Department for Education
The Department for Education is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education and wider skills in England. A Department for Education existed between 1992, when the Department of Education and Science was renamed, 1995 when it was merged with the Department for Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment; the DfE was formed on 12 May 2010 by the incoming Cameron ministry, taking on the responsibilities and resources of the Department for Children and Families. In June 2012 the Department for Education committed a breach of the UK's Data Protection Act due to a security flaw on its website which made email addresses and comments of people responding to consultation documents available for download. In July 2016, the Department took over responsibilities for higher and further education and for apprenticeship from the dissolved Department for Business and Skills. Committee of the Privy Council on Education, 1839–1899 Education Department, 1856–1899 Board of Education, 1899–1944 Ministry of Education, 1944–1964 Department of Education and Science, 1964–1992 Department for Education, 1992–1995 Department for Education and Employment, 1995–2001 Department for Education and Skills, 2001–2007 Department for Children and Families, 2007–2010 The department is led by the Secretary of State for Education.
The Permanent Secretary is Jonathan Slater. DfE is responsible for education, children’s services and further education policy and wider skills in England, equalities; the predecessor department employed the equivalent of 2,695 staff as of April 2008 and as at June 2016, DfE had reduced its workforce to the equivalent of 2,301 staff. In 2015-16, the DfE has a budget of £58.2bn, which includes £53.6bn resource spending and £4.6bn of capital investments. The Department for Education's ministers are as follows: The management board is made up of: Permanent Secretary - Jonathan Slater Director-General, Social Care and Equalities - Indra Morris Director-General, Education Standards - Paul Kett Director-General and Funding - Andrew McCully Director-General and Further Education - Philippa Lloyd Chief Financial and Operating Officer, Insight and Transformation - Howard Orme Chief Executive, Education & Skills Funding Agency - Eileen MilnerNon-executive board members: Marion Plant OBE; the Education Funding Agency was responsible for distributing funding for state education in England for 3-19 year olds, as well as managing the estates of schools, colleges and the Skills Funding Agency was responsible for funding skills training for further education in England and running the National Apprenticeship Service and the National Careers Service.
The EFA was formed on 1 April 2012 by bringing together the functions of two non-departmental public bodies, the Young People's Learning Agency and Partnerships for Schools. The SFA was formed on 1 April 2010, following the closure of the Skills Council. Eileen Milner is the agency's Chief Executive; the National College for Teaching and Leadership is responsible for administering the training of new and existing teachers in England, as well as the regulation of the teaching profession and offers headteachers, school leaders and senior children's services leaders opportunities for professional development. It was established on 1 April 2013, when the Teaching Agency merged with the National College for School Leadership; the National College for Teaching and Leadership was replaced by the Department for Education and Teaching Regulation Agency in April 2018. The Standards and Testing Agency is responsible for developing and delivering all statutory assessments for school pupils in England, it was formed on 1 October 2011 and took over the functions of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency.
The STA is regulated by Ofqual. The DfE is supported by 10 public bodies: Education and children's policy is devolved elsewhere in the UK; the department's main devolved counterparts are as follows: Scotland Scottish Government – Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Department of Education Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Wales Welsh Government – Department for Education and Skills The Department for Education released a new National Curriculum for schools in England for September 2014, which included'Computing'. Following Michael Gove's speech in 2012, the subject of Information Communication Technology has been disapplied and replaced by Computing. With the new curriculum, materials have been written by commercial companies, to support non-specialist teachers, for example,'100 Computing Lessons' by Scholastic; the Computing at Schools organisation has created a'Network of Teaching Excellence'to support schools with the new curriculum. In 2015, the Department announced a major restructuring of the
Department for International Development
The Department for International Development is a United Kingdom government department responsible for administering overseas aid. The goal of the department is "to promote sustainable development and eliminate world poverty". DFID is headed by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for International Development; the position has been held, by Penny Mordaunt. In a 2010 report by the Development Assistance Committee, DFID was described as "an international development leader in times of global crisis"; the UK aid logo is used to publicly acknowledge DFID's development programmes are funded by UK taxpayers. DFID's main programme areas of work are Education, Social Services, Water Supply and Sanitation and Civil Society, Economic Sector, Environment Protection and Humanitarian Assistance. In 2009/10 DFID’s Gross Public Expenditure on Development was £6.65bn. Of this £3.96bn was spent on Bilateral Aid and £2.46bn was spent on Multilateral Aid. Although the Department for International Development’s foreign aid budget was not affected by the cuts outlined by the Chancellor of the Exchequer’s 2010 spending review, DFID will see their administration budgets slashed by 19 percent over the next four years.
This would mean a reduction in back-office costs to account for only 2 percent of their total spend by 2015. In June 2013 as part of the 2013 Spending Round outcomes it was announced that DFID's total programme budget would increase to £10.3bn in 2014/15 and £11.1bn in 2015/16 to help meet the UK government's commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on ODA. DFID is responsible for the majority of UK ODA; the National Audit Office 2009 Performance Management review looked at how DFID has restructured its performance management arrangements over the last 6 years. The report responded to a request from DFID’s Accounting Officer to re-visit the topic periodically, which the Comptroller and Auditor General agreed would be valuable; the study found that DFID had improved in its general scrutiny of progress in reducing poverty and of progress towards divisional goals, however noted that there was still clear scope for further improvement. In 2016 DFID was taken to task with accusations of misappropriation of funding in the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat.
Whistleblower Sean McLaughlin commenced legal action against the Department in the Eastern Caribbean Court, questioning the DFID fraud investigation process. The DFID Ministers are as follows: The current Permanent Secretary is Matthew Rycroft, having assumed office in January 2018; the main piece of legislation governing DFID's work is the International Development Act, which came into force on 17 June 2002, replacing the Overseas Development and Co-operation Act. The Act makes poverty reduction the focus of DFID's work, outlaws tied aid; as well as responding to disasters and emergencies, DFID works to support the United Nations' eight Millennium Development Goals, namely to: Halve the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger Ensure that all children receive primary education Promote sexual equality and give women a stronger voice Reduce child death rates Improve the health of mothers Combat HIV & AIDS, malaria and other diseases Make sure the environment is protected Build a global partnership for those working in development.all with a 2015 deadline.
Former Secretary of State Hilary Benn has indicated that on current trends, we will not achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Although by 2010 thanks to high growth in India and China who had 62% of the world's poor in 1990 there has been significant global progress towards meeting the millennium goals; the Department has its origins from the Ministry of Overseas Development created during the Labour government of 1964–70, which combined the functions of the Department of Technical Cooperation and the overseas aid policy functions of the Foreign, Commonwealth Relations, Colonial Offices and of other government departments. After the election of a Conservative government in October 1970, the Ministry of Overseas Development was incorporated into the Foreign Office and renamed the Overseas Development Administration; the ODA was overseen by a minister of state in the Foreign Office, accountable to the Foreign Secretary. Though it became a section of the Foreign Office, the ODA was self-contained with its own minister, the policies and staff remained intact.
When a Labour government was returned to office in 1974, it announced that there would once again be a separate Ministry of Overseas Development with its own minister. From June 1975 the powers of the minister for overseas development were formally transferred to the Foreign Secretary. In 1977 to shore up its difficult relations with UK business, the government introduced the Aid and Trade Provision; this enabled aid to be linked to nonconcessionary export credits, with both aid and export credits tied to procurement of British goods and services. Pressure for this provision from UK businesses and the Department of Trade and Industry arose in part because of the introduction of French mixed credit programmes, which had begun to offer French government support from aid funds for exports, including for projects in countries to which France had not given substantial aid. After the election of the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher in 1979, the ministry was transferred back to the Foreign Office, as a
Getlink Groupe Eurotunnel, is a public company which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between England and France, including the Eurotunnel Shuttle vehicle services, earns revenue on other trains through the tunnel. It is listed on both the Euronext London and Euronext Paris markets, was listed on the London Stock Exchange until 19 July 2012; the company is based in Paris. The railway operation has 50.45 kilometres of double track railway in the main tunnels, plus extensive surface level terminal facilities at Folkestone in England and at Calais in France. Signalling and electric traction supply at 25 kV AC are under Getlink control. Train operation consists of shuttle trains conveying cars and coaches and other trains conveying heavy goods vehicles between the two terminals. Other trains using Getlink infrastructure are operated by the respective owners. In November 2017, Groupe Eurotunnel was rebranded Getlink; the company was formed on 13 August 1986, with the objective of financing and operating a tunnel between England and France.
The company awarded a contract for the construction of the tunnel to TransManche Link. The tunnel cost around £9.5bn to build, about double TML's original estimate of £4.7bn. The tunnel was financed from investment by shareholders and from £8bn of debt, was opened on 6 May 1994 by Queen Elizabeth II, President François Mitterrand. In its first year of operation, the company lost £925m because of disappointing revenue from passengers and freight, together with heavy interest charges on its £8bn of debt. In April 2004, a dissident shareholder group led by Nicolas Miguet succeeded in taking control of the board. However, in February 2005, Jean-Louis Raymond, the Chief Executive appointed after the boardroom coup and Jacques Gounon took complete control becoming Chairman and Chief Executive. In July 2006, shareholders voted on a deal which would have seen half the debt, by reduced to £6.2bn, exchanged for 87% of the equity. However this plan failed, on 2 August 2006, the company was placed into bankruptcy protection by a French court for six months.
In May 2007, a new restructuring plan was approved by shareholders, whereby Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs and Citigroup agreed to provide £2.8bn of long term funding, the balance of the debt being exchanged for equity, the shareholders agreed to waive the unlimited free travel and other perks that they had enjoyed. In June 2007, the company entered into a partnership through subsidiary Europorte 2 with the Port of Dunkirk relating to rail freight traffic. Following the restructuring, Eurotunnel was able to announce a small net profit in 2007, of €1 million, for the first time in its existence. Half year earnings for 2008 rose to €26 million; the net profit for 2008 was €40 million, despite the costs associated with traffic loss from September 2008 to February 2009, following a fire in the tunnel, this allowed Eurotunnel to issue its first dividend of €0.04 per euro value. The return to financial health allowed the company to announce on 28 October 2009, the anticipated voluntary redemption of some of its convertible debt.
By anticipating to November 2009 the reimbursement of debt due in July 2010, it aimed to issue up to 119.4 million new ordinary shares, thus shore up its capital while reducing its debt load. In December 2009, the company and SNCF acquired Veolia Cargo; the company took over French operations: Veolia Cargo France, Veolia Cargo Link and CFTA Cargo are expected to be rebranded Europorte France, Europorte Link and Europorte proximity and become part of its Europorte freight business. Socorail has not been announced as being rebranded. In January 2010, the Port of Dunkirk awarded the company a seven year concession, to operate its 200 km railway system. In June 2010, the company acquired British railfreight company First GBRf for £31 million from FirstGroup, to be merged into its Europorte, it was rebranded GB Railfreight On 11 June 2012, a bid by the company for three Channel ferries belonging to the former operator SeaFrance for lease to another operator was accepted. Eurotunnel acquired the assets of SeaFrance ferries Berlioz and Nord Pas-de-Calais.
They were chartered to start the MyFerryLink ferry company on 20 August 2012. In the year 2015, statistics estimate that over 10.5 million passengers travelled on the Eurotunnel with 2,556,585 cars, 58,387 coaches and 1,483,741 goods vehicles making use of Eurotunnel's services. In November 2017, Groupe Eurotunnel was rebranded Getlink; the company operates shuttle services with Eurotunnel Class 9 locomotives. Europorte operates freight trains in France, as well as the cross channel freight services performed by Europorte 2 before 2009. Since the part acquisition of Veolia Cargo in 2009, it provides rail transport services to industrial locations through Socorail. Passenger services are operated by Eurostar, who has a practical monopoly on tunnel passenger services. Eurotunnel levies charges on other operators for use of the tunnel. Deutsche Bahn planned to operate passenger trains between London and Frankfurt and Cologne using the tunnel; the company o
European Union competition law
European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union. It promotes the maintenance of competition within the European Single Market by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies to ensure that they do not create cartels and monopolies that would damage the interests of society. European competition law today derives from articles 101 to 109 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as well as a series of Regulations and Directives. Four main policy areas include: Cartels, or control of collusion and other anti-competitive practices, under article 101 TFEU. Market dominance, or preventing the abuse of firms' dominant market positions under article 102 TFEU. Mergers, control of proposed mergers and joint ventures involving companies that have a certain, defined amount of turnover in the EU, according to the European Union merger law. State aid, control of direct and indirect aid given by Member States of the European Union to companies under TFEU article 107.
Primary authority for applying competition law within the European Union rests with European Commission and its Directorate General for Competition, although state aids in some sectors, such as agriculture, are handled by other Directorates General. The Directorates can mandate that improperly-given state aid be repaid, as was the case in 2012 with Malev Hungarian Airlines. Leading ECJ cases on competition law include Consten & Grundig v Commission and United Brands v Commission. One of the paramount aims of the founding fathers of the European Community - statesmen around Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman - was the establishment of a Single Market. To achieve this, a compatible and standardised regulatory framework for Competition Law had to be created; the constitutive legislative act was Council Regulation 17/62. The wording of Reg 17/62 was developed in a pre Van Gend en Loos period in EC legal evolution, when the supremacy of EC law was not yet established. To avoid different interpretations of EC Competition Law, which could vary from one national court to the next, the Commission was made to assume the role of central enforcement authority.
The first major decision under Article 101 was taken by the Commission in 1964. They found that Grundig, a German manufacturer of household appliances, acted illegally in granting exclusive dealership rights to its French subsidiary. In Consten & Grundig the European Court of Justice upheld the Commission's decision, expanded the definition of measures affecting trade to include "potential effects", anchored its key position in Competition Law enforcement alongside the Commission. Subsequent enforcement of Art 101 of the TFEU Treaty by the two institutions has been regarded as effective, yet some analysts assert that the Commission's monopoly policy has been "largely ineffective", because of the resistance of individual Member State governments that sought to shield their most salient national companies from legal challenges. The Commission received criticism from the academic quarters. For instance, Valentine Korah, an eminent legal analyst in the field, argued that the Commission was too strict in its application of EC Competition rules and ignored the dynamics of company behaviour, which, in her opinion, could be beneficial to consumers and to the quality of available goods in some cases.
Nonetheless, the arrangements in place worked well until the mid-1980s, when it became clear that with the passage of time, as the European economy grew in size and anti-competitive activities and market practices became more complex in nature, the Commission would be unable to deal with its workload. The central dominance of the Directorate-General for Competition has been challenged by the rapid growth and sophistication of the National Competition Authorities and by increased criticism from the European courts with respect to procedure and economic analysis; these problems have been magnified by the unmanageable workload of the centralised corporate notification system. A further reason why a reform of the old Regulation 17/62 was needed, was the looming enlargement of the EU, by which its membership was to expand to 25 by 2004 and 27 by 2007. Given the still developing nature of the east-central European new market economies, the inundated Commission anticipated a further significant increase in its workload.
To all these challenges, the Commission has responded with a strategy to decentralise the implementation of the Competition rules through the so-called Modernisation Regulation. EU Council Regulation 1/2003 places National Competition Authorities and Member State national courts at the heart of the enforcement of Arts 101 & 102. Decentralised enforcement has for long been the usual way for other EC rules, Reg 1/2003 extended this to Competition Law as well; the Commission still retained an important role in the enforcement mechanism, as the co-ordinating force in the newly created European Competition Network. This Network, made up of the national bodies plus the Commission, manages the flow of information between NCAs and maintains the coherence and integrity of the system. At the time, Competition Commissioner Mario Monti hailed this regulation as one that will'revolutionise' the enforcement of Arts 101 & 102. Since May 2004, all NCAs and national courts are empowered to apply the Competition provisions of the EC Treaty.
In its 2005 report, the OECD lauded the modernisation effort as promising, noted that decentralisation helps to redirect resources so the DG Competition can concentrate on complex, Community-wide investigations. Yet most recen
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
The Department for Business and Skills was a ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government created on 5 June 2009 by the merger of the Department for Innovation and Skills and the Department for Business and Regulatory Reform. It was disbanded on the creation of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy on 14 July 2016. Following the department's dissolution, it no longer has ministers responsible; the Permanent Secretary was Sir Martin Donnelly. Some policies apply to England alone due to devolution, while others are not devolved and therefore apply to other nations of the United Kingdom; the department was responsible for UK Government policy in the following areas: business regulation and support company law competition consumer affairs corporate governance employment relations export licensing further education higher education innovation insolvency intellectual property outer space postal affairs regional and local economic development science and research skills trade training Economic policy is devolved but several important policy areas are reserved to Westminster.
Further and higher education policy is devolved. Reserved and excepted matters are outlined below. Scotland Reserved matters: Competition Customer protection Import and export control Insolvency Intellectual property Outer space Postal services Product standards and liability Research councils Telecommunications Time Business associations Weights and measures in relation to goodsThe Scottish Government Economy and Education Directorates handle devolved economic and further and higher education policy respectively. Northern Ireland Reserved matters: Consumer safety in relation to goods Import and export controls, external trade Intellectual property Postal services Telecommunications Units of measurementExcepted matter: outer spaceThe department's main counterparts are: Department of Enterprise and Investment Department for Employment and Learning Wales Under the Welsh devolution settlement, specific policy areas are transferred to the Welsh Government rather than reserved to Westminster. Official website bis.gov.uk/ Archived WebsitePrecursor departments: Department for Business and Regulatory Reform Archived Website Department for Innovation and Skills Archived Website
DFDS is a Danish international shipping and logistics company. It is the busiest shipping company of one of the busiest in Europe; the company's name is an abbreviation of Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab. DFDS was founded in 1866, when C. F. Tietgen merged the three biggest Danish steamship companies of that day. Although DFDS has concentrated on freight and passenger traffic on the North Sea and to the Baltic Sea, it has operated freight services to the USA, South America and the Mediterranean in the past. Since the eighties, DFDS' focus for shipping has been northern Europe. Today, DFDS operates a network of 25 routes with 50 freight and passenger ships in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and the English Channel under the name DFDS Seaways; the rail and land based haulage and container activities are operated by DFDS Logistics. The Beginnings Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab was formed on 11 December 1866 as a merger of the three biggest Danish steamship companies under the leadership of Danish financier Carl Frederik Tietgen.
Operations began on 1 January 1867 with 19 ships with Copenhagen as the main starting point. The company's routes at the time were from Denmark to Norway, the Baltic, the United Kingdom and The Faeroe Islands, with ships carrying both freight and passengers; as the company grew, new connections were opened to Sweden, the Mediterranean and Black Sea, as well as North America and South America. In addition, DFDS operated various domestic services in Denmark. After continued expansion of the fleet in the 1880s, DFDS became one of the world's ten largest ship-owning companies. After the takeover of Dampskibsselskabet Thingvalla in 1898, the Scandinavian-American Line was established; the Scandinavian-American Line continued trading to the United States until 1935. The Two World Wars The First World War took a heavy toll on DFDS' fleet, with 26 ships lost. During the post-war depression, a further 30 ships were laid up; the company revived with the establishment of new routes, by the mid-1920s, DFDS's fleet consisted of 124 ships with a combined tonnage of 233,364 GRT.
The Second World War saw further losses to the company, with nine ships lost before the German invasion of Denmark in April 1940. A large number of DFDS ships fell into British hands after the German invasion, they were used as troopships. German forces commandeered a total of 21 DFDS ships during the war. One DFDS ship, the Kronprins Frederik, was under construction. To prevent her usage by the Germans, vital engine parts were "lost", only to be discovered after the end of the war. In total, DFDS lost 31 ships during World War II, with a further three ships lost due to hitting mines after the end of the war. In 1948, 48 people drowned. Five people lost their lives in the mine explosion of IVAR in 1949 and, as as 1950, FRIGGA sank, without loss of life, after having hit a mine. To replace some of the lost ships, a number of almost-completed motor ships, laid up awaiting the end of the war, were made ready; the routes, discontinued since the beginning of the war, were reopened. Between the Wars DFDS created a sensation when they launched the World's first motor-driven short-sea passenger ship in 1925, from the Elsinore Shipbuilding & Engineering Co.
The first of four sister vessels built between 1925 and 1932, the m.v."Parkeston" made her maiden voyage from Esbjerg to Harwich on 8 October 1925 at an average speed of 16.5 knots, burning 18 tons of oil per day compared with 55 tons of coal burnt by a similar predecessor on the route. The Fifties & Sixties In 1950, DFDS was one of the first to introduce a door-to-door solution. Two ships were specially designed to transport small wooden containers. DFDS commenced a new service; this was discontinued in 1959. In 1957, Nordana Line - cargo service Gulf of Mexico-Mediterranean - began. For the first time in DFDS's history, the company played the role of cross-trader. 1964 saw the introduction of the first ro-ro passenger ferry, when M. S. England entered service on a route connecting Esbjerg to Harwich. In 1965, the Transport Rationalization Department, which became DFDS Transport, began its activities. M. S. AKERSHUS, the first real passenger-and-car ship which could take trucks and trailers, was entered into service on the Frederikshavn-Oslo route.
In 1966, a hundred years after its start, the DFDS fleet consisted of 13 passenger ships, 53 cargo vessels, 4 tugboats and 39 barges. A comprehensive new ship programme commenced, with 25 ships on order; the passenger ships served on routes connecting Denmark to Norway, the UK, Faroe Islands and Finland alongside domestic services. The freight services continued, linking Denmark to the Americas and various European and Mediterranean ports. BOTNIA, the last steamship, was sold after more than 50 years of service. DFDS was no longer a steamship company. Between 1967 and 1970, four identical car-passenger ferries named m.s. Kong Olav V, m.s. Prinsesse Margarethe, m.s. Aalborghus and m.s. Trekroner entered service on the Copenhagen—Oslo and Copenhagen—Aalborg routes. However, the Copenhagen—Aalborg service was closed that same year, in 1970; the Seventies & Eighties Subsequently the Aalborghus and Trekroner were rebuilt and renamed Dana Sirena and Dana Corona for ferry services on the Mediterranean. Confusingly, the ships' names were reversed, with Dana Sirena becoming Dana Corona and vice versa.
For the Denmark—UK service, new ships arrived in 1974 and 1978 in the form of MS Dana Regina and MS Dana Anglia, respectively. Domestic passenger traffic was discontinu
Calais is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras; the population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, only 34 km wide here, is the closest French town to England; the White Cliffs of Dover can be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail. Due to its position, Calais since the Middle Ages has been a major port and a important centre for transport and trading with England, it grew into a thriving centre for wool production. The town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead and wool trades.
Calais was a territorial possession of England until its capture by France in 1558. The town was razed to the ground during World War II, when in May 1940, it was a strategic bombing target of the invading German forces who took the town during the Siege of Calais. During World War II, the Germans built massive bunkers along the coast in preparation for launching missiles on England; the old part of the town, Calais proper, is situated on an artificial island surrounded by canals and harbours. The modern part of the town, St-Pierre, lies to the south-east. In the centre of the old town is the Place d'Armes, in which stands the Tour du Guet, or watch-tower, a structure built in the 13th century, used as a lighthouse until 1848 when a new lighthouse was built by the port. South east of the Place is the church of Notre-Dame, built during the English occupancy of Calais, it is arguably the only church built in the English perpendicular style in all of France. In this church former French President Charles de Gaulle married his wife Yvonne Vendroux.
South of the Place and opposite the Parc St Pierre is the Hôtel-de-ville, the belfry from the 16th and early 17th centuries. Today, Calais is visited by more than 10 million annually. Aside from being a key transport hub, Calais is a notable fishing port and a centre for fish marketing, some 3,000 people are still employed in the lace industry for which the town is famed; the early history of habitation in the area is limited. The Romans called the settlement Caletum. Julius Caesar mustered 800 to 1,000 sailing boats, five legions and some 2,000 horses at Calais, due to its strategic position, to attack Britannia; the English could hold on to it for so many centuries because it remained an island surrounded by marshes, therefore impossible to attack from the land. At some time before the 10th century, it would have been a Flemish-speaking fishing village on a sandy beach backed by pebbles and a creek, with a natural harbour at the west edge of the early medieval estuary of the River Aa; as the pebble and sand ridge extended eastward from Calais, the haven behind it developed into fen, as the estuary progressively filled with silt and peat.
Afterwards, canals were cut between Saint-Omer, the trading centre at the head of the estuary, three places to the west and east on the newly formed coast: Calais and Dunkirk. Calais was improved by the Count of Flanders in 997 and fortified by the Count of Boulogne in 1224; the first document mentioning the existence of this community is the town charter granted by Mathieu d'Alsace, Count of Boulogne, in 1181 to Gerard de Guelders. In 1189, Richard the Lionheart is documented to have landed at Calais on his journey to the Third Crusade. English wool trade interests and King Edward III's claims to be heir to the Kingdom of France led to the Battle of Crécy between England and France in 1346, followed by Edward's siege and capture of Calais in 1347. Angered, the English king demanded reprisals against the town's citizens for holding out for so long and ordered that the town's population be killed en masse, he agreed, however, to spare them, on condition that six of the principal citizens would come to him and barefooted and with ropes around their necks, give themselves up to death.
On their arrival he ordered their execution, but pardoned them when his queen, Philippa of Hainault, begged him to spare their lives. This event is commemorated in The Burghers of Calais, one of the most famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin, erected in the city in 1895. Though sparing the lives of the delegation members, King Edward drove out most of the French inhabitants, settled the town with English; the municipal charter of Calais granted by the Countess of Artois, was reconfirmed by Edward that year. In 1360 the Treaty of Brétigny assigned Guînes and Calais—collectively the "Pale of Calais"—to English rule in perpetuity, but this assignment was informally and only implemented. On 9 February 1363 the town was made a staple port, it had by 1372 become a parliamentary borough sending burgesses to the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. It remained part of the Diocese of Thérouanne from 1379; the town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead and wool trades.
Its customs revenues amounted at times to a