GNOME is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems. GNOME was an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. GNOME is part of the GNU Project and developed by The GNOME Project, composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat, it is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software. GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, SteamOS, Kali Linux and Endless OS; the continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release that goes under the name MATE is default on many distributions that targets low usage of system resources.
GNOME was started on August 15 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment and applications for it. It was founded in part because K Desktop Environment, growing in popularity, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which used a proprietary software license until version 2.0. In place of Qt, the GTK toolkit was chosen as the base of GNOME. GTK uses the GNU Lesser General Public License, a free software license that allows software linking to it to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, the GNU General Public License for its applications; the name "GNOME" was an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment, referring to the original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft's OLE, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001.
De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code in 1999 in Massachusetts. During the transition to GNOME 2 around the year 2001 and shortly thereafter there were brief talks about creating a GNOME Office suite. On September 15, 2003 GNOME-Office 1.0, consisting of AbiWord 2.0, GNOME-DB 1.0 and Gnumeric 1.2.0 was released. Although some release planning for GNOME Office 1.2 was happening on gnome-office mailing list, Gnumeric 1.4 was announced as a part of it, the 1.2 release of the suite itself never materialized. As of May 4, 2014 GNOME wiki only mentions "GNOME/Gtk applications that are useful in an office environment". GNOME 2 was similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows and files. GNOME 2 started out with Sawfish, but switched to Metacity as its default window manager; the handling of windows and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations.
However, these features can be moved to any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether. As of 2009, GNOME 2 was the default desktop for OpenSolaris. GNOME 1 and 2 followed the traditional desktop metaphor. GNOME 3, released in 2011, changed this with GNOME Shell, a more abstract metaphor where switching between different tasks and virtual desktops takes place in a separate area called "Overview". Since Mutter replaced Metacity as the default window manager, the minimize and maximize buttons no longer appear by default, the title bar, menu bar and tool bar combinated in one horizontal bar called "header bar" via Client-Side Decoration mechanism. Adwaita replaced Clearlooks as the default theme. Many GNOME Core Applications went through redesigns to provide a more consistent user experience; the release of GNOME 3, notable for its move away from the traditional menu bar and taskbar, has caused considerable controversy in the GNU and Linux community.
Many users and developers have expressed concerns about usability. A few projects have been initiated to continue development of GNOME 2.x or to modify GNOME 3.x to be more like the 2.x releases. GNOME 3 aims to provide a single interface for desktop computers and tablet computers; this means using only input techniques that work on all those devices, requiring abandonment of certain concepts to which desktop users were accustomed, such as right-clicking, or saving files on the desktop. These major changes evoked widespread criticism; the MATE desktop environment was forked from the GNOME 2 code-base with the intent of retaining the traditional GNOME 2 interface, whilst keeping compatibility with modern Linux technology, such as GTK 3. The Linux Mint team addressed the issue in another way by developing the "Mint GNOME Shell Extensions" that ran on top of GNOME Shell and allowed it to be used via the traditional desktop metaphor; this led to the creation of the Cinnamon user interface, forked from the GNOME 3 codebase.
Among those critical of the early releases of GNOME 3 is Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel. Torvalds abandoned GNOME for a wh
GNU General Public License
The GNU General Public License is a widely-used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study and modify the software. The license was written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation for the GNU Project, grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the Free Software Definition; the GPL is a copyleft license, which means that derivative work can only be distributed under the same license terms. This is in distinction to permissive free software licenses, of which the BSD licenses and the MIT License are widely-used examples. GPL was the first copyleft license for general use; the GPL license family has been one of the most popular software licenses in the free and open-source software domain. Prominent free-software programs licensed under the GPL include the Linux kernel and the GNU Compiler Collection. David A. Wheeler argues that the copyleft provided by the GPL was crucial to the success of Linux-based systems, giving the programmers who contributed to the kernel the assurance that their work would benefit the whole world and remain free, rather than being exploited by software companies that would not have to give anything back to the community.
In 2007, the third version of the license was released to address some perceived problems with the second version that were discovered during its long-time usage. To keep the license up to date, the GPL license includes an optional "any version" clause, allowing users to choose between the original terms or the terms in new versions as updated by the FSF. Developers can omit it; the GPL was written by Richard Stallman in 1989, for use with programs released as part of the GNU project. The original GPL was based on a unification of similar licenses used for early versions of GNU Emacs, the GNU Debugger and the GNU C Compiler; these licenses contained similar provisions to the modern GPL, but were specific to each program, rendering them incompatible, despite being the same license. Stallman's goal was to produce one license that could be used for any project, thus making it possible for many projects to share code; the second version of the license, version 2, was released in 1991. Over the following 15 years, members of the free software community became concerned over problems in the GPLv2 license that could let someone exploit GPL-licensed software in ways contrary to the license's intent.
These problems included tivoization, compatibility issues similar to those of the Affero General Public License—and patent deals between Microsoft and distributors of free and open-source software, which some viewed as an attempt to use patents as a weapon against the free software community. Version 3 was developed to attempt to address these concerns and was released on 29 June 2007. Version 1 of the GNU GPL, released on 25 February 1989, prevented what were the two main ways that software distributors restricted the freedoms that define free software; the first problem was that distributors may publish binary files only—executable, but not readable or modifiable by humans. To prevent this, GPLv1 stated that copying and distributing copies or any portion of the program must make the human-readable source code available under the same licensing terms; the second problem was that distributors might add restrictions, either to the license, or by combining the software with other software that had other restrictions on distribution.
The union of two sets of restrictions would apply to the combined work, thus adding unacceptable restrictions. To prevent this, GPLv1 stated that modified versions, as a whole, had to be distributed under the terms in GPLv1. Therefore, software distributed under the terms of GPLv1 could be combined with software under more permissive terms, as this would not change the terms under which the whole could be distributed. However, software distributed under GPLv1 could not be combined with software distributed under a more restrictive license, as this would conflict with the requirement that the whole be distributable under the terms of GPLv1. According to Richard Stallman, the major change in GPLv2 was the "Liberty or Death" clause, as he calls it – Section 7; the section says that licensees may distribute a GPL-covered work only if they can satisfy all of the license's obligations, despite any other legal obligations they might have. In other words, the obligations of the license may not be severed due to conflicting obligations.
This provision is intended to discourage any party from using a patent infringement claim or other litigation to impair users' freedom under the license. By 1990, it was becoming apparent that a less restrictive license would be strategically useful for the C library and for software libraries that did the job of existing proprietary ones; the version numbers diverged in 1999 when version 2.1 of the LGPL was released, which renamed it the GNU Lesser General Public License to reflect its place in the philosophy. Most "GPLv2 or any version" is stated by users of the license, to allow upgrading to GPLv3. In late 2005, the Free Software Foundation announced work on version 3 of the GPL. On 16 January 2006, the first "discussion draft" of GPLv3 was published, the public consultation began; the public consultation was planned for ni
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Potrace is a cross-platform, open-source software which converts bitmapped images into vector graphics. It is maintained by Peter Selinger. Various graphical frontends are available for the command-line application Potrace. Notably, it has been integrated with Inkscape. FontForge can use Potrace to import a bitmap image into a font. Potrace is used by the music engraving program LilyPond. Potrace's input and output is white. However, Inkscape is capable of producing color images by decomposing each channel into several black and white images and tracing them separately with Potrace; the commercial Total Vectorize program uses Potrace as its core. The program is dual-licensed as "Potrace" under the GPL and as "Potrace Professional" in a proprietary license by Selinger's company, Icosasoft Software, Inc. Comparison of raster to vector conversion software Peter Selinger, Potrace: a polygon-based tracing algorithm, Sep 2003 Elisa de Castro Guerra, Inkscape: Apprenez, pratiquez, créez, Pearson Education France, 2007, ISBN 2-7440-2158-X, pp. 108–111 Yannis Haralambous, Fonts & encodings, O'Reilly Media, Inc.
2007, ISBN 0-596-10242-9, pp. 500–501 Karel Píška, Creating Type 1 Fonts from METAFONT Sources: Comparison of Tools and Results in TeX, XML, digital typography: International Conference on TeX, XML, Digital Typography, held jointly with the 25th Annual Meeting of the TeX Users Group, TUG 2004, Greece, August 30 - September 3, 2004.
AutoCAD is a commercial computer-aided design and drafting software application. Developed and marketed by Autodesk, AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers. Before AutoCAD was introduced, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator working at a separate graphics terminal. Since 2010, AutoCAD was released as a mobile- and web app as well, marketed as AutoCAD 360. AutoCAD is used in the industry, by architects, project managers, graphic designers, city planners and other professionals, it was supported by 750 training centers worldwide in 1994. AutoCAD was derived from a program that began in 1977, released in 1979 called Interact CAD referred to in early Autodesk documents as MicroCAD, written prior to Autodesk's formation by Autodesk cofounder Michael Riddle; the first version by Autodesk was released that December. AutoCAD supported CP/M-80 computers; as Autodesk's flagship product, by March 1986 AutoCAD had become the most ubiquitous CAD program worldwide.
The 2020 release marked the 34th major release of AutoCAD for Windows. The 2019 release marked the ninth consecutive year of AutoCAD for Mac; the native file format of AutoCAD is.dwg. This and, to a lesser extent, its interchange file format DXF, have become de facto, if proprietary, standards for CAD data interoperability for 2D drawing exchange. AutoCAD has included support for.dwf, a format developed and promoted by Autodesk, for publishing CAD data. ESRI ArcMap 10 permits export as AutoCAD drawing files. Civil 3D permits export as AutoCAD objects and as LandXML. Third-party file converters exist for specific formats such as Bentley MX GENIO Extension, PISTE Extension, ISYBAU, OKSTRA and Microdrainage. For example, jagged edges may appear. Several vendors provide online conversions for free such as Cometdocs.autoCAD use in all purposes. Auto CAD and AutoCAD LT are available for English, French, Spanish, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Brazilian Portuguese, Czech and Hungarian, Albanian.
The extent of localization varies from full translation of the product to documentation only. The AutoCAD command set is localized as a part of the software localization. AutoCAD supports a number of APIs for automation; these include AutoLISP, Visual LISP, VBA. NET and ObjectARX. ObjectARX is a C++ class library, the base for: products extending AutoCAD functionality to specific fields creating products such as AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Civil 3D third-party AutoCAD-based applicationThere are a large number of AutoCAD plugins available on the application store Autodesk Exchange Apps. AutoCAD's DXF, drawing exchange format, allows exporting drawing information. Autodesk has developed a few vertical programs for discipline-specific enhancements such as: AutoCAD Advance Steel AutoCAD Architecture AutoCAD CIVIL 3D AutoCAD Electrical AutoCAD ecscad AutoCAD Map 3D AutoCAD Mech AutoCAD MEP AutoCAD Structural Detailing AutoCAD Utility Design AutoCAD P&ID AutoCAD Plant 3DSince AutoCAD 2019 several verticals are included with AutoCAD subscription as Industry-Specific Toolset.
For example, AutoCAD Architecture permits architectural designers to draw 3D objects, such as walls and windows, with more intelligent data associated with them rather than simple objects, such as lines and circles. The data can be programmed to represent specific architectural products sold in the construction industry, or extracted into a data file for pricing, materials estimation, other values related to the objects represented. Additional tools generate standard 2D drawings, such as elevations and sections, from a 3D architectural model. Civil Design, Civil Design 3D, Civil Design Professional support data-specific objects facilitating easy standard civil engineering calculations and representations. Softdesk Civil was developed as an AutoCAD add-on by a company in New Hampshire called Softdesk. Softdesk was acquired by Autodesk, Civil became Land Development Desktop renamed Land Desktop. Civil 3D was developed and Land Desktop was retired. AutoCAD LT is the lower cost version of AutoCAD, with reduced capabilities, first released in November 1993.
Autodesk developed AutoCAD LT to have an entry-level CAD package to compete in the lower price level. Priced at $495, it became the first AutoCAD product priced below $1000, it was sold directly by Autodesk and in computer stores unlike the full version of AutoCAD, which must be purchased from official Autodesk dealers. AutoCAD LT 2015 introduced Desktop Subscription from $360 per year. While there are hundreds of small differences between the full AutoCAD package and AutoCAD LT, there are a few recognized major differences in the software's features: 3D Capabilities: AutoCAD LT lacks the ability to create and render 3D models as well as 3D printing. Network Licensing: AutoCAD LT cannot be used on multiple machines over a network. Customization: AutoCAD LT does not support customization with LISP, ARX. NET and VBA. Management and automation capabilities with Sheet Set Manager and Action Recorder. CAD standards management tools. Marketed as AutoCAD WS, AutoCAD 360 is an account-based mobile and web application enabling re
Corel Corporation is a Canadian software company headquartered in Ottawa, specializing in graphics processing. It is known for producing software titles such as CorelDRAW, for acquiring PaintShop Pro, Video Studio and WordPerfect. Corel was founded by Michael Cowpland in 1985 as a research laboratory; the company had great success early in the high-tech boom of the 1990s and early 2000s with the product CorelDRAW, became, for a time, the biggest software company in Canada. In 1996 it acquired Novell WordPerfect and started competing with the thought of being "Pepsi to Microsoft's Coke" as Microsoft Word was the top-used word processing software at the time. Corel was in a difficult position as Microsoft pushed pre-loaded copies of its software onto new computers; this consisted of Microsoft Works office applications, but a variant called Works Suite bundled the Microsoft Word software. The company held the naming rights to the home arena for the NHL's Ottawa Senators from February 1996 until January 2006 as the "Corel Centre", a venue known as the Canadian Tire Centre.
In 1997 Corel sold its Corel ChemLab studio and its "CD Home Collection" consisting of over 60 multimedia titles to Hoffmann + Associates, a Toronto-based company. As part of the deal, Corel acquired a minority interest in Hoffmann + Associates and received royalties. In August 2000 Cowpland was left. A new board of directors was appointed and Derek Burney Jr. announced that the product line would be split into several brands—DeepWhite, ProCreate, Corel. However, these plans would be scrapped, only the Corel brand would remain. Corel acquired the graphics software company Micrografx in late 2001. In August 2003, Corel was bought out by the private equity firm Vector Capital for $1.05 a share. The company was voluntarily delisted from the Toronto Stock Exchanges; some U. S. shareholders alleged the management benefited from the buyout while the buyout price was too low. A lawsuit was filed in the U. S. to was unsuccessful. In March 2005 Corel announced that the United States Justice Department purchased 50,000 licenses of WordPerfect and that WordPerfect was adding 4 million new users per year thanks to bundling deals with Dell.
Corel contended that WordPerfect was the only viable alternative to Microsoft Office, with sales 70 times more than Lotus' SmartSuite. On April 26, 2006, Corel completed its return to the public market with an initial public offering on NASDAQ, the same day finalizing the acquisition of WinZip, a well-known archiving software title. On December 12, 2006, Corel completed its acquisitions of Ulead; the InterVideo acquisition was valued at around $196 million. In May 2008, CEO David Dobson announced that he was leaving the company to take a senior strategy role at Pitney Bowes. Dobson was replaced on May 8 by former Symantec executive Kris Hagerman. In November 2009, it was announced that Vector Capital would be purchasing the remaining shares of common stock in Corel Corporation. Upon completion, this made Corel once again owned. On January 29, 2010, the shareholders of Corel approved its announced stock consolidation, completing the transfer to Corel Holdings, L. P. a limited partnership controlled by an affiliate of Vector Capital.
In January 2012, Corel acquired Roxio from Rovi Corporation for an undisclosed amount. Subsequently on July 2, 2012, Corel announced its acquisition of Pinnacle Systems, a developer of consumer-oriented video editing products owned by Avid. Having suffered layoffs in 2003 and 2008, Corel began a near yearly culture of restructuring beginning in 2010, when in the latter part of that year the company's finance department was restructured and moved to their Taipei office, resulting in significant layoffs at its Ottawa HQ. Restructuring in 2012 resulted in more layoffs. In December 2013, the company's restructuring resulted in the layoffs of the Taipei locations engineering and quality assurance team. Corel's Taipei office was the core development centre of PaintShop Pro and VideoStudio, one of the company's most well-known photo- and video-editing bundles; the 2013 restructuring led to a partial handover of product development to outsourced companies, resulting in more rapid, low-cost development across its product lines.
The company continued with layoffs in 2014 and once again at the beginning of 2015 with the change of the company's CEO to Patrick Nichols the head of Corel's WinZip business unit. In August 2016, Corel announced the acquisition of the Mindjet MindManager business from Spigit. In June 2018, Corel announced the acquisition of Gravit GmbH. In December 2018, Corel announced the acquisition of Parallels. Corel Chess - using a chess engine developed by Don Dailey and Larry Kaufman Corel Designer – Formerly Micrografx Designer, professional technical illustration software. Corel Digital Studio – a set of four applications: PaintShop Photo Express, VideoStudio Express, DVD Factory, WinDVD. CorelDRAW – A vector graphics editor. Corel Graphics Suite – Combination of CorelDRAW, PhotoPaint, Capture. Corel Home Office – an office suite based on Ability Office 5 and bundling Corel's WinZip software, it is incompatible with Corel's own WordPerfect file formats. Corel KnockOut – Professional image masking plug-in.
Corel Paint It! Touch – Drawing and painting software created for the Windows 8 touchscreen PCs. Corel Painter – a program that emulates natural media – p
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t