Comparative officer ranks of World War I

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The following table shows comparative officer ranks of several Allied and Central powers during World War I. Not all combatant countries are shown in the table. For modern ranks refer to List of comparative military ranks. See also: Comparative officer ranks of World War II

Table[edit]

General officers Field officers Junior officers
Austria-Hungary Austro-Hungarian Empire
(Army)
[a][1]
Kuk FieldMarsh 1918.svg Kuk ColGen 1918.svg Kuk GenBranch 1918.svg Kuk Feldmarschall-Lt 1918.svg Kuk GenMaj 1918.svg Kuk Oberst.svg Kuk Oberstleutnant.svg Kuk Major.svg Kuk Hauptmann.svg Kuk Oberleutnant.svg Kuk Leutnant.svg No equivalent
Feldmarschall
Tábornagy
Generaloberst
Vezérezredes
General der Waffengattung
Tábornok
Feldmarschall-Leutnant
Altábornagy
Generalmajor
Vezérőrnagy
Oberst
Ezredes
Oberstleutnant
Alezredes
Major
Őrnagy
Hauptmann / Rittmeister
Százados / Kapitány
Oberleutnant
Főhadnagy
Leutnant
Hadnagy
Austria-Hungary Austro-Hungarian Empire
(Navy)
[a][1]
K.u.K Großadmiral.jpg No equivalent K.u.K. Admiral.jpg K.u.K. Vizeadmiral.jpg Kontreadmiral ( Österreich-Ungarn).png K.u.K. Linienschiffskapitän.jpg K.u.K. Fregattenkapitän.jpg K.u.K. Korvettenkapitän.jpg K.u.K. Linienschiffsleutnant.jpg K.u.K. Fregattenleutnant.jpg K.u.K.Seefähnrich.jpg K.u.K. Seekadett.jpg
Großadmiral
Vezérőrnagy
Admiral
Tengernagy
Vizeadmiral
Altengernagy
Kontreadmiral
Ellentengernagy
Linienschiffkapitän
Sorhajókapitány
Fregattenkapitän
Fregattkapitány
Korvettenkapitän
Korvettkapitány
Linienschiffsleutnant
Sorhajóhadnagy
Fregattenleutnant
Fregatthadnagy
Korvettenleutnant
Korvetthadnagy
Seekadett
General officers Field officers Junior officers
British Empire British Empire
(Army)
[2]
British Army (1920-1953) OF-10.svg British Army (1920-1953) OF-9.svg British Army (1920-1953) OF-8.svg British Army (1920-1953) OF-7.svg British Army (1920-1922) OF-6.svg World War I British Army colonel's rank insignia (sleeve, general pattern).png British&Empire-Army-LtCol(1902-1920).png World War I British Army major's rank insignia (sleeve, general pattern).png World War I British Army captain's rank insignia (sleeve, general pattern).png World War I British Army lieutenant's rank insignia (sleeve, general pattern).png British&Empire-Army-2Lt(1902-1920).png No equivalent
Field Marshal General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier-General Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second lieutenant
United Kingdom British Empire
(Navy)
[2]
British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-10.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-9.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-8.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-7.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-7.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-6.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-5.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg None.svg None.svg
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice-Admiral Rear-Admiral Commodore 1st class[3] Commodore 2nd class Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub-Lieutenant Chief Commissioned Warrant Officer Commissioned Warrant Officer/ Midshipman
General officers Field officers Junior officers
France France
(Army)
[4]
Insigne maréchal armée française.jpg Insigne général de division.png Insigne général de brigade.png Colonel1.PNG Lieutenant-Colonel.PNG Commandant1.PNG Capitaine1.PNG Lieutenant1.PNG Sous-Lieutenant.PNG Aspirant de l'armée de terre.png
Maréchal de France[b] Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant Aspirant
France France
(Navy)
[4]
French Navy NG-OF10.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF7.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF6.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF5.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF4.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF3.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF2.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF1b.svg French Navy-Rama NG-OF1.svg French Navy NG-aspirant.svg
Amiral de France[b] Vice-amiral Contre-amiral Capitaine de vaisseau Capitaine de frégate Capitaine de corvette Lieutenant de Vaisseau Enseigne de vaisseau de 1re classe Enseigne de vaisseau de 2e classe Aspirant
General officers Field officers Junior officers
German Empire German Empire
(Army)
[5]
DR Generalfeldmarschall 1918.gif None.svg DR Generaloberst 1918.gif None.svg None.svg None.svg Oberst (Prussia).gif Oberstleutnant (Hessen).gif Major (Sachsen).gif DR Hauptmann v 1918.png DR Oberleutnant v 1918.png DR Leutnant v 1918.png No equivalent
Generalfeldmarschall Generaloberst mit dem Rang als Generalfeldmarschall Generaloberst General der Waffengattung Generalleutnant Generalmajor Oberst Oberstleutnant Major Hauptmann / Rittmeister Oberleutnant Leutnant
German Empire German Empire
(Navy)
[5][6]
GKMG14 - Grand Admiral.png No equivalent GKMG12 - Admiral.png GKMG11 - Vice Admiral.png GKMG10 - Rear Admiral.png GKMG09 - Captain.png GKMG08 - Commander.png GKMG07 - Lieutenant Commander.png GKMG06 - 1st Lieutenant.png GKMG05 - Lieutenant.png GKMG04 - 2nd Lieutenant.png GKMG03 - Leading Ensign.png GKMG01 - Sea Cadet.png
Großadmiral Admiral Vizeadmiral Konteradmiral Kommodore Kapitän zur See Fregattenkapitän Korvettenkapitän Kapitänleutnant Oberleutnant zur See Leutnant zur See Seekadett
General officers Field officers Junior officers
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Italy
(Army)
[7]
None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg
Generale d'Esercito Tenente Generale (capo di stato maggiore esercito / in Comando d'Armata / in Comando di Corpo d'Armata / in Comando di Divisione) Maggior Generale (in Comando di Divisione / in Comando di Brigata) Brigadier Generale Colonello Tenente Colonello Maggiore Capitano Tenente Sottotenente Aspirante
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Italy
(Navy)
None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg
Ammiraglio Vice Ammiraglio Contrammiraglio Sottoammiraglio Capitano di Vascello Capitano di Frigata Capitano di Corvetta Tenente di Vascello Sottotenent di Vascello Guardiamarina Aspirante Guardiamarina
General officers Field officers Junior officers
Japan Imperial Japan
(Army)
[8]
Generalissimo rank insignia (Japan).png 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大将.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大将.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―中将.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―少将.svg No equivalent 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大佐.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―中佐.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―少佐.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―大尉.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―中尉.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―少尉.svg 帝國陸軍の階級―肩章―准尉.svg
Daigensui-Rikugun-Taishō
大元帥陸軍大将
Gensui-Rikugun-Taishō
元帥陸軍大将
Rikugun-Taishō
陸軍大将
Rikugun-Chūjō
陸軍中将
Rikugun-Shōshō
陸軍少将
Rikugun-Taisa
陸軍大佐
Rikugun-Chūsa
陸軍中佐
Rikugun-Shōsa
陸軍少佐
Rikugun-Tai-i
陸軍大尉
Rikugun-Chūi
陸軍中尉
Rikugun-Shōi
陸軍少尉
Jun-i
准尉
Japan Imperial Japan
(Navy)
[8]
Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-10-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-9-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-9-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-8-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-7-sleeve.svg No equivalent Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-5-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-4-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-3-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-2-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-1b-sleeve.svg Imperial Japan-Navy-OF-1a-sleeve.svg None.svg
Daigensui-Kaigun-Taishō
大元帥海軍大将
Gensui-kaigun-Taishō
元帥海軍大将
Kaigun-Taishō
海軍大将
Kaigun-Chūjō
海軍中将
Kaigun-Shōshō
海軍少将
Kaigun-Daisa
海軍大佐
Kaigun-Chūsa
海軍中佐
Kaigun-Shōsa
海軍少佐
Kaigun-Dai-i
海軍大尉
Kaigun-Chūi
海軍中尉
Kaigun-Shōi
海軍少尉
Hēsōchō
兵曹長
General officers Field officers Junior officers
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
(Army)
[c][9]
Ottoman-Army-OF-10.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-9.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-8.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-7.svg No equivalent Ottoman-Army-OF-5.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-4.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-3.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-2b.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-2a.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-1b.svg Ottoman-Army-OF-1a.svg
Müşir Birinci Ferik Ferik Mirliva Miralay Kaymakam Binbaşı Kolağası Yüzbaşı Mülazım-ı evvel Mülazım-ı sani
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
(Navy)
[10]
None.svg Generic-Navy-O11.svg Generic-Navy-O10.svg Generic-Navy-O9.svg No equivalent None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg
Müşir Amiral Birinci Ferik Amiral Ferik Amiral Liva Amiral Kalyon Kaptanı Fırkateyn Kaptanı Korvet Kaptanı Yüzbaşı Mülazım
General officers Field officers Junior officers
First Portuguese Republic First Portuguese Republic
(Army)
[11]
Army-POR-OF-10.svg Army-POR-OF-08.svg Army-POR-OF-07.svg Army-POR-OF-05b.svg Army-POR-OF-04.svg Army-POR-OF-03.svg Army-POR-OF-02.svg Army-POR-OF-01a.svg Army-POR-OF-01b.svg Army-POR-OF-00a.svg
Marechal[d] General[e] Brigadeiro Coronel Tenente-coronel Major Capitão Tenente Alferes Aspirante
First Portuguese Republic First Portuguese Republic
(Navy)
[11]
None.svg None.svg None.svg No equivalent None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg
Almirante[d] Vice-almirante Contra-almirante Capitão de mar e guerra Capitão de fragata Capitão-tenente Primeiro-tenente Segundo-tenente Guarda-marinha Aspirante
General officers Field officers Junior officers
Russian Empire Russian Empire
(Army)
[f]
[12]
1904ic-p11.png Imperial Russian Army 1904ic-p10.png 1904ic-p09.png 1904ic-p08.png 1904ic-p07.png 1904ic-p06.png 1904ic-p05.png 1904ic-p04.png 1904ic-p03.png 1904ic-p02.png 1904ic-p01.png
Generalfeldmarschall General roda voisk General-leytenant General-mayor Polkovnik[g] Voyskovoy starshina Kapitan / Rotmistr / Esaul Shtabs-kapitan / Shtabs-rotmistr / Podesaul Poruchik / Sotnik Podporuchik / Kornet / Korunzhy Praporshik
Russian Empire Russian Empire
(Navy)
[12]
1904mor-21.png 1904mor-20.png 1904mor-19.png 1904mor-18.png 1904mor-17.png 1904mor-16.png No equivalent 1909mor-14.png 1904mor-13.png 1909mor-12.png
General-admiral Admiral Vitse-admiral Kontr-admiral Kapitan 1-go ranga Kapitan 2-go ranga Starshy leytenant Leytenant Michman
General officers Field officers Junior officers
Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom of Serbia
(Army)
[13]
OF-10 Bojni Vojvoda.png Djeneral Oficiri (Infantry).png OF-5 Pukovnik 1908-1945.PNG OF-4 Potpukovnik 1908-1945.PNG OF-3 Major 1908-1945.PNG OF-2A Kapetan I klase 1908-1945.PNG OF-2B Kapetan II klase 1908-1945.PNG OF-1A Poručnik 1908-1945.PNG OF-1B Potporučnik 1908-1945.PNG No equivalent
Bojni Vojvoda[h] General[i] Pulkovnik Podpulkovnik Мајоr Kapetan 1-ve klase Kapetan 2-ge klase Poruchnik Podporuchnik
General officers Field officers Junior officers
United States USA
(Army)
[14]
General of Armies insignia.svg US-O10 insignia.svg US-O9 insignia.svg US-O8 insignia.svg US-O7 insignia.svg US-O6 insignia.svg US-O5 insignia.svg US-O4 insignia.svg US-O3 insignia.svg US-O2 insignia.svg US-O1 insignia.svg No equivalent
General of the Armies[j] General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
United States USA
(Navy)
[14]
US Admiral of Navy insignia.svg US Navy O10 insignia.svg US Navy O9 insignia.svg US Navy O8 insignia.svg US Navy O7 insignia.svg US Navy O6 insignia.svg US Navy O5 insignia.svg U.S. Navy O-4 insignia.svg US Navy O3 insignia.svg US Navy O2 insignia.svg US Navy O1 insignia.svg Various
Admiral of the Navy[j] Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant (junior grade) Ensign Midshipman
General officers Field officers Junior officers

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Austro-Hungarian ranks are shown in both German and Hungarian, as would have been contemporary practice.
  2. ^ a b Maréchal de France and Amiral de France were as much a dignity of state as a military title. Thus British Field Marshals consulted with French Generals in 1914. The elevation of Joffre to Maréchal in 1916 actually marked a diminution of his powers of command. There was no Amiral de France alive during World War I.
  3. ^ Military personnel in the Ottoman Empire were assigned different duties according to their capabilities in order to administer the Armed Forces and particularly to be successful in battle. They were given various ranks so that they could conduct relations with each other and be fully aware of their duties. The issue of what sort of duties should be allocated to which unit or to which military institution used to be determined by the ranking within the Armed Forces. In Islamic countries, certain 'degrees', instead of ranks, were given in accordance with the categorization of government duties. In the course of time, these 'degrees' had taken on certain characteristics. In the Ottoman Empire, besides the ranks that were awarded after passing through certain stages of promotion, there was also the rank of "Pasha" that was given directly by the Ottoman Sultan. This rank, which continued until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, was also given to civilian administrators who were approved of and found suitable. After the establishment of the Republic, the Sultanate was abolished, and the title became synonymous with the General rank, restricted to the Armed Forces only. Paymaster of a regiment - Captain of the Right Wing (Alay Emini - Sağ Kolağası): The rank of the Captain of the Right Wing was very high. The rank of the Adjutant and Paymaster of a regiment was also high but such individuals were not from the military class and they dealt with clerical duties and equipment needed by the regiment. Captain of the Wing - The Captain of the Left Wing- (Kolağası - Sol Kolağası): Captain of the Wing or the Captain of the Left Wing was the senior Captain. If he was educated in the regiment, he was called "Ağa" but if he was the son of a pasha, he was called "Bey".
  4. ^ a b Almirante and Marechal were only honorary ranks, not held by anyone during World War I.
  5. ^ The Portuguese Army had the particularity of having only a single rank of General Officer. A Portuguese General could be assigned to command from a brigade to the entire Army.
  6. ^ For transliterations, refer to History of Russian military ranks.
  7. ^ Army/cavalry ranks. Cossack cavalry had distinct ranks below Podpolkovnik: войсково́й старшина́ (Voiskovoy Starshina), есау́л (Yesaul), подъесау́л (Sub-Yesaul), со́тник (Sotnik), хору́нжий (Khorunzhiy)
  8. ^ Field Marshal of Serbia (Voivode) was the highest rank in the army of the Kingdom of Serbia. Radomir Putnik held title from beginning of the war since he was promoted in 1912.
  9. ^ Like the Portuguese Army, the Serbian Army had only a single rank of General Officer. A Serbian General could be assigned to command from a division to the entire Army.
  10. ^ a b The US rank Admiral of the Navy was a unique rank created for Admiral George Dewey after the Spanish–American War; it has never been held by any other person and debate still goes on over whether it was a "five-star" or "six-star" rank. General of the Armies is similarly ambiguous; it was granted to General Pershing at the end of the war, and previously had been held (or a rank of the same name had been held) by Generals Grant and Sherman after the Civil War, but its equivalency to modern ranks is disputed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Over the Front. "Austro-Hungarian Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  2. ^ a b Over the Front. "British Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  3. ^ http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyBritish-Ranks.htm
  4. ^ a b Over the Front. "French Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  5. ^ a b Over the Front. "German Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  6. ^ Strauß, Matthias. "Dienstgrade und Uniformen". kleiner-kreuzer-dresden.de (in German). Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  7. ^ Over the Front. "Italian Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  8. ^ a b Over the Front. "Japanese Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  9. ^ "1909 TILL 1918 OTTOMAN RANK INSIGNIA". ottoman-uniforms.com. Ottoman Uniforms. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  10. ^ "1916 TILL 1918 OTTOMAN NAVY". ottoman-uniforms.com. Ottoman Uniforms. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Over the Front. "Portuguese Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Over the Front. "Russian Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  13. ^ Over the Front. "Serbian Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018. 
  14. ^ a b Over the Front. "American Ranks". Over the Front. Retrieved 1 July 2018.