Montechiarugolo is a comune in the Province of Parma in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 80 kilometres northwest of Bologna and about 13 kilometres southeast of Parma. Montechiarugolo borders the following municipalities: Montecchio Emilia, San Polo d'Enza, Sant'Ilario d'Enza, Traversetolo. Ilola, Slovenia County of Montechiarugolo www.comune.montechiarugolo.pr.it
Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna, it has an area of 22,446 km2, about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities, a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico and Riccione. In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe; the name Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via Aemilia, the Roman road connecting Piacenza to Rimini, completed in 187 BC and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Romagna derives from Romània, the name of the Eastern Roman Empire applied to Ravenna by the Lombards when the western Empire had ceased to exist and Ravenna was an outpost of the east. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been part of the Etruscan world and that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did culture and religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna—arguably the oldest university in Europe—and its bustling towns kept trade and intellectual life alive, its unstable political history is exemplified in such figures as Matilda of Canossa and contending seigniories such as the Este of Ferrara, the Malatesta of Rimini, the Popes of Rome, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. In the 16th century, most of these were seized by the Papal States, but the territories of Parma and Modena remained independent until Emilia-Romagna became part of the Italian kingdom between 1859 and 1861.
After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join that of Rimini on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. On 20 and 29 May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area, they caused churches and factories to collapse. 200 were injured. The 5.8 magnitude quake left 14,000 people homeless. The region of Emilia-Romagna consists of nine provinces and covers an area of 22,446 km², ranking sixth in Italy. Nearly half of the region consists of plains while 27 % is 25 % mountainous; the region's section of the Apennines is marked by areas of badland erosion and caves. The mountains stretch for more than 300 km from the north to the south-east, with only three peaks above 2,000 m – Monte Cimone, Monte Cusna and Alpe di Succiso; the plain was formed by the gradual retreat of the sea from the Po basin and by the detritus deposited by the rivers. Marshland in ancient times, its history is characterised by the hard work of its people to reclaim and reshape the land in order to achieve a better standard of living.
The geology varies, with lagoons and saline areas in the north and many thermal springs throughout the rest of the region as a result of groundwater rising towards the surface at different periods of history. All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont; the northern border of Emilia-Romagna follows the path of the river for 263 km. The region has a temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and the vegetation may be divided into belts: the Common oak-European hornbeam belt, now covered with fruit orchards and fields of wheat and sugar beet, the Pubescent oak-European hop-hornbeam belt on the lower slopes up to 900 m, the European beech-Silver fir belt between 1,000 and 1,500 m and the final mountain heath belt. Emilia-Romagna has two Italian National Parks, the Foreste Casentinesi National Park and the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park. Emilia-Romagna has been a populated area since ancient times. Inhabitants over the centuries have radically altered the landscape, building cities, reclaiming wetlands, establishing large agricultural areas.
All these transformations in past centuries changed the aspect of the region, converting large natural areas to cultivation, up until the 1960s. The trend changed, agricultural lands began giving way to residential and industrial areas; the increase of urban-industrial areas continued at high rates until the end of the 2010s. In the same period and mountainous areas saw an increase in the registration of semi-natural areas, because of the abandonment of agricultural lands. Land use changes can have strong effects on ecological functions. Human interactions such as agriculture and deforestation affect soil function, e.g. food and other biomass production, storing and transformation, habitat and gene pool. In the Emilia-Romagna plain, which represents half of the region and where three quarters of the population of the region live, the agricultural land area has been reduced by 157 km2 while urban and industrial areas
House of Grimaldi
The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, of the Principality of Monaco. The Grimaldi dynasty is a princely house originating in Italy, founded by the Genoese leader of the Guelphs, Francesco Grimaldi, who in 1297 took the lordship of Monaco along with his soldiers dressed as Franciscans. In that principality his successors have reigned to the present day. During much of the Ancien Regime the family spent much of its time in the French court, where from 1642 they used their French title of Duke of Valentinois; the current head of the family is Albert II of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and successor of Prince Rainier III and the princess consort Grace of Monaco Grace Kelly. The Grimaldis descend from a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades, he may have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in 1133. In turn Grimaldo became a consul in 1160, 1170 and again in 1184, his numerous descendants led maritime expeditions throughout the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, soon the North Sea.
They became one of the most powerful families of Genoa. The Grimaldis feared that the head of a rival Genoese family could break the fragile balance of power in a political coup and become lord of Genoa, as had happened in other Italian cities, they entered into a Guelphic alliance with the Fieschi family and defended their interests with the sword. But the Guelfs were banned from the City in 1271, took refuge in their castles in Liguria and Provence, they signed a treaty with Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence to retake control of Genoa, to provide mutual assistance. In 1276, they accepted a peace under the auspices of the Pope, which however did not put an end to the civil war. Not all the Grimaldis chose to return to Genoa, as they preferred to settle in their fiefdoms, where they could raise armies. In 1299, the Grimaldis and their allies launched a few galleys to attack the port of Genoa before taking refuge on the Western Riviera. During the following years, the Grimaldis entered into different alliances that would allow them to return to power in Genoa.
This time, it was the turn of the Spinola family, to be exiled from the city. During this period, both the Guelphs and Ghibellines took and abandoned the castle of Monaco, ideally located to launch political and military operations against Genoa. Therefore, the tale of Francis Grimaldi and his faction — who took the castle of Monaco disguised as friars in 1297 — is anecdotal. In the early 14th century, the Aragonese raided the shores of Provence and Liguria, challenging Genoa and King Robert of Provence. In 1353, the combined fleet of eighty Venetian and Aragonese galleys gathered in Sardinia to meet the fleet of sixty galleys under the command of Anthony Grimaldi. Only nineteen Genoese vessels survived the battle. Fearing an invasion, Genoa rushed to request the protection of the Lord of Milan. Several of the oldest feudal branches of the House of Grimaldi appeared during these conflicts, such as the branches of Antibes, Nice and Sicily. In 1395, the Grimaldis took advantage of the discords in Genoa to take possession of Monaco, which they ruled as a condominium.
This is the origin of today's principality. As was customary in Genoa, the Grimaldis organised their family ties within a corporation called albergo. In the political reform of 1528, the Grimaldi became one of the 28 alberghi of the Republic of Genoa, which included the Doria and Pallavicini families, to which other families were formally invited to join; the House of Grimaldi provided several doges, cabinet ministers, military officers of historical note. By convention, sovereign European houses are reckoned in the male line. Therefore, since 1731, it has been determined genealogically that it was in fact the French noble House of Goyon-Matignon that ruled as Princes of Monaco until 1949. However, one of the terms of James de Goyon de Matignon becoming Prince of Monaco jure uxoris was that he adopt the name and arms of Grimaldi so that the house would be preserved on the throne, the right of succession was through his wife Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi, who abdicated in her husband's favour; when Charlotte Louvet was legitimised in 1911 and made successor to Monaco, her husband, Count Pierre de Polignac, adopted, as a condition of the marriage, the name and arms of Grimaldi.
In this way the "Grimaldi" name and arms were continued. There is a branch of the Grimaldi family in England who believe they have more right to the throne as they are descended from an all-male line from Alessandro Maria Grimaldi, an exile from Genoa, himself a direct descendant of Otto Canella, the father of Grimaldo Canella, who started the patronymic "Grimaldi."Until 2002, a treaty between Monaco and France stated that if the reigning Prince failed to leave dynastic offspring sovereignty over the Grimaldi realm would revert to France. The 2002 agreement modified this to expand the pool of potential heirs to dynastic collaterals of the reigning Prince, guaranteeing Monegasque independence. Article I of Monaco's house law requires that the reigning Prince or Princess bear the surname of Grimaldi; the coat of arms of the House of Grimaldi is described as fusily argent and gules, i.e. a red and white diamond pattern, with no further modifiers. Albert II of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and successor of Rainier III and Grace Kelly.
Charlène de Monaco, Princess Consort of Monaco. Jacques, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, son of Albert II and Charlène. Princess Gabriella, Countess of Carladès, daughter of Albert II and Charlène. Caroline, Princess of Hanover, older si
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Fidenza is a town and comune in the province of Parma, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. It has around 27,000 inhabitants; the town was renamed Fidenza in 1927. The town originates from a Roman camp founded on the place where the Ananes Gauls had their settlement of Vicumvia. In 41 BC, it became a municipium. In the 5th century, it was destroyed by Constantine I. From 1092 to 1100, Borgo San Donnino was the seat of King Conrad II of Italy. In the same year, it became a commune, confirmed in 1162 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who entrusted it to the Pallavicino family of Piacenza. In 1199, it was freed in 1221 by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. In 1268 the city was however destroyed by the troops of Parma, it was rebuilt around 1300. In 1449, it was conquered by the new Milanese lords, the Sforza, who held it until 1499. After the date, it continued to change move to an autonomous state to the subjection to Parma until 1556, when it became part of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza. After a period under France during the Napoleonic Wars, it was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1859, during the unification of Italy.
The city underwent a large program of expansion during the Fascist government of Italy. It changed its name from Borgo Donnino to Fidenza in 1927. In May 1944, the city was nearly destroyed. In the Spring 1945, the German occupation troops perpetrated several massacres, such as that of the Carzole and of Via Baracca, it was conquered by the Allies on 26 April 1945. The Fidenza Cathedral is the most prominent building, built in the 12th century and dedicated to Domninus of Fidenza, martyred by order of Maximian in 304 AD; the town's previous name, Borgo San Donnino, was given in honor of the saint. The cathedral is an example of Lombard-Romanesque churches of the 11th to 13th centuries in northern Italy; the upper part of the façade is incomplete, but the lower, with its three portals and sculptures, is a fine example of Romanesque architecture, including two statues by Benedetto Antelami and bas-reliefs depicting the Histories of St. Domninus; the interior is simple and well-proportioned, has not been spoilt by restoration.
The statue at the front of the cathedral of the apostle Simon Peter is famous for its pointing in the direction of Rome, held in the left hand is an inscription reading "I show you the way to Rome", making it one of the world's first road signs. Enrichetta d'Este, Duchess of Parma is buried here; the Palazzo Comunale is medieval, being first mentioned in 1191. The current structure dates from the 14th century but has a new façade, added in the 19th century. After being destroyed by Spanish and French troops during the Italian Wars, it was rebuilt and enlarged. Remains of the medieval town are visible near the cathedral, include the only surviving gate, the Porta San Donnino, it was built by the Visconti family in 1364. Canterbury, United Kingdom Herrenberg, Germany Kremnica, Slovakia Sisteron, France Diario di Fidenza
Province of Parma
The Province of Parma is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its largest town and capital is the city of Parma, it is made up of 47 comuni. It has an area of 3,449 square kilometres and a total population of around 450,000; the province is bordered by the Province of Reggio Emilia to the east, the Piacenza to the west, Lombardy's provinces of Cremona and Mantova to the north and by Liguria's provinces of La Spezia and Genoa and Tuscany's Province of Massa and Carrara to the south. In 1861, Italian provinces were established on the French republican model. Italian Fascism saw the end of elections in the Province of Parma in the 1920s until the end of the Second World War. In October 2012, it was confirmed that the Province of Parma would be merged with the Province of Piacenza in 2014 to become the Province of Piacenza and Parma, despite controversy over the chosen name. However, its name was altered to the Province of Parma–Piacenza in the following month; the province is divided into three zones from north to south: the pianura, the collina and the montagna.
The first of these is surrounded by the Po. The main centres of the collina and montagna are situated along the course of the main rivers, which descend from the Parmesan Apennine Mountains; the Province of Parma comprises 47 comuni. The 20 largest of these are: Parma is famous for its Prosciutto di Parma; the whole area is renowned for its sausage production, as well as for the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and some kinds of pasta like gnocchi di patate, cappelletti in brodo, tortelli with different stuffing and chicche. There are two main highways that go through Parma: A1 and A15; the Province of Parma is served by the Giuseppe Verdi Airport. The province is crossed by the Milan-Bologna railroad, one of the most important in Italy, with a station in Parma; the latter is the starting point for the following lines, connecting the city to the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Po River delta: Pontremolese line, with a branch to Fidenza and Fornovo di Taro Parma-Piadena-Brescia Parma-Suzzara (held by Ferrovie Emilia Romagna Srl.
The station of Fidenza is an exchange point for the lines: Fidenza-Salsomaggiore Terme Fidenza-Cremona Parma F. C. was founded in 1913. It is a Serie A football club renowned in Italy and Europe for its successes including three national cups, a European Cup Winner's Cup, two UEFA Cups, a European Supercup and an Italian Supercup, it plays in the city's stade Ennio Tardini which used to host up to 29,000 spectators but is being renovated in 2008 after the club was demoted to Serie B. In spring 2009 the team was promoted again in the top league. Crociati Noceto play in the fourth tier. Parma is home to two rugby union teams in the top national division, Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby. Parma Panthers is the Parma American football team for which John Grisham's book Playing for Pizza was based. Volleyball, women basketball and baseball have large popularity in the city and have scored relevant successes. Provincia di Parma homepage
Borgo Val di Taro
Borgo Val di Taro is a town and comune in Emilia, Italy, in the Province of Parma, 63 kilometres from the city of Parma. Borgo Val di Taro is an important centre for cattle husbandry in Emilia and it is one of the zones where Parmigiano-Reggiano is produced, it is commonly known as Borgotaro. The area is well known for its Boletus edulis mushrooms, several boletes that grow there have IGP status. James Gandolfini Sr. father of Italian-American actor James Gandolfini Jr. was born in Borgo Val di Taro. Not far from the town is the small church of S. Antonio del Viennese, a 13th-century structure in brick; the city hall, in the Lombard Gothic style, is a work of the 14th century. Tourism and gastronomic tours are important factors of the modern economy; the town is a member of the Cittaslow movement. Banca, Barzana di Sotto, Belforte,Bissaio, Bozzi, Brunelli, Ca' Valesi, Capitelli, Case Maroni, Case Scodellino, Case Vighen, Casoni, Cianica, Costadasi, Galla, Giacopazzi, Grifola, Il Mulino, Il Poggio, Lavacchielli, Le Spiagge, Meda, Ostia Parmense, Pontolo, Pozzo, Rovinaglia, San Martino, San Pietro, San Vincenzo, Tiedoli, Valdena, Valleto Borgo Val di Taro is twinned with: Official site