False advertising is the use of false, misleading, or unproven information to advertise products to consumers. The advertising does not disclose its source. One form of false advertising is to claim that a product has a health benefit or contains vitamins or minerals that it in fact does not. Many governments use regulations to control false advertising. A false advertisement can further be classified as deceptive if the advertiser deliberately misleads the consumer, as opposed to making an honest mistake. Used in cosmetic and weight loss commercials, these adverts portray false and unobtainable results to the consumer and give a false impression of the product's true capabilities. If retouching is not discovered or fixed, a company can be at a competitive advantage with consumers purchasing their more effective product, thus leaving competitors at a loss. Advertisers for weight loss products may employ athletes who are recovering from injuries for "before and after" demonstrations. An ad may skim over important information.
The ad's claims may be technically true, but the ad does not include information that a reasonable person would consider relevant. For example, TV advertisements for prescription drugs may technically fulfill a regulatory requirement by displaying side-effects in a small font at the end of the ad, or have a "speed-talker" list them; this practice was prevalent in the United States in the recent past. Hidden fees can be a way for companies to trick the unwary consumer into paying excess fees on a product, advertised at a specific price as a way to increase profit without raising the price on the actual item. A common form of hidden fees and surcharges is "fine print" in advertising. Another way to hide fees, used is to not include "shipping fees" into the price of goods online; this makes. Many hotels charge mandatory "resort fees" that are not included in the advertised base price of the room. Manipulation of measurement units and standards can be described as a seller deceiving customers by informing them with facts that either are not true or are using a standard or standards that wouldn't be used or understood which results in the customer being misinformed or confused.
Some products are sold with fillers, which increase the legal weight of the product with something that costs the producer little compared to what the consumer thinks that he or she is buying. Food is an example of this, where meat is injected with broth or brine, or TV dinners are filled with gravy or other sauce instead of meat. Malt and ham have been used as filler in peanut butter. There are non-meat fillers which may look starchy in their makeup. One example is known as a cereal binder and contains some combination of flours and oatmeal; some products may have a large container where most of the space is empty, leading the consumer to believe that the total amount of food is greater than it is. The words “Diet, low fat, sugar-free and good for you” are labels they may see every day and they associate these labels with products that will aid a healthy lifestyle, it seems advertisers are aware of their needs to live longer and live well so they are adapting their products in accordance with this.
It is suggested. Therefore, by highlighting certain contents or ingredients is misleading consumers into thinking they are buying healthy when in fact they are not. Many large food companies are going to court after using misleading tactics like these: Using a tick panel above the nutritional label and using large, bold font and brighter colors. Highlighting one healthy ingredient on the front of the packet with a big tick next to it. Using words like healthy and natural which are weasel claims – words that contradict the claims that may follow it; these are used words where the meaning can be overlooked by consumers. Using words like help on the product labeling, misleading consumers into thinking it ‘will’ help. However, this is not always the case. There has been an increase in the number of large organizations going to court over misleading claims, stating that products are ‘school canteen approved’ or ‘all natural,’ hence claiming their products are healthy or only uses natural ingredients, but this is not always the case.
Many advertisements for supplements or medicine include "This product is not intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.", as any product, intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease must undergo FDA testing and approval, very expensive. Puffing or puffery is the act of exaggerating a product's worth through the use of meaningless unsubstantiated terms, based on opinion rather than fact, in some cases through the manipulation of data. Examples of this include many superlatives and statements such as “greatest of all time”, “best in town” and “out of this world” or a restaurant claiming it had "the world’s best tasting food". Puffing is not an illegal form of false advertising and can be looked at as a humorous way to grab and attract the attention of the consumer. Puffing may be able to be used as a defense against charges of deceptive advertising when it is formatted as an opinion rather than a fact. However, it can be used as a defense for misleading or deceptive advertising.
For example, claims like ‘Top Quality’ can have regulatory and legal consequences and can be looked at as illegal misrepresentation, if not supported through the products capabilities. Many terms have imprecise meanings. Depending on the jurisdiction, "o
Wendy's is an American international fast food restaurant chain founded by Dave Thomas on November 15, 1969, in Columbus, Ohio. The company moved its headquarters to Dublin, Ohio, on January 29, 2006; as of December 31, 2018, Wendy's was the world's third largest hamburger fast food chain with 6,711 locations, following Burger King and McDonald's. On April 24, 2008, the company announced a merger with Triarc Companies Inc. a publicly traded company and the parent company of Arby's. Despite the new ownership, Wendy's headquarters remained in Dublin. Wendy's had rejected more than two buyout offers from Triarc. Following the merger, Triarc became known as Wendy's/Arby's Group, as The Wendy's Company; as of December 31, 2018, there were a total of 6,711 locations, including 353 that are company-owned. 6,358 restaurants are franchised, 92% of the system-wide restaurants are located in North America. While Wendy's sets standards for exterior store appearance, food quality, menu, individual owners have control over hours of operations, interior decor, staff uniforms, wages.
The chain is known for its square hamburgers, sea salt fries, their signature Frosty, a form of soft serve ice cream mixed with frozen starches. Wendy's menu consists of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches, French fries, beverages such as the Frosty. Since phasing out their famous "Big Classic", the company does not have a signature sandwich, such as the Burger King Whopper or the McDonald's Big Mac - although, by default, the "signature sandwich" spot seems to have been filled by Dave's 1/4 lb Single, a square-pattied burger made with fresh ground beef rather than round frozen patties. Wendy's uses square hamburger patties – which hang over the edge of a circular bun – as its signature item; the idea for Wendy's "old fashioned" hamburgers was inspired by Dave Thomas's trips to Kewpee Hamburgers in his home town of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Kewpee sold square hamburgers and thick malt shakes, much like the well-known restaurant that Thomas founded in Columbus, Ohio, in 1969. Square patties had corners that stuck out so that customers could see the quality of the meat.
The Columbus location added a Tim Hortons and was closed on March 2, 2007, after 38 years of business due to declining sales. Thomas named the restaurant after his fourth child Melinda Lou "Wendy" Thomas. Photographs of her were on display at the original Wendy's restaurant. In August 1972, the first Wendy's franchisee, L. S. Hartzog, signed an agreement for Indianapolis, Indiana. In 1972, Wendy's aired its first TV commercials that were only broadcast locally in Ohio; this series of commercials was titled "C'mon to Wendy's" because they stressed Wendy's superiority through the "Quality Is Our Recipe" slogan and featured an animated Wendy similar to the one from the corporate logo along with dancing hamburgers. The first Canadian restaurant opened in Hamilton, Ontario in 1976. In December 1976, Wendy's opened its 500th restaurant, located in Ontario. In March 1978, Wendy's opened its 1000th restaurant in Tennessee. Wendy's founded the fried chicken chain Sisters Chicken in 1978 and sold it to its largest franchiser in 1987.
In 1979, the first European Wendy's opened in Munich. The same year, Wendy's became the first fast-food chain to introduce the salad bar. Wendy's entered the Asian market by opening its first restaurants in Japan in 1980, in Hong Kong in 1982, in the Philippines and Singapore in 1983. In 1984, Wendy's opened its first restaurant in South Korea. In response to a 1986 slowdown in the chain's performance, Wendy's restructured its cleanliness standards and other operational details to ensure that stores met the goals and standards of the parent company so that its franchises were competitive in the market. Wendy's closed all its outlets in Singapore in the following year. From 1988 to 1990, Wendy's expanded operations globally to Mexico, New Zealand, Greece, Guatemala, as well as the U. S. Naval Base in Naples, Italy. In 1988, Wendy's expanded its bar to a full-blown buffet called the Superbar for $2.99. The Superbar had various stations: "Mexican Fiesta", the Italian "Pasta Pasta," and the "Garden Spot", salad and fruit.
The Superbar was popular but difficult to maintain and thus was discontinued in 1998. In 1989, Wendy's opened its first restaurant in Greece at Syntagma Square being the first foreign fast-food chain in the country. After opening 12 restaurants in 3 cities, the company abandoned the Greek market in 2002. In 1996, the chain expanded in Argentina by opening 18 local restaurants. However, all of them closed only four years due to the economic crisis in the country. In 1998, Wendy's pulled out of South Korea by closing all its 15 restaurants and in 2000 exited from the UK, Hong Kong. Garden Sensations salads were added in 2002. Wendy's signed a franchise agreement to re-enter the Singapore market in 2009 though that agreement was short-lived. In 2011, Wendy's returned to Japan and Argentina announcing a development agreement for 50 restaurants in the country, it entered the Russian market for the first time with plans to open 180 restaurants over a 10-year period. However, only three years in 2014, Wendy's closed all its restaurants in the country.
In 2013, Wendy's opened the first restaurant in Georgia and made a deal to open 25 restaurants in Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. In September 2014, several pork based products were introduced to be on sale until early November; these included a stand
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa
Cruelty to animals
Cruelty to animals called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human. More narrowly, it can be the causing of harm or suffering for specific achievement, such as killing animals for food or for their fur. Cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting harm or suffering as an end in itself, defined as zoosadism. Divergent approaches to laws concerning animal cruelty occur in different jurisdictions throughout the world. For example, some laws govern methods of killing animals for food, clothing, or other products, other laws concern the keeping of animals for entertainment, research, or pets. There are a number of conceptual approaches to the issue of cruelty to animals. For example, the animal welfare position holds that there is nothing inherently wrong with using animals for human purposes, such as food, entertainment and research, but that it should be done in a way that minimizes unnecessary pain and suffering, sometimes referred to as "humane" treatment.
Utilitarian advocates argue from the position of costs and benefits and vary in their conclusions as to the allowable treatment of animals. Some utilitarians argue for a weaker approach, closer to the animal welfare position, whereas others argue for a position, similar to animal rights. Animal rights theorists criticize these positions, arguing that the words "unnecessary" and "humane" are subject to differing interpretations, that animals have basic rights, they say that the only way to ensure protection for animals is to end their status as property and to ensure that they are never used as commodities. Throughout history humans believed to have a God-given right to treat nonhuman animals with cruelty however some individuals were concerned, for example, Leonardo da Vinci once purchased caged birds in order to set them free, he expressed anger within his notebooks with the fact that humans use their strength and power to raise animals for slaughter. According to contemporary philosopher Nigel Warburton, for the most of human history, the dominant view has been that animals are there for humans to do with as they see fit.
René Descartes contrarily believed that non-humans are automata, complex machines with no soul, mind, or reason. In Cartesian dualism, consciousness was unique to human among all other animals and linked to physical matter by divine grace. However, close analysis shows that many human features such as complex sign usage, tool use, self-consciousness can be found in some animals. Charles Darwin, by presenting the theory of evolution, revolutionized the way that humans viewed their relationship with other species. Darwin believed that not only did human beings have a direct kinship with other animals, but the latter had social and moral lives too. In The Descent of Man, he wrote: "There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher mammals in their mental faculties."Some philosophers and intellectuals, such as Peter Singer and Tom Regan, have argued that animals' ability to feel pain as humans do makes their well-being worthy of equal consideration. There are many precursors of this train of thought.
Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, famously wrote in his An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: "The question is not, can they reason nor can they talk? but, can they suffer?" These arguments have prompted some to suggest that animals' well-being should enter a social welfare function directly, not just indirectly via its effect only on human well-being. In one survey of United States homeowners, 68% of respondents said they consider the price of meat a more important issue. Animal cruelty can be broken down into two main categories: passive. Passive cruelty is typified by cases of neglect, in which the cruelty is a lack of action rather than the action itself. Oftentimes passive animal cruelty is accidental, born of ignorance. In many cases of neglect in which an investigator believes that the cruelty occurred out of ignorance, the investigator may attempt to educate the pet owner revisit the situation. In more severe cases, exigent circumstances may require that the animal be removed for veterinary care.
Farm animals are produced in large, industrial facilities that house thousands of animals at high densities. The industrial nature of these facilities means that many routine procedures or animal husbandry practices impinge on the welfare of the animals and could arguably be considered as "cruelty", with Henry Stephen Salt claiming in 1899 that "it is impossible to transport and slaughter vast numbers of large and highly-sensitive animals in a humane manner", it has been suggested the number of animals hunted, kept as companions, used in laboratories, reared for the fur industry and used in zoos and circuses, is insignificant compared to farm animals, therefore the "animal welfare issue" is numerically reducible to the "farm animal welfare issue". It has been suggested by campaign groups that chickens, cows and other farm animals are among the most numerous animals subjected to cruelty. For example, because male chickens do not lay eggs, newly hatched males are culled using macerators or grinders.
Worldwide meat overconsumption is another factor that contributes to the miserable situation of farm animals. Many undercover investigators have exposed the animal cruelty taking place inside the factory farming industry and there is evidence to show that consumers provided with accurate information about the process of meat productions and the abuse that accompa
Animal welfare is the well-being of nonhuman animals. The standards of "good" animal welfare vary between different contexts; these standards are under constant review and are debated and revised by animal welfare groups and academics worldwide. Animal welfare science uses various measures, such as longevity, immunosuppression, behavior and reproduction, although there is debate about which of these indicators provide the best information. Respect for animal welfare is based on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their well-being or suffering when they are under the care of humans; these concerns can include how animals are slaughtered for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept, how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species. There are two forms of criticism of the concept of animal welfare, coming from diametrically opposite positions. One view, held by some thinkers in history, holds; the other view is based on the animal rights position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans is unacceptable.
Accordingly, some animal rights proponents argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased exploitation of animals. Some authorities therefore treat animal animal rights as two opposing positions. Others see animal welfare gains as incremental steps towards animal rights; the predominant view of modern neuroscientists, notwithstanding philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness in humans, is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals. However, some still maintain that consciousness is a philosophical question that may never be scientifically resolved. Early legislation in the Western world on behalf of animals includes the Ireland Parliament "An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, pulling the Wooll off living Sheep", 1635, the Massachusetts Colony "Off the Bruite Creatures" Liberty 92 and 93 in the "Massachusetts Body of Liberties" of 1641. Since 1822, when Irish MP Richard Martin brought the "Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822" through Parliament offering protection from cruelty to cattle and sheep, an animal welfare movement has been active in England.
Martin was among the founders of the world's first animal welfare organization, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or SPCA, in 1824. In 1840, Queen Victoria gave the society her blessing, it became the RSPCA; the society used members' donations to employ a growing network of inspectors, whose job was to identify abusers, gather evidence, report them to the authorities. In 1837, the German minister Albert Knapp founded the first German animal welfare society. One of the first national laws to protect animals was the UK "Cruelty to Animals Act 1835" followed by the "Protection of Animals Act 1911". In the US it was many years until there was a national law to protect animals—the "Animal Welfare Act of 1966"—although there were a number of states that passed anti-cruelty laws between 1828 and 1898. In India, animals are protected by the "Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960". Significant progress in animal welfare did not take place until the late 20th century. In 1965, the UK government commissioned an investigation—led by Professor Roger Brambell—into the welfare of intensively farmed animals in response to concerns raised in Ruth Harrison's 1964 book, Animal Machines.
On the basis of Professor Brambell's report, the UK government set up the Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Committee in 1967, which became the Farm Animal Welfare Council in 1979. The committee's first guidelines recommended that animals require the freedoms to "stand up, lie down, turn around, groom themselves and stretch their limbs." The guidelines have since been elaborated upon to become known as the Five Freedoms. In the UK, the "Animal Welfare Act 2006" consolidated many different forms of animal welfare legislation. A number of animal welfare organisations are campaigning to achieve a Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare at the United Nations. In principle, the Universal Declaration would call on the United Nations to recognise animals as sentient beings, capable of experiencing pain and suffering, to recognise that animal welfare is an issue of importance as part of the social development of nations worldwide; the campaign to achieve the UDAW is being co-ordinated by World Animal Protection, with a core working group including Compassion in World Farming, the RSPCA, the Humane Society International.
Animal welfare science is an emerging field that seeks to answer questions raised by the keeping and use of animals, such as whether hens are frustrated when confined in cages, whether the psychological well-being of animals in laboratories can be maintained, whether zoo animals are stressed by the transport required for international conservation. Animal testing Abandoned pets Behavioral enrichment Blood sport Cruelty to animals Feral cat Hunting Overpopulation in companion animals Overview of discretionary invasive procedures on animals Poaching Puppy mills Whaling A major concern for the welfare of farm animals is factory farming in which large numbers of animals are reared in confinement at high stocking densities. Issues include the limited opportunities for natural behaviors, for example, in battery cages and gestation crates, instead producing abnormal behaviors such as tail-biting and feather pecking, routine invasive procedures such as beak trimming and ear notching. More extensive methods of farming, e.g. free
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products in diet, an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances; the term ethical vegan is applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, oppose the use of animals for any purpose. Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Vegan diets are regarded as appropriate for all stages of life including during infancy and pregnancy by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association; the German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children or adolescents, or during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, phytochemicals. Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues; some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements. Vitamin B12 supplementation is important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and irreversible neurological damage. Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian", but from 1951 the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals". Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s in the latter half. More vegan stores opened and vegan options became available in supermarkets and restaurants in many countries; the term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was described as a vegetable regimen or diet. Modern dictionaries based on scientific linguistic principles explain its origin as an irregular compound of vegetable and the suffix -arian.
The earliest-known written use is attributed to actress and abolitionist Fanny Kemble, in her Journal of a Residence on a Georgian plantation in 1838–1839. The practice can be traced to Indus Valley Civilization in 3300–1300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent in northern and western India and in Pakistan. Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; the Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism, but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he advocated any form of vegetarianism at all. He certainly prohibited his followers from eating beans and from wearing woolen garments. Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but kept his distance from cooks and hunters". One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maʿarri.
Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, the view—espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium —that if humans deserve justice so do animals. Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. A minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely. In 1813, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors", in 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne. Lambe called animal food a "habitual irritation", argued that "milk eating and flesh-eating are but branches of a common system and they must stand or fall together". Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham diet—mostly fruit, vegetables and bread made at home with stoneground flour—became popular as a health remedy in the 1830s in the United States. Several vegan communities were established around this time.
In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844, in England, James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838. In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House. Alcott House helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent; the Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884: There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever. The Vegetarian Society... belongs to the latter more moderate division. An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leat