new markets and products; every kind of product can be found in the international market: food, spare parts, jewellery, stocks and water. Services are traded: tourism, banking and transportation Advanced technology, industrialisation and multinational corporations have major impact on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is crucial to the continuance of globalisation. Nations would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders without international trade. International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not.
Carrying out trade at an international level is a more complex process than domestic trade. The main difference is that international trade is more costly than domestic trade; this is due to the fact that a border imposes additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays, costs associated with country differences such as language, the legal system, or culture. Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus, international trade is restricted to trade in goods and services, only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labour, or other factors of production. Trade in goods and services can serve as a substitute for trade in factors of production. Instead of importing a factor of production, a country can import goods that make intensive use of that factor of production and thus embody it. An example of this is the import of labor-intensive goods by the United States from China.
Instead of importing Chinese labor, the United States imports goods that were produced with Chinese labor. One report in 2010 suggested that international trade was increased when a country hosted a network of immigrants, but the trade effect was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into their new country; the history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected trading among various economies. There are several models which seek to explain the factors behind international trade, the welfare consequences of trade and the pattern of trade; the following table is a list of the 21 largest trading nations according to the World Trade Organization. Source: International Trade Centre President George W. Bush observed World Trade Week on May 18, 2001, May 17, 2002. On May 13, 2016, President Barack Obama proclaimed May 15 through May 21, 2016, World Trade Week, 2016. On May 19, 2017, President Donald Trump proclaimed May 21 through May 27, 2017, World Trade Week, 2017.
World Trade Week is the third week of May. Every year the President declares that week to be World Trade Week. Lists List of countries by current account balance List of countries by imports List of countries by exports List of international trade topics Jones, Ronald W.. "Comparative Advantage and the Theory of Tariffs". The Review of Economic Studies. 28: 161–175. Doi:10.2307/2295945. McKenzie, Lionel W.. "Specialization and Efficiency in World Production". The Review of Economic Studies. 21: 165–180. Doi:10.2307/2295770. Samuelson, Paul. "A Ricardo-Sraffa Paradigm Comparing the Gains from Trade in Inputs and Finished Goods". Journal of Economic Literature. 39: 1204–1214. Doi:10.1257/jel.39.4.1204. Data on the value of exports and imports and their quantities broken down by detailed lists of products are available in statistical collections on international trade published by the statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organisations and national statistical institutes; the definitions and methodological concepts applied for the various statistical collections on international trade differ in terms of definition and coverage.
Metadata providing information on definitions and methods are published along with the data. United Nations Commodi
Commissioner (Scottish Parliament)
A Commissioner was a legislator appointed or elected to represent a royal burgh or shire in the pre-Union Scottish Parliament and the associated Convention of the Estates. Member of Parliament and Deputy are equivalent terms in other countries; the Scottish Parliament and the Convention of the Estates were unicameral legislatures, so Commissioners sat alongside prelates and members of the nobility. Burgh Commissioners were the third estate, were the longest-established and most powerful group of commissioners to parliament, they first attended in 1326. Burgh commissioners acted and lobbied collectively, assisted by the fact that the Convention of Royal Burghs met in association with parliamentary sessions. From the 16th century, the second estate of the nobility was reorganised by the selection of Shire Commissioners from the lower nobility: this has been argued to have created a fourth estate; each shire, stewartry or constabulary sent two Shire Commissioners to parliament, with the exception of the small shires of Clackmannan and Kinross which only sent one.
However, each shire had only one vote, meaning that the two commissioners had to cooperate and compromise with each other. They appear to have possessed plena potestas, were not required to consult their electorates. Early shire commissioners were lesser barons, with the earliest recorded shire election being on 31 January 1596, in Aberdeenshire; the powers of the shire commissioners expanded over time with the long-term decline in power of the prelates. In 1640, the Covenanters abolished the episcopates, each shire commissioner was given their own vote; this arrangement continued upon the Restoration of the Episcopates in 1662. Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland, the monarch's own, personal Commissioner to parliament, after the 1603 Union of the Crowns, when the Scottish monarch resided in England Member of the Scottish Parliament Deputy Member of Congress Member of Parliament List of constituencies in the Parliament of Scotland at the time of the Union
The Royal Mile is a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The term was first used descriptively in W M Gilbert's Edinburgh in the Nineteenth Century, "...with its Castle and Palace and the royal mile between", was further popularised as the title of a guidebook, published in 1920. From the Castle gates to the Palace gates the street is exactly a mile long and runs downhill between two significant locations in the royal history of Scotland, namely Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood Palace, hence its name; the streets which make up the Royal Mile are Castlehill, the Lawnmarket, the High Street, the Canongate and Abbey Strand. The Royal Mile is the busiest tourist street in the Old Town, rivalled only by Princes Street in the New Town. Retreating ice sheets, many millennia ago, deposited their glacial debris behind the hard volcanic plug of the castle rock on which Edinburgh Castle stands, resulting in a distinctive crag and tail formation.
Running eastwards from the crag on which the castle sits, the Royal Mile sits upon the ridge of the tail which slopes down to Holyrood Palace. Steep closes run between the many tall lands off the main thoroughfare; the route runs from an elevation of 42 metres above sea level at the palace to 109 metres at the castle, giving an average gradient of 4.1%. The Castle Esplanade was laid out as a parade ground, in 1753, using spoil from the building of the Royal Exchange, it was formalised in 1816 when it was provided with decorative railings and walls. The Esplanade with its several monuments has been A-listed by Historic Scotland, it is the venue of the annual Edinburgh Military Tattoo at which time specially designed temporary grandstands are erected. Cannonball House has a cannonball lodged in the wall said to have been accidentally fired from the Castle but which marks the elevation of Comiston Springs, three miles to the south of the Castle, which fed a cistern on Castlehill, one of the first piped water supplies in Scotland.
From the Castle Esplanade, the short section of road entitled Castlehill is dominated by the former Tolbooth-Highland-St John's Church, now the headquarters of the Edinburgh International Festival society - The Hub, on the north side by the Outlook Tower and Camera Obscura. The Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland and New College are further down on the same side; the Scottish Parliament met in the Assembly Hall between 1999 and 2004. The Lawnmarket was part of the High Street before its separate naming, which accounts for the street numbering being a continuation of the High Street numbers. A charter of 1477 designated this part of the High Street as the market-place for what was called "inland merchandise" - items such as yarn, coarse cloth and other similar articles. In years, linen was the main product sold; as a result, it became known as the Land Market, corrupted to Lawn Market. Today, the majority of shops in the street are aimed at tourists. On the north side is the preserved 17th century merchant's townhouse Gladstone's Land owned by the National Trust for Scotland.
The south side has a strong Dutch influence in its 17th-century gables. The lower end of the Lawnmarket is intersected by George IV Bridge on the right and Bank Street on the left, leading to The Mound and the New Town; the view down Bank Street is closed by the baroque headquarters of the Bank of Scotland. On the south-west corner of this intersection, with its entrance on George IV Bridge, is a new hotel, replacing the former Lothian Regional Council offices; this building is of controversial design winning both best building awards and "carbuncle" awards in 2009/10. Between Bank Street and St Giles Street, marking the end of the Lawnmarket, the High Court of Justiciary, Scotland's supreme criminal court, is housed in what was the Sheriff Court. On the south side, about one-third of the way down from the Castle toward the Palace is Parliament Square, named after the old Parliament House which housed both the law courts and the old Parliament of Scotland between the 1630s and 1707 Parliament House now houses the Court of Session, Scotland's supreme civil court.
St Giles' Cathedral, the High Kirk of Edinburgh stands in Parliament Square. By the West Door of St Giles' is the Heart of Midlothian, a heart-shaped pattern built into the "setted" road, marking the site of the Old Tolbooth the centre of administration and justice in the burgh; the prison was described by Sir Walter Scott as the "Heart of Midlothian", soon after demolition the city fathers marked the site with a heart mosaic. Locals have traditionally spat upon the heart's centre as a sign of contempt for the prison. On the north side, opposite St Giles', stand Edinburgh City Chambers, where the City of Edinburgh Council meets. On the south side, just past the High Kirk, is the Mercat Cross from which royal proclamations are read and the summoning of Parliament announced; the whole south side of buildings from St Giles to the Tron Kirk had to be rebuilt or refaced in the 1820s following the Great Edinburgh Fire of 1824. This was done in a Georgian style; the central focus of the Royal Mile is a major intersection with the Bridges.
North Bridge runs north over Waverley station to the New Town's Princes Street. South Bridge spans the Cowgate to the south, a street in a hollow below, continues as Nicolson Street past the Old College building of the U
Darién is a province in Panama whose capital city is La Palma. With an area of 11,896.5 km2, it is located at the eastern end of the country and bordered to the north by the province of Panamá and the region of Kuna Yala. To the south, it is bordered by Colombia. To the east, it borders Colombia; the area surrounding the border with Colombia is known as the Darién Gap, a large swath of undeveloped swampland and forest. With no roads, it is the missing link of the Pan-American Highway; the name originates from the language spoken by the indigenous Cueva, an Indian tribe destroyed by the conquistadors during the 16th century. The Tanela River, which flows toward Atrato, was Hispanicized to Darién. Santa María la Antigua del Darién, the first city founded in Tierra Firme took its name from the river. Subsequently, the region's boundaries were defined by the Gulf of Urabá. Darién Province has been inhabited by indigenous people for thousands of years. Evidence based on soil erosion suggest Slash-and-burn agriculture at the latest 4000 years ago.
Dissapearance of paleobotanical evidence of this culture coincides with the arrival of European colonists, which decimated this population. In 1508, the Spanish Crown decided to colonize the mainland, the chosen area extending from Cabo Gracias a Dios in western Central America to Cabo de la Vela, Venezuela in the east; the provinces on the mainland were Nueva Andalucía, between the Atrato River in the Gulf of Uraba and the Cabo de la Vela in Venezuela and Castilla del Oro, which stretched from the Atrato River to Cabo Gracias a Dios in Central America. The Governor of Nueva Andalucía was Alonso de Ojeda and the mayor of Castilla del Oro was Diego de Nicuesa, who became the first governor of the Isthmus of Panama. Diego de Nicuesa founded Nombre de Dios in 1510. Martin Fernandez de Enciso founded Santa Maria la Antigua del Darién, west of the Gulf of Urabá, in September 1510 on the advice of Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who had arrived at those lands earlier with Rodrigo de Bastidas. On September 1, 1513, Balboa went in search of the South Sea with 1,000 Indians.
He sighted the sea on September 25, 1513, took possession of it on September 29 in the Gulf of San Miguel. During the late 17th century there was a Scottish colonization project in the Isthmus of Panama, from which William Paterson emerged as the center of the unsuccessful attempt; the attempt to colonize by the Company of Scotland, which traded with Africa and the Indies, was part of the conflict between Spain and other 16th-century European powers in reaction to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. On July 14, 1698 Paterson left with an expedition of about 1,200 on five ships from Scotland; the expedition landed October 30, 1698 in Anachucuna, a sandy bay in the north of Darien near Golden Island. It forged a "treaty of alliance and friendship" with an Indian leader, founded in Acla a colony known as New Caledonia. Paterson and his expedition withstood a Spanish force. However, diseases related to the unsanitary conditions soon decimated the expedition. In June 1699 the Scots were forced to leave New Caledonia, despite protests from Paterson, retreated to Jamaica.
A second expedition left Scotland on September 24, 1699 from Port Clyde River with four ships: the Rising Sun, Hope of Boroughstonness and Company's Hope). Paterson had a total crew of 1,300 men. On November 30, 1699 they arrived safely at the port of Caledonia, but met greater resistance from Spanish forces. On March 28, 1700, they requested; the Constitution of Panama of 1972, amended by the Reform Acts of 1978 and the Constitutional Act of 1983, has a unitary, republican and representative government. Three branches of government exist in all provinces of the Republic of Panama. Darién Province is divided into 25 corregimientos. 1 - contains the easternmost point of Central America The comarca indígena of Emberá-Wounaan was established in the province on November 8, 1983. It consists of two additional districts: Cémaco SambúThe comarca indígena of Kuna de Wargandí was established in 2000, is not subdivided into districts. Darién Province covers an area of 11,896 square kilometres, comparable to the island of Jamaica.
In the centre is an undulating plain, fed by the rivers Chucunaque and Tuira and framed by steep areas of the highlands of San Blas, Bagre and the Saltos. Among the highest mountains in the province are Tacarcuna at 2,280 metres, Piña at 1,581 metres, Pirre at 1,569 metres, Nique at 1,550 metres, Chucantí at 1,430 metres, Tanela at 1,415 metres and Upper Quia at 1,361 metres. Eight percent of the province's land is suitable for intensive cultivation, 60 percent is suitable for pasture, permanent crops and forestry production and 25 percent is protected forest reserves; the dominant natural vegetation is forests which, according to the topographic elevation and rainfall patterns, are classified as tropical moist, subtropical moist and cloud forest. Rainfall reaches 1,700 to 2,000 mm near the inlet of Garachiné, with a marked dry period between January and April. However, in the foothills and valleys of the province's interior precipi
In sailing, a snow, snaw or snauw is a square rigged vessel with two masts, complemented by a snow- or trysail-mast stepped abaft the main mast. The word'snow' comes from'snauw', an old Dutch word for beak; the snow evolved from the ship: the mizzen mast of a ship was moved closer towards the mainmast, until the mizzen mast was no longer a separate mast, but was instead made fast at the main mast top. As such, in the 17th century the snow used to be sometimes classified as a three-masted vessel; the snow dates back to the late 17th century and had a loose footed gaff sail, the boom was introduced somewhere in the 18th century. It was a popular type of vessel in the Baltic Sea and was employed by a large number of nations during its time; the snow was considered a handy and fast sailing vessel the largest two masted vessel around and was employed in both navy and merchant service. When used as a military vessel, snows were, in the early 18th century fitted with 5 to 16 guns. Military snows were used for coastal patrols and privateering, while in the merchant service, snows traded all the way to the Mediterranean and sometimes sailed as far as the West Indies.
Snow: the largest of all old two-masted vessels. The sails and rigging on the main mast of a snow are similar to those on the same masts in a full-rigged ship. While the snow and the brig might appear related, this is in fact not the case; the two rigs developed from different directions, the brig evolving from the smaller brigantine, the much older snow evolving from the larger three masted ship. The most visible difference between the brig and the snow is in the latter's "snow-mast", stepped directly behind the main mast. In contrast to the brig, where the gaff and boom attach directly to the main mast, a snow's gaff, in times its boom, were attached to the snow-mast; the use of this characteristic snow-mast offered several advantages over attaching the gaff directly to the main mast. The yoke of the gaff and the lacing of the gaff sail on a snow could move on the snow mast, not hindered by the iron bands that held together the mast, nor limited by the main yard; as a result of the latter, the gaff could be raised higher than the main yard and independently of it.
The resulting freedom allowed a snow, in contrast to the brigs, to fly a main course without complications, as they did. However, in the late 18th century, brigs started to set main courses as well, which gave rise to the term snow-brig; the differences lessened further when the snow-mast was replaced by a steel cable, at which point the term "snow-brig" became interchangeable with the term "brig" and the term "snow" fell in disuse. The twin brigs Lawrence and Niagara, American warships which participated in the Battle of Lake Erie in 1813, were both snow-brigs. Brigantine Brig Full-rigged ship Hans Haalmeijer: Pinassen, fluiten en galjassen Uitgeverij De Alk B. V. Alkmaar, the Netherlands 2009. Karl Heinz Marquardt: Bemastung und Takelung von Schiffen des 18. Jahrhunderts. Weltbild Verlag, Augsburg 1994. John Robinson, George Francis Dow: The Sailing Ships of New England 1607 - 1907. Marine Research Society, Mass 1922. Dik Vuik, Hans Haalmeijer: Aken, tjalken en kraken, Uitgeverij De Alk B. V. Alkmaar, the Netherlands 2006.
The dictionary definition of snow at Wiktionary Media related to Snows at Wikimedia Commons
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce