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Comparison of Java and C++

This is a comparison of Java and C++, two prominent object-oriented programming languages. The differences between the programming languages C++ and Java can be traced to their heritage, as they have different design goals. C++ was designed for systems and applications programming, extending the procedural programming language C, designed for efficient execution. To C, C++ added support for object-oriented programming, exception handling, lifetime-based resource management, generic programming, template metaprogramming, the C++ Standard Library which includes generic containers and algorithms, many other general purpose facilities. Java is a general-purpose, class-based, object-oriented programming language, designed to minimize implementation dependencies, it relies on a Java virtual machine to be secure and portable. It is bundled with an extensive library designed to provide a full abstraction of the underlying platform. Java is a statically typed object-oriented language that uses a syntax similar to C++.

It includes. The different goals in the development of C++ and Java resulted in different principles and design trade-offs between the languages; the differences are as follows: Java syntax has a context-free grammar that can be parsed by a simple LALR parser. Parsing C++ is more complicated. For example, Foo<1>. C++ allows namespace-level constants and functions. In Java, such entities must belong to some given type, therefore must be defined inside a type definition, either a class or an interface. In C++, objects are values. C++ uses value semantics by default. To opt for reference semantics in C++, either a pointer or a reference can be used. In C++, it is possible to declare a pointer or reference to a const object in order to prevent client code from modifying it. Functions and methods can guarantee that they will not modify the object pointed to by a pointer by using the "const" keyword; this enforces const-correctness. In Java, for the most part, const-correctness must rely on the semantics of the class' interface, i.e. it is not enforced, except for public data members that are labeled final.

C++ supports goto statements. With the exception of the goto statement, both Java and C++ have the same control flow structures, designed to enforce structured control flow, relies on break and continue statements to provide some goto-like functions; some commenters point out that these labelled flow control statements break the single point-of-exit property of structured programming. C++ provides low-level features. In C++, pointers can be used to manipulate specific memory locations, a task necessary for writing low-level operating system components. Many C++ compilers support an inline assembler. Assembly language code can be imported to a C vice versa; this makes C language faster. In Java, such code must reside in external libraries, can only be accessed via the Java Native Interface, with a significant overhead for each call. C++ allows default values for arguments of a function/method. Java does not. However, method overloading can be used to obtain similar results in Java but generate redundant stub code.

The minimum of code needed to compile for C++ is a function. C++ allows a range of implicit conversions between native types, allows defining implicit conversions involving user-defined types. In Java, only widening conversions between native types are implicit. A result of this is that although loop conditions in Java and C++ both expect a boolean expression, code such as if will cause a compile error in Java because there is no implicit narrowing conversion from int to boolean; this is handy if was intended. Yet current C++ compilers generate a warning when such an assignment is performed within a conditional expression. Standalone comparison statements, e.g. a==5. For passing parameters to functions, C++ supports both pass-by-value. In Java, primitive parameters are always passed by value. Class types, interface types, array types are collectively called reference types in Java and are always passed by value. Java built-in types are of a specified range defined by the language specification. In C++, a minimal range of values is defined for built-in types, but the exact representation can be mapped to whatever native types are preferred on a given platform.

For instance, Java characters are 16-bit Unicode characters, strings are composed of a sequence of such characters. C++ offers both narrow and wide characters, but the actual size of each is platform dependent, as is the character set used. Strings can be formed from either type; this implies that C++ compilers can automatically select the most efficient representation for the target platform, while the representation is fixed in Java, meaning the values can either be stored in the less-efficient size, or must pad the remaining bits and add code to emulate the reduced-width behavior. The rounding and precision of floating point values and operations in C++ is implementation-defin


Aśvaghoṣa or Ashvaghosha was a Buddhist philosopher, dramatist and orator from India. He was born in Saketa in northern India, he is believed to have been the first Sanskrit dramatist, is considered the greatest Indian poet prior to Kālidāsa. He was the most famous in a group of Buddhist court writers, whose epics rivalled the contemporary Ramayana. Whereas much of Buddhist literature prior to the time of Aśvaghoṣa had been composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Aśvaghoṣa wrote in Classical Sanskrit. According to the traditional biography of Aśvaghoṣa, translated into Chinese by Kumārajīva, preserved in that language, he was a wandering ascetic, able to defeat all-comers in debate, he set a challenge to the Buddhist monks that if none could meet with him in debate they should stop beating the wood-block which signalled to the people to bring offerings to them. There was no one. However, in the north there was an elder bhikṣu named Pārśva at the time, who saw that if he could convert this ascetic, it would be a great asset to the propagation of the Dharma, so he travelled from northern India and had the wood-block sounded.

The ascetic came to ask. Though thinking the old monk would be unable to debate with him, he accepted the challenge. After seven days, the debate was held in front of the King, his Ministers, many ascetics and brahmans; the loser agreed to become the disciple of the other. They agreed that the elder Pārśva should speak first, he said: "The world should be made peaceable, with a long-lived king, plentiful harvests, joy throughout the land, with none of the myriad calamities", to which the ascetic had no response and so was bound to become Pārśva's disciple, he was given full ordination as a bhikṣu. Although he had to consent to this, he still was not convinced of the elder's virtues until he showed him he had mastered the Bases of Spiritual Power, at which point he gained faith. Pārśva taught him the 5 Faculties, the 5 Powers, the 7 Factors and the 8-fold Noble Path, he mastered the teaching; the central kingdom was besieged by the Kuṣāna King's army, who demanded 300,000 gold pieces in tribute.

The King could not pay so much, as he had only 100,000. The Kuṣāna King therefore asked for the Buddha's begging bowl, the converted monk, the 100,000 gold pieces for his tribute. Although the King of the central kingdom was unhappy, the monk persuaded him it would be for the good of the propagation of the Dharma which would spread across the four continents if he went with the Kuṣāna King, he was therefore taken away. The Kuṣāna's King's Ministers, were unhappy, not thinking that the bhikṣu was priced at 100,000 gold pieces; the King, who knew the worth of bhiksu, ordered. The King made an assembly and had the bhikṣu preach the Dharma; the horses, whose favourite food was placed in front of them, were entranced by the Teaching of the monk, listened intently. Everybody was thereby convinced of his worth, he was granted the name Aśvaghoṣa, Horse-Cry. He travelled throughout northern India proclaiming the Dharma and guiding all through his wisdom and understanding, he was held in great regard by the four-fold assembly, who knew him as The Sun of Merit and Virtue.

He was believed to have been the author of the influential Buddhist text Awakening of Mahayana Faith, but modern scholars agree that the text was composed in China. And it is now believed he was not from the Mahayanist period, seems to have been ordained into a subsect of the Mahasanghikas; some recent research into his kavya poems have revealed that he may have used the Yogacarabhumi as a textual reference for the Saundarananda, which opens up the possibility he was affiliated with either the Yogacara or the Sautrantika school. He wrote; the monk I-tsing mentioned that in his time Buddhacarita was "...extensively read in all the five parts of India and in the countries of the South Sea. He clothed manifold notions and ideas in a few words which so delighted the heart of his reader that he never wearied of perusing the poem. Moreover it was regarded as a virtue to read it in as much as it contained the noble doctrine in a neat compact form."It described in 28 chapters the whole Life of the Buddha from his birth until his entry into Parinirvāna.

During the Muslim invasions of the 10th – 12th centuries, half of the original Sanskrit text was lost. Today, the second half only exists in Tibetan translations, he wrote Saundarananda, a kāvya poem with the theme of conversion of Nanda, Buddha's half-brother, so that he might reach salvation. The first half of the work describes Nanda's life, the second half of the work describes Buddhist doctrines and ascetic practices, he is thought to be the author of the Sutralankara. Sanskrit drama Sanskrit literature Buswell, Robert E. ed.. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Macmillan Reference USA. P. 35. ISBN 0-02-865718-7. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Works by Aśvaghosha at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Aśvaghoṣa at Internet Archive

Ford Torino

The Ford Torino is an automobile, produced by Ford for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. It was a competitor in the intermediate market segment; the car was named after the city of Turin, considered "the Italian Detroit". The Torino was an upscale variation of the intermediate sized Ford Fairlane, which Ford produced between 1962 and 1970. After 1968, the Fairlane name was retained for the base models with lower levels of trim than those models which wore the Torino name. During this time, the Torino was considered a subseries to the Fairlane. By 1970 Torino had become the primary name for Ford's intermediate, the Fairlane was now a subseries of the Torino. In 1971 the Fairlane name was dropped altogether, all Ford intermediates were called Torino; this name was one of several proposed for the Mustang while in development. The Torino was a twin to the Mercury Montego line. Most Torinos were conventional cars, the most popular models were the 4-door sedans and 2-door hardtops. However, Ford produced some high-performance versions of the Torino by fitting them with large powerful engines, such as the 428 cu in and 429 cu in "Cobra-Jet" engines.

These cars are classified as muscle cars. Ford chose the Torino as the base for its NASCAR entrants, it has a successful racing heritage. For 1968, Ford redesigned its intermediate Fairlane line and introduced a new premium subseries model, the Torino; the 1968 Fairlane and Torino used the same wheelbases as its 1967 predecessor: 116 in on 2- and 4-door models, 113 in for station wagon models. Styling was drastically changed from the 1967 Fairlane models, resulting in growth in size and weight; the front fascia featured a full width recessed grille, with horizontal quad headlights placed at the outer edges. Horizontal dividing bars were featured in the grille depending on the model. Parking lights were placed at the outer edge of the front fenders and wrapped around the corner to act as side marker lights to meet the new 1968 requirements; the body sides were smooth with one horizontal body crease running just below the beltline from front to back. The taillights were rectangular in shape and vertically situated in the rear panel above rear bumper.

Reverse lights were located in the middle of the taillights, reflectors were located on the rear edge of the quarter panel. A new addition for 1968 was the two-door fastback "SportsRoof" bodystyle. Similar to Mustang fastback models, it featured a sloped roof line that extended to the edge of the trunk lid and a unique concave taillamp panel; this new fastback body style gave the Fairlane and the Torino excellent aerodynamics that would prove to be advantageous on the race track. Ford had 14 different models in its intermediate line for 1968; the base model was the "Fairlane", available in a 2-door hardtop, a 4-door sedan, a 4-door station wagon. Next was the mid level "Fairlane 500", available as a 2-door hardtop, 2-door SportsRoof, a 4-door sedan and station wagon; this was followed by the top level "Torino" series, which consisted of a 2-door hardtop, a 4-door sedan, the Squire station wagon that featured wood grained applique. The "Torino GT", the sporty version of the Fairlane 500 series, included a 2-door hardtop, a 2-door SportsRoof, a convertible.

The 1968 Fairlane/Torino was constructed with unit-construction using the same platform as the 1966-67 models. The front suspension consisted of short/long control arms with coil springs mounted on an upper control arm and a strut stabilized lower control arm. Rear suspension consisted of long semi-elliptical leaf springs on a solid axle. A heavy-duty suspension option was available for V8 powered cars, included extra-heavy-duty springs and shocks. Steering was recirculating ball system, with power steering optional. All cars came standard with four-wheel drum brakes, although front disc brakes and power assist were options; the interior on the Fairlane/Torino was all new for 1968. A new dashboard featured four sized round pods centred around the steering wheel. However, the pods did not contain a full set of gauges; the fuel gauge and temperature warning lights were in the first pod, a 120 mph speedometer was located in the second pod from the left and oil pressure warning lights were in the third pod from the left and the fourth pod was blank.

An optional tachometer was available, which would be located in the third pod, an optional clock occupied the fourth pod. Ford offered many upholstery options, including a knitted vinyl option, called "comfortweave." This unique option allowed the vinyl to "breathe" unlike conventional vinyl, offering more comfort in hot weather. Conforming to U. S. safety standards, there was much padding inside the Torino's interior, which featured shoulder belts for front outboard passengers on all cars built after December 31, 1967. All Torinos included full colour-keyed carpeting, additional exterior and interior trim over a Fairlane, Torino crests on the'C' pillar; the Torino GT's standard features included special name plaques and exterior trim, GT markings on wheel covers and courtesy lights on the inside door panels. Initial sales literature showed. However, due to a six week UAW strike, the GT's standard seating was changed to a bench seat; the Torino GT was available with a GT handling suspension package, which included extra-heavy-duty springs and shocks, a heavy-duty front anti-sway bar.

Of note, when the 428 CJ engine was installed, the suspensions used the stiffest springs and largest front sway bar compare


W1XAY was one of the first television stations in the world, being founded on June 14, 1928. It was called as "WLEX" from its sister radio station, in Lexington, United States, the current day WVEI in Worcester; the television station broadcast on a wavelength of 85.7 meters, with 48 vertical lines of resolution, 18 frames per second. It shut down in March 1930; the station was owned by the Boston Post, which owned WLEX. The WLEX call letters now reside with WLEX-TV, the NBC television network affiliate in Lexington, Kentucky. List of experimental television stations W1XAV How Television came to Boston — The Forgotten Story of W1XAY, by Donna L. Halper

Draco mindanensis

Draco mindanensis known as the Mindanao flying dragon, is a lizard species endemic to the Philippines. Characterized by a dull grayish brown body color and a vivid tangerine orange dewlap, this species is one of the largest of the genus Draco, it is diurnal and capable of gliding. The Mindanao flying dragon inhabits regions of secondary-growth forests. There appears to be a dependence on primary dipterocarp forest for this species' survival. D. mindanensis is noted for being a bioindicator for the forested regions of Mindanao. Threatened by deforestation, the IUCN has listed D. mindanensis as vulnerable. There are no specific conservation efforts being made to preserve the species. Rather, there are projects that target the protection of the habitats in which the Mindanao flying dragon lives; this species of flying dragon is classified under the kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata, class Reptilia, order Squamata, family Agamidae. Draco mindanensis is a member of the genus Draco, its body color is a dull grayish brown sepia, with pale rounded spots.

On its back, there are about five series of whitish round spots alternating with four series of larger, more conspicuous spots. The surface of this species' patagium, or the extensible fold of skin used in flight, is red in males and dusky in females. D. mindanensis can be distinguished from other species of Draco in the Philippines by its larger size, mode of five ribs supporting its patagium, upward directed nostril, lack of Y-shaped series of scales on forehead, presence of lacrimal bone and dorsal body coloration of pale brown with a slight greenish case in males. In males of this species, the dewlap, or the inflatable loose skin under the throat, is large and narrow, is vivid tangerine orange in coloration. In females, the tip of small dewlap is cream yellow. Draco mindanensis is arboreal; the stomach contents of D. mindanensis consist of several families of insects. However, this species is not an ant-feeding specialist like its congener, Draco volans. Near Mt. Apo on Mindanao, this species was reported in sympatry with D. bimaculatus, D. cyanopterus, D. guentheri.

This species has been found in areas dominated by trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae in the rain forests of the Philippines. In South Cotobato, Mindanao, D. mindanensis was only found in the largest dipterocarp trees. Specimens have been collected at 1100 feet at the base of the Malindang Mountain in northwestern Mindanao. Specimens have been collected in the coastal mountains of east central Mindanao. Vegetation of this area was early primary dipterocarp forest; this species has been collected on the islands of Dinagat, Leyte,and Samar at elevations of around 200 to 900 meters. D. mindanensis appears to be a forest obligate species, restricted to primary and mature secondary growth forest. There appears to be a strong dependence on primary and secondary forest habitats that are exceedingly rare and D. mindanensis livelihood due their absence in nearby coconut groves adjacent to these forests. For this reason, experts believe that this species of Draco is the most endangered species in the Philippines.

D. mindanensis, like other members of the Draco species, is famous for its use of gliding as a form of locomotive behavior. These lizards have a set of elongated ribs, which they can retract; the ribs are quite flexible and they are subject to a certain amount of bending. Between these ribs are folds of skin that rest flat against the body when not in use, but act as wings when unfurled, allowing the Draco to catch the wind and glide. Gliding ability is of daily importance and has important consequences in contexts of both natural and sexual selection. With D. mindanensis being a larger glider compared to its family members, it descends greater distances and will attain higher air velocities to reach equilibrium gliding. Findings suggest that takeoff heights greater than six meters or horizontal transit distances greater than nine meters are required to achieve equilibrium glides. Furthermore, in order to support its mass, glides occur at a higher velocity than smaller Draco lizards. Flight is described in three stages: dive flight, glide flight, ascent flight or landing phase.

Dive flight occurs when the lizard launches itself from a tree and there is a steep downward glide at an angle of 45 degrees. The kinetic energy that develops during the dive flight is utilized in the second phase of glide flight. During glide flight, the lizard's body axis and tail are straightened to maximize flight distance; the third phase, ascent flight occurs. The trajectory of D. mindanensis rises so that the lizard can swoop upwards as it lands on its target. Rotation of the lizard's tail plays an important role in maintaining position in the airAlthough, D. mindanensis is able to utilize physiological advantages to achieve top performance in flight, there are certain disadvantages. This species cannot utilize lower forest strata to the same extent as can smaller species while maintaining the ability to complete glides to adjacent trees. From an evolutionary standpoint, potential modification of wing area is limited by the architecture of the gliding mechanism; the Mindanao Flying Dragon is listed as Vulnerable according to the IUCN because it is suspected that a population decline, estimated to be more than 30% would be met over a ten-year period, ongoing from the recent past to the near future, inferred from the loss of its primary and mature second growth forest habitat.

Habitat loss due to deforestation is the major threat to this species. Forest disturbance is also a threat, it is not known wit


Tomb KV8, located in the Valley of the Kings, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Merenptah of Ancient Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty. The burial chamber, located at the end of 160 metres of corridor held a set of four nested sarcophagi; the outer one of these was so voluminous that parts of the corridor had to have their doorjambs demolished and rebuilt to allow it to be brought in. These jambs were rebuilt with the help of inscribed sandstone blocks which were fixed into their place with dovetail cramps; the pillars in Chamber F were removed to allow passage of the sarcophagus, only two were replaced. The other two pillars may have been stolen by Paneb, a worker in the craftsman's village, for use in his own tomb. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV8: Includes description and plans of the tomb