Tinctures constitute the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry. The need to define and correctly blazon the various tinctures is therefore one of the most important aspects of heraldic art, the colours and patterns of the heraldic palette are divided into three groups, usually known as metals and furs. In its original sense, tincture refers only to the group referred to as colours. Thus, when consulting various heraldic authorities, care must be taken to determine which meaning each term is given, the basic scheme and rules of applying the heraldic tinctures dates to the formative period of heraldry, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The practice of depicting certain charges as they appear in nature, in the English-speaking world, heraldic terminology is based largely on that of British armory, which in turn is based on Norman French. The metals are or and argent, representing gold and silver, although in practice they are depicted as yellow. Or derives its name from the Latin aurum, gold and it may be depicted using either yellow or metallic gold, at the artists discretion, yellow has no separate existence in heraldry, and is never used to represent any tincture other than or.
Argent is similarly derived from the Latin argentum, notwithstanding the widespread use of white for argent, some heraldic authorities have suggested the existence of white as a distinct heraldic colour. Five colours have been recognized since the earliest days of heraldry and these are, gules, or red, sable, or black, azure, or blue, vert, or green, and purpure, or purple. Two more were eventually acknowledged by most heraldic authorities, sanguine or murrey, a red or mulberry colour, and tenné. Gules is of uncertain derivation, outside of the heraldic context, Sable is named for a type of marten, known for its dark, luxuriant fur. Azure comes through the Arabic lāzaward, from the Persian lāžavard both referring to the mineral lapis lazuli, used to produce blue pigments. Vert is from Latin viridis, the alternative name in French, sinople, is derived from the ancient city of Sinope in Asia Minor, which was famous for its pigments. Purpure is from Latin purpura, in turn from Greek porphyra and this expensive dye, known from antiquity, produced a much redder purple than the modern heraldic colour, and in fact earlier depictions of purpure are far redder than recent ones.
As a heraldic colour, purpure may have originated as a variation of gules. Sanguine or Murrey, from Latin sanguineus, blood red, and Greek morum, although long shunned in the belief that it represented some dishonour on the part of the bearer, it has found some use in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Tenné or tenny, from Latin tannare, to tan, is the second of the so-called stains and it is most often depicted as orange, but sometimes as tawny yellow or brown. In earlier times it was used in continental heraldry
Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, KG KT GCVO GCStJ QSO GCL CD is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother and she rose to second after her mothers accession, but is currently 12th in line. Anne is known for her work, and is patron of over 200 organisations. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder, Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they divorced in 1992. They have two children and three grandchildren, in 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mothers equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11,50 am, as the child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh. She was the grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, after the death of George VI, Annes mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II.
Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation, the Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963, in 1968 she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating, in 1970 her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park and he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. By 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, the couple divorced on 23 April 1992. The Queen had offered Phillips an earldom on his wedding day, the couple had two children, Peter Phillips and Zara Phillips. As female-line descendants of royalty, the children have no title despite being the grandchildren of a monarch, Anne became a grandmother on 29 December 2010 when Peter and his wife Autumn had a daughter, Savannah.
On 29 March 2012, the couple had daughter, Isla. Annes third granddaughter, Mia Grace, was born on 17 January 2014 to Zara and her husband Mike Tindall. As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, the driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol
Boreal woodland caribou
The boreal woodland caribou known as woodland caribou, woodland caribou, forest-dwelling caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou. Boreal woodland caribou are primarily, but not always, the woodland caribou is the largest of the caribou subspecies and is darker in colour than the barren-ground caribou. In Geist’s opinion, the inclusion of additional populations obscures the precarious position of the “true” woodland caribou. The national meta-population of this sedentary boreal ecotype spans the boreal forest from the Northwest Territories to Labrador and they prefer lichen-rich mature forests and mainly live in marshes, bogs and river regions. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their southern range. The boreal woodland was designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were approximately 34,000 boreal caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada. Scientists consider only 30% of Canada’s boreal woodland caribou populations to be self-sustaining and they are extremely sensitive to both natural and human disturbance, and to habitat damage and fragmentation brought about by resource exploration, road building, and other human activity.
New forest growth following destruction of vegetation provides habitat and food for other ungulates, compared to barren-ground caribou or Alaskan caribou, boreal woodland caribou do not form large aggregations and are more dispersed particularly at calving time. Their seasonal movements are not as extensive, the name caribou was probably derived from the Mikmaq word xalibu or Qalipu meaning the one who paws. Other early records of caribou include a 45, 500-year-old cranial fragment from the Yukon, most of the subspecies, Rangifer tarandus caribou are now only found in Canada. The subspecies ecotype, boreal woodland caribou, have a height of approximately 1. 0-1.2 m shoulder height. Both male and female caribou have antlers during part of the year. On the males these grow so quickly each year that velvety lumps in March can become a rack measuring more than a metre in length by August, antlers of boreal caribou are flattened and relatively dense. Boreal caribou antlers are thicker and broader than those of the barren-ground caribou, the boreal woodland Caribou is well-adapted to cold environments with a compact body covered with a thick and long coat.
They have a blunt muzzle, short wide ears. Adults have a brown to dark-brown coat in summer, becoming greyer in winter, breeding occurs at the end of September and the beginning of October and the young are born in mid-June, although these dates may be vary based on geographical region. For conservation and herd management purposes, migratory herds are often defined in terms of female natal philopatry or natal homing - the tendency to return to natal calving areas. Female boreal caribou and their calves are more vulnerable to predation than migratory caribou, as they often calve separate from the rest of the herd
Acacia pycnantha, commonly known as the golden wattle, is a tree of the family Fabaceae native to southeastern Australia. It grows to a height of 8 m and has phyllodes instead of true leaves, sickle-shaped, these are between 9 and 15 cm long, and 1–3.5 cm wide. The profuse fragrant, golden flowers appear in winter and spring. Plants are cross-pollinated by several species of honeyeater and thornbill, which visit nectaries on the phyllodes and brush against flowers, an understorey plant in eucalyptus forest, it is found from southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, through Victoria and into southeastern South Australia. Explorer Thomas Mitchell collected the specimen, from which George Bentham wrote the species description in 1842. The bark of A. pycnantha produces more tannin than any other wattle species, Acacia pycnantha was made the official floral emblem of Australia in 1988, and has been featured on the countrys postal stamps. Acacia pycnantha generally grows as a tree to between 3 and 8 m in height, though trees of up to 12 m high have been reported in Morocco.
The bark is dark brown to grey—smooth in younger plants though it can be furrowed. Branchlets may be bare and smooth or covered with a white bloom, the mature trees do not have true leaves but have phyllodes—flat and widened leaf stems—that hang down from the branches. Shiny and dark green, these are between 9 and 15 cm long, 1–3.5 cm wide and falcate to oblanceolate in shape, New growth has a bronze coloration. Field observations at Hale Conservation Park show the bulk of new growth to take place over spring, floral buds are produced year-round on the tips of new growth, but only those initiated between November and May go on to flower several months later. Flowering usually takes place from July to November in the golden wattles native range, because the buds develop faster, flowering peaks over July, the bright yellow inflorescences occur in groups of 40 to 80 on 2. 5–9 cm -long racemes that arise from axillary buds. Each inflorescence is a structure that is covered by 40 to 100 small flowers that have five tiny petals and long erect stamens.
Developing after flowering has finished, the pods are flattish, straight or slightly curved, 5–14 cm long. They are initially green, maturing to dark brown and have slight constrictions between the seeds, which are arranged in a line in the pod. The oblong seeds themselves are 5.5 to 6 mm long and shiny and they are released in December and January, when the pods are fully ripe. Species similar in appearance include mountain hickory wattle, coast golden wattle, Acacia obliquinervia has grey-green phyllodes, fewer flowers in its flower heads, and broader seed pods. A. saligna has longer, narrower phyllodes, Acacia pycnantha was first formally described by botanist George Bentham in the London Journal of Botany in 1842
Waka are Māori watercraft, usually canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes used for fishing and river travel, to large decorated war canoes up to 40 metres long. The earliest archaeological find of a canoe in New Zealand was reported in 2014 and it was found near the Anaweka estuary in a remote part of Tasman and carbon dated to about 1400. The canoe was constructed in New Zealand, but was a sophisticated canoe, Waka taua are large canoes manned by up to 80 paddlers and are up to 40 metres in length. The gunwale is raised in some by a continuous plank which gives increased freeboard, the resurgence of Māori culture has seen an increase in the numbers of waka taua built, generally on behalf of a tribal group, for use on ceremonial occasions. Traditionally the war canoe was highly tapu, no cooked food was allowed in the craft and the waka had to be entered over the gunwales, not the bow or stern which were highly decorated with powerful symbols. Canoes were often painted black or white with black representing death.
The main colour was red which stood for tapu, sometimes a waka would be placed upright as a marker for a dead chief with the curved bottom of the hull carved. Māori told missionaries during the Musket wars that battles between waka took place at sea with the aim being to ram an enemys waka amidships at high speed, the ramming vessel would ride up over the gunwale and either force it under water or cause it to roll over. The enemies were killed, left to drown or captured to be used in cannibal feasts or as slaves if they were female. This description matches the attack on the boat of Abel Tasman in Golden Bay in 1642 when a Māori catamaran rammed a cock boat and 4 Dutch sailors were killed. During the classic period a hapū would select a Totara tree, Totara is a lightweight wood with a high natural oil content that helps prevent rot. This would include the removal of bark from one side of the trunk and the clearing of the ground, after chants and prayers the tree would be felled by a combination of fires around the base and chopping with hand adzes.
On an especially large tree with aerial roots a stage about 3m high was built of wood, on this was built a framework on which was suspended a giant upside down toki, about 2. 5m long. The long axis of the toki was tied to the member of the upper frame work so that it could pivot back and forwards. Heavy rocks were tied to each side of the axis at its lowest point to give momentum. The toki was pulled back and released so that the cutting edge bit into the wood that was weakened by fire and it could take two to three weeks to cut down a large tree in this manner. The head of the tree and branches were removed the hull was roughly shaped in situ using fire and hand adzes, a stone adze was used by relatively gentle but regular and repeated blows. The head was soaked in water to make the binding swell, once the shaping was complete, the log of 3–4 tonnes was pulled by teams of men to a stream or river using multiple ropes made from raupo
Gisborne, New Zealand
Gisborne is a city in northeastern New Zealand and the largest settlement in the Gisborne District. It has a population of 36,100, the district council has its headquarters in Whataupoko, in the central city. The settlement was known as Turanga and renamed Gisborne in 1870 in honour of New Zealand Colonial Secretary William Gisborne. The Gisborne region has been settled for over 700 years, for centuries the region has been inhabited by the tribes of Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, Rongowhakaata, Ngāi Tāmanuhiri and Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti. Their people descend from the voyagers of the Te Ikaroa-a-Rauru, East Coast oral traditions offer differing versions of Gisbornes establishment by Māori. According to one legend, Kiwa waited so long for the Horouta canoe to arrive that he called its final landing place Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, however, a more popular version of events is that Horouta preceded Takitimu. In 1931, Sir Āpirana Ngata stated that Horouta was the canoe that brought the people to the East Coast. Māori historian Rongowhakaata Halbert affirmed this account, stating that Paoas crew on the Horouta were the first inhabitants of the East Coast after migrating from Ahuahu or Great Mercury Island, paoa gave his name to various places across the region, most notably the Waipāoa River.
During the 14th century, Māori tribes built fishing villages close to the sea, Gisbornes Kaiti Beach is the place where British navigator Captain James Cook made his first landing in New Zealand upon the Endeavour. Cook had earlier set off from Plymouth, England in August 1768 on a bound for Tahiti. Once he had concluded his duties in Tahiti, Cook continued south to look for a large landmass or continent. Young Nicks Head was thought to be the first piece of New Zealand land sighted by Cooks party, on 9 October, Cook came ashore on the eastern bank of the Tūranganui River, accompanied by a party of men. Their arrival was marred by misunderstanding and resulted in the death and it was on the banks of the Tūranganui River that first the township of Tūranga, the city of Gisborne, grew as European traders and whalers began to settle in the river and port area. The landing site was commemorated by a monument in 1906, on the 137th anniversary of Cooks arrival. Starting in the early 1830s, traders such as Captain John Harris, over the next 30 years, many more European traders and missionaries migrated to the region.
In 1868 the government bought 300 hectares of land for a town site, the town was laid out in 1870 and the name changed from Tūranga to Gisborne, after the colonial secretary, and to avoid confusion with Tauranga. In 1872, Gisbornes first public school was opened and its first newspaper, a town council was formed in 1877. Gisborne is a city located on the east cape of New Zealands North Island
In heraldry, an ordinary is a simple geometrical figure, bounded by straight lines and running from side to side or top to bottom of the shield. There are some geometric charges known as subordinaries, which have been given lesser status by some heraldic writers, diminutives of ordinaries and some subordinaries are charges of the same shape, though thinner. Most of the ordinaries are theoretically said to occupy one-third of the shield, ordinaries resemble partitions of the field, but are formally considered objects on the field. Though there is debate as to exactly which geometrical charges—with straight edges and running from edge to edge of the shield—constitute ordinaries. Except for the chief they are central to the shield, Cross, a pale and a fess of equal widths conjoined, as in the arms of the City of London. Pale, a vertical stripe right down the middle of the shield, typically 1/5th to 1/3rd the width of the field. A variant is the Canadian pale, invented in 1964 for the new Canadian national flag, fess, a horizontal stripe, as in the coat of arms of Austria.
Typically 1/5th to 1/3rd the height of the field, bar, a narrower fess, sometimes reckoned as an ordinary in its own right. Bend, a band from the dexter chief to the opposite corner. Bend sinister, A bend in the opposite direction, horizontal band right across the top of the shield, as in the arms of the district of Lausanne. Chief triangular begins in the corners and extends to a point that is one quarter to one third the way down the shield and it is a complex line division variant of a chief. Chief enarched is drawn with a concave arch, the following are sometimes classed as ordinaries, sometimes as subordinaries, the boundary of the shield, often used for cadency. Pile, downward pointing triangle, issuing from the top of the shield, a variant is the shakefork, a pall cut short of the margins, with pointed ends. It is frequent in Scotland, owing to its prominence in the armory of Clan Cunningham, ordinaries need not be bounded by straight lines. Some geometric figures are not considered to be honourable ordinaries and are called subordinaries, very loosely, they are geometric or conventional charges that, unlike ordinaries, do not stretch from edge to edge of the shield.
There is no definitive list or definition, but they generally include, the dexter chief quadrant of the shield Canton, smaller than the quarter, formally said to occupy one-ninth of the shield, though sometimes drawn smaller. Very occasionally a sinister canton is found, on the other side. Flaunches, always borne in pairs, a circular arc emerging out of each flank of the shield, interlacing bendlet, bendlet sinister and mascle
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic and block.
All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US
Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro. The highest peaks of the mountain are Batian and Point Lenana, Mount Kenya is located in central Kenya, about 16.5 kilometres south of the equator, around 150 kilometres north-northeast of the capital Nairobi. Mount Kenya is the source of the name of the Republic of Kenya, Mount Kenya is a stratovolcano created approximately 3 million years after the opening of the East African rift. Before glaciation, it was 7,000 m high and it was covered by an ice cap for thousands of years. This has resulted in very eroded slopes and numerous valleys radiating from the centre, There are currently 11 small glaciers. The forested slopes are an important source of water for much of Kenya, There are several vegetation bands from the base to the summit. The lower slopes are covered by different types of forest, many alpine species are endemic to Mount Kenya, such as the giant lobelias and senecios and a local subspecies of rock hyrax.
An area of 715 km2 around the centre of the mountain was designated a National Park, the park receives over 16,000 visitors per year. Mount Kenya National Park, established in 1949, protects the surrounding the mountain. Currently the national park is within the forest reserve which encircles it, in April 1978 the area was designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The national park and the forest reserve, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997, the Government of Kenya had four reasons for creating a national park on and around Mount Kenya. Kenya’s government has announced a project to discourage animals from straying into small holdings surrounding the Park, the project will see the Park enclosed by an electric fence with five electrified strands and is expected to be completed by 2014. The fence will discharge an electric shock, but is not dangerous to humans or animals, the main ethnic groups living around Mount Kenya are Kikuyu, Ameru and Maasai. The first three are closely related and they all see the mountain as an important aspect of their cultures.
All these cultures arrived in the Mount Kenya area in the last several hundred years, the Kikuyu live on the southern and western sides of the mountain. They are agriculturalists, and make use of the fertile volcanic soil on the lower slopes. They believe that God, Ngai or Mwene Nyaga, lived on Mount Kenya when he came down from the sky and they believe that the mountain is Ngais throne on earth. It is the place where Gĩkũyũ, the father of the tribe, thus according to the Kikuyu records, Gĩkũyũ is the first person on Earth to ascend the mountain
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as density, tree height, land use, legal standing. According to the widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered four billion hectares or approximately 30 percent of the land area in 2006. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe, Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earths biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earths plant biomass. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones, boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator, higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, and amount of precipitation affects forest composition. Human society and forests influence each other in both positive and negative ways, Forests provide ecosystem services to humans and serve as tourist attractions.
Forests can affect peoples health, human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems. Although forest is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition, there are three broad categories of forest definitions in use, land use, and land cover. Land use definitions are based upon the purpose that the land serves. For example, a forest may be defined as any land that is used primarily for production of timber, land cover definitions define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land. Such definitions typically define a forest as an area growing trees above some threshold and these thresholds are typically the number of trees per area, the area of ground under the tree canopy or the section of land that is occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks. Under such land cover definitions, and area of land only be defined as forest if it is growing trees, areas that fail to meet the land cover definition may be still included under while immature trees are establishing if they are expected to meet the definition at maturity.
Under land use definitions, there is variation on where the cutoff points are between a forest and savanna. Under some definitions, forests require high levels of tree canopy cover, from 60% to 100%, excluding savannas. Other definitions consider savannas to be a type of forest, the term was not endemic to Romance languages, and cognates in Romance languages, such as Italian foresta and Portuguese floresta, etc. are all ultimately borrowings of the French word. The exact origin of Medieval Latin foresta is obscure, uses of the word forest in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic. The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a term denoting an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility. These hunting forests were not necessarily wooded much, if at all, however, as hunting forests did often include considerable areas of woodland, the word forest eventually came to mean wooded land more generally
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia