The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Rhythm means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions". This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to several seconds. In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm may refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space" and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty, Godfried Toussaint, William Rothstein, Joel Lester, Guerino Mazzola. In his television series How Music Works, Howard Goodall presents theories that human rhythm recalls the regularity with which we walk and the heartbeat.
Other research suggests that it does not relate to the heartbeat directly, but rather the speed of emotional affect, which influences heartbeat. Yet other researchers suggest that since certain features of human music are widespread, it is "reasonable to suspect that beat-based rhythmic processing has ancient evolutionary roots". Justin London writes that musical metre "involves our initial perception as well as subsequent anticipation of a series of beats that we abstract from the rhythm surface of the music as it unfolds in time"; the "perception" and "abstraction" of rhythmic measure is the foundation of human instinctive musical participation, as when we divide a series of identical clock-ticks into "tick-tock-tick-tock". Joseph Jordania suggested that the sense of rhythm was developed in the early stages of hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection. Plenty of animals walk rhythmically and hear the sounds of the heartbeat in the womb, but only humans have the ability to be engaged in rhythmically coordinated vocalizations and other activities.
According to Jordania, development of the sense of rhythm was central for the achievement of the specific neurological state of the battle trance, crucial for the development of the effective defense system of early hominids. Rhythmic war cry, rhythmic drumming by shamans, rhythmic drilling of the soldiers and contemporary professional combat forces listening to the heavy rhythmic rock music all use the ability of rhythm to unite human individuals into a shared collective identity where group members put the interests of the group above their individual interests and safety; some types of parrots can know rhythm. Neurologist Oliver Sacks states that chimpanzees and other animals show no similar appreciation of rhythm yet posits that human affinity for rhythm is fundamental, so that a person's sense of rhythm cannot be lost. "There is not a single report of an animal being trained to tap, peck, or move in synchrony with an auditory beat" Human rhythmic arts are to some extent rooted in courtship ritual.
The establishment of a basic beat requires the perception of a regular sequence of distinct short-duration pulses and, as a subjective perception of loudness is relative to background noise levels, a pulse must decay to silence before the next occurs if it is to be distinct. For this reason, the fast-transient sounds of percussion instruments lend themselves to the definition of rhythm. Musical cultures that rely upon such instruments may develop multi-layered polyrhythm and simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature, called polymeter; such are the cross-rhythms of Sub-Saharan Africa and the interlocking kotekan rhythms of the gamelan. For information on rhythm in Indian music see Tala. For other Asian approaches to rhythm see Rhythm in Persian music, Rhythm in Arabian music and Usul—Rhythm in Turkish music and Dumbek rhythms. Most music and oral poetry establishes and maintains an underlying "metric level", a basic unit of time that may be audible or implied, the pulse or tactus of the mensural level, or beat level, sometimes called the beat.
This consists of a series of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time. The "beat" pulse is not the fastest or the slowest component of the rhythm but the one, perceived as fundamental: it has a tempo to which listeners entrain as they tap their foot or dance to a piece of music, it is most designated as a crotchet or quarter note in western notation. Faster levels are division levels, slower levels are mul
An organ trio, in a jazz context, is a group of three jazz musicians consisting of a Hammond organ player, a drummer, either a jazz guitarist or a saxophone player. In some cases the saxophonist will join a trio which consists of an organist and drummer, making it a quartet. Organ trios were a popular type of jazz ensemble for club and bar settings in the 1950s and 1960s, performing a blues-based style of jazz that incorporated elements of R&B; the organ trio format was characterized by long improvised solos and an exploration of different musical "moods". In organ trios, the Hammond organist plays several roles, including playing the basslines, playing chords, playing lead melodic lines and solos. In organ trios with a guitarist, the guitarist usually'fills in' the musical parts that the organist is not performing. For example, if the organist is soloing and playing a bassline, the guitarist may play chords. Organ trios of the 1950s and 1960s played soul jazz, a groove-infused style that incorporated blues and rhythm and blues.
1970s-era organ trios such as Tony Williams' band Lifetime played jazz-rock fusion. In the 1990s and 2000s, organ trios such as Medeski and Wood and Soulive became involved in the burgeoning jamband scene. While jazz musicians such as Fats Waller and Count Basie explored the use of organ in jazz ensembles in the 1920s and 1930s, it was not until the late 1940s that Hammond players such as Wild Bill Davis pioneered the organ trio format. Musicians such as Davis and the Milt Herth Trio realized that the amplified Hammond B3 organ "put the power of a full-sized big band in the hands of one musician", with the rotating Leslie speaker-equipped amplified cabinet adding a room-filling, "king-sized sound." In the 1950s and 1960s, the organ trio became a common musical ensemble in bars and taverns in the US in downtown areas of major cities. Organ trios used the powerful amplified sound of the Hammond organ, its ability to fill multiple musical roles, to fill a bar or club with a volume of sound that would have required a much larger ensemble.
While bar owners liked this money-saving aspect of the organ trio, the format had a number of musical advantages. The organ trio was a more intimate, smaller ensemble, which facilitated communication between musicians, allowed more freedom for spontaneous changes of mood or tempo, for "stretching out" on extended solos. According to Tom Vicker, the "most famous of the early grinders was Philadelphia's Bill Doggett, who recorded instrumentals for King Records in the early Fifties"; the next organists to come along were Hank Marr, Dave "Baby" Cortez, Jimmy McGriff, the "bossest organ swinger yet, Jimmy Smith". After Smith's death in 2005, Variety magazine writer Phil Gallo eulogized Smith as a man who "ingle-handedly reinvented the Hammond B3 organ for jazz and created the model for the organ trio". During the 1960s, jazz guitarists such as Howard Roberts, Grant Green, Kenny Burrell, George Benson, Wes Montgomery performed in organ trios, organ trio recordings made the R&B and pop charts. Hammond organ players such as "Brother" Jack McDuff, Johnny "Hammond" Smith and Richard "Groove" Holmes performed and recorded in organ trios.
The "body of work by the leaders in the organ trio idiom in its heyday has been well documented, owing to the fact during that era, based on record sales, the organ groups -- most those led by Jimmy Smith -- represented the most popular genre of jazz". Guitarist Grant Green performed a blend of jazz and boogaloo, collaborating with organists "Big" John Patton, Jack McDuff, Neal Creque and with drummer Idris Muhammad. In the late 1960s, as jazz musicians began to explore the new genre of jazz-rock fusion, organ trios led by organists such as Larry Young "ventured into more remote territory, expanding the harmonic palette of the organ trio form". Young pioneered a new approach to playing the Hammond B3. In contrast to Jimmy Smith's blues-influenced soul-jazz style, in which songs were structured over chord progressions, Young favored a modal approach to playing, in which songs were based on musical modes rather than chord progressions. In the 1970s, the 1960s-style organ trios based around a Hammond organ were eclipsed by the new trend of jazz-rock fusion, small ensembles used electronic keyboards such as Moog synthesizer in place of the Hammond organ.
Synthesizers allowed musicians to make new electronic sounds that were not possible on the electromechanical Hammond organs. Emerson, Lake & Palmer was one organ trio that branched between the changing times between their debut performances in 1970 towards the end of the decade, with Keith Emerson on the Hammond B3 organ, Greg Lake on either the guitar or bass guitar, Carl Palmer on drums. Veteran Hammond players such as Emerson and Charles Earland began using synthesizers to "update" their sound to the pop-disco styles of the late 1970s. There were a small number of well-known organ trios during the 1970s. John Abercrombie had a futuristic-sounding organ trio with Jan Hammer on Hammond and Moog bass, Jack DeJohnette on drums. Tony Williams' fusion band Lifetime, which lasted from 1969 to 1975, was an organ trio with John McLaughlin on guitar and Larry Young on organ. Lifetime was a pioneering band of the fusion movement, combining rock, R&B, jazz. In the 1990s and 2000s, there was a revival of organ trios in the Jazz, Soul and R&B genres.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, before his death in 2005, Jimmy Smith had a comeback, recording albums and playin
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
A horn section is a group of musicians playing horns. In an orchestra or concert band, it refers to the musicians who play the "French" horn, in a British-style brass band it is the tenor horn players. In many popular music genres the term is applied loosely to any group of woodwind or brass instruments, or a combination of woodwinds and brass. In a symphony orchestra, the horn section is the group of symphonic musicians who play the French horn; these musicians are seated to the back of the ensemble and may be on either side at the director's discretion. Placing them to the left with their bells toward the audience increases the prominence of the section, whereas on the right, the sound reflects off the back of the stage; the order from the principal horn to the fourth horn is right to left from the director's view. The section is ordered in this way so the principal horn may be heard by all players, as the principal sets the timbre and intonation of the section. Horn sections are an integral part of musical genres such as jazz, R&B, soul, calypso and gospel.
Most of these horn sections feature some combination of saxophones and trombones. More other wind or brass instruments such as flute, clarinet or tuba may be added. Other popular musical genres, such as rock, hip-hop and country music use horn sections; when only woodwinds are involved, the term "reed section" is used when flutes are included. Horn sections in blues bands and funk groups may be composed of session musicians playing arranged parts, or they may be a consistent group of musicians. A small number of horn sections use a consistent group of musicians. Paul Butterfield Blues Band Chicago Fat Freddy's Drop The Empire Horns The Horny Horns The J. B.'s The Know How The Memphis Horns Muscle Shoals Horns Phenix Horns from Earth, Wind & Fire Punk Funk Horns Seawind Horns Tower of Power The Miami Horns Anon. 2002. "Reed section". Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, Oxford Music Online. Anon. 2013. "Horn". Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, Oxford Music Online
In guitar music electric guitar, a power chord Play is a colloquial name for a chord that consists of the root note and the fifth. Power chords are played on amplified guitars on electric guitar with distortion. Power chords are a key element of many styles of rock and in heavy metal, punk rock; when two or more notes are played through a distortion process that non-linearly transforms the audio signal, additional partials are generated at the sums and differences of the frequencies of the harmonics of those notes. When a typical chord containing such intervals is played through distortion, the number of different frequencies generated, the complex ratios between them, can make the resulting sound messy and indistinct; this effect is accentuated as most guitars are tuned based on equal temperament, with the result that minor thirds are narrower, major thirds wider, than they would be in just intonation. However, in a power chord, the ratio between the frequencies of the root and fifth are close to the just interval 3:2.
When played through distortion, the intermodulation leads to the production of partials related in frequency to the harmonics of the original two notes, producing a more coherent sound. The intermodulation makes the spectrum of the sound expand in both directions, with enough distortion, a new fundamental frequency component appears an octave lower than the root note of the chord played without distortion, giving a richer, more bassy and more subjectively'powerful' sound than the undistorted signal; when played without distortion, the simple ratios between the harmonics in the notes of a power chord can give a stark and powerful sound, owing to the resultant tone effect. Power chords have the advantage of being easy to play, allowing fast chord changes and easy incorporation into melodies and riffs. Theorists are divided on whether a power chord can be considered a chord in the traditional sense, with some requiring a'chord' to contain a minimum of three degrees of the scale; when the same interval is found in traditional and classical music, it would not be called a "chord", may be considered a dyad.
However, the term is accepted as a pop and rock music term, most associated with the overdriven electric guitar styles of hard rock, heavy metal, punk rock, similar genres. The use of the term "power chord" has, to some extent, spilled over into the vocabulary of other instrumentalists, such as keyboard and synthesizer players. Power chords are most notated 5 or. For example, "C5" or "C" refer to playing the fifth; these can be inverted, so that the G is played below the C. They can be played with octave doublings of the root or fifth note, which makes a sound, subjectively higher pitched with less power in the low frequencies, but still retains the character of a power chord. Another notation is ind, designating the chord as'indeterminate'; this refers to the fact that a power chord is neither minor, as there is no third present. This gives the power chord a chameleon-like property. Power chords can be traced back to commercial recordings in the 1950s. Robert Palmer pointed to electric blues guitarists Willie Johnson and Pat Hare, both of whom played for Sun Records in the early 1950s, as the true originators of the power chord, citing as evidence Johnson's playing on Howlin' Wolf's "How Many More Years" and Hare's playing on James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues".
Scotty Moore opened. Link Wray is cited as the first mainstream rock and roll musician to have used power chords, with "Rumble". A hit song built around power chords was "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, released in 1964; this song's riffs exhibit fast power-chord changes. The Who's guitarist, Pete Townshend, performed power chords with a theatrical windmill-strum, for example in "My Generation". On King Crimson's Red album, Robert Fripp thrashed with power chords. Power chords are important in many forms of punk rock music. Many punk guitarists used only power chords in their songs, most notably Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein and Johnny Ramone. Power chords are performed within a single octave, as this results in the closest matching of overtones. Octave doubling is sometimes done in power chords. Power chords are pitched in a middle register. Shown above are four examples of an F5 chord; the letter names above the chords only indicate. These letter names should not be mistaken for the chord names used in popular music A common voicing is the 1-5 perfect fifth, to which the octave can be added, 1-5-1.
A perfect fourth 5-1 is a power chord, as it implies the "missing" lower 1 pitch. Either or both of the pitches may be doubled an octave above or below, which leads to another common variation, 5-1-5; the spider chord is a guitar technique. Regarded as being popularized and named by Dave Mustaine of Megadeth, it is used to reduce string noise when playing riffs that require chords across several strings; the chord or technique is used in the songs "Wake Up Dead", "Holy Wars... The Punishment Due" and "Ride the Lightning". D5 Bb5 e|-------| B|-------| G|-------| D|-7-----| A|-5--8--| E|----6--| 3
A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drums. Most contemporary western bands that play rock, jazz, or R&B music include a drummer for purposes including timekeeping and embellishing the musical timbre; the drummer's equipment includes a drum kit which includes various drums, cymbals and an assortment of accessory hardware such as pedals, standing support mechanisms, drum sticks. In other genres in the traditional music of many countries, drummers use individual drums of various sizes and designs rather than drum kits; some use only their hands to strike the drums. In larger ensembles, the drummer may be part of a rhythm section with other percussionists playing, for example, marimba or xylophone; these musicians provide the timing and rhythmic foundation which allow the players of melodic instruments, including voices, to coordinate their musical performance. Some famous drummers include: John Bonham, Ginger Baker, Keith Moon, Neil Peart, Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Tim "Herb" Alexander, Rashied Ali, Carl Allen, Steve White, Craig Blundell, Travis Barker, Tony Royster Jr. Rick Allen.
As well as the primary rhythmic function, in some musical styles, such as world, jazz and electronica, the drummer is called upon to provide solo and lead performances, at times when the main feature of the music is the rhythmic development. There are many tools that a drummer can use for either soloing; these include cymbals, toms, auxiliary percussion and many others. There are single and triple bass pedals for the bass drum. Before motorized transport became widespread, drummers played a key role in military conflicts. Military drummers provided drum cadences that set a steady marching pace and elevated troop morale on the battlefield. In some armies drums assisted in combat by keeping cadence for firing and loading drills with muzzle loading guns. Military drummers were employed on the parade field, when troops passed in review, in various ceremonies including ominous drum rolls accompanying disciplinary punishments. Children served as drummer boys well into the nineteenth century, though less than is popularly assumed.
In modern times, drummers are not employed in battle. Buglers and drummers mass under a sergeant-drummer and during marches alternately perform with the regiment or battalion ensembles. Military-based musical percussion traditions were not limited to the western world; when Emir Osman I was appointed commander of the Turkish army on the Byzantine border in the late 13th century, he was symbolically installed via a handover of musical instruments by the Seldjuk sultan. In the Ottoman Empire, the size of a military band reflected the rank of its commander in chief: the largest band was reserved for the Sultan, it included various percussion instruments adopted in European military music. The pitched bass drum is still known in some languages as the Turkish Drum. Military drumming is the origin of Traditional grip as opposed to Matched grip of drumsticks; the drumline is a type of marching ensemble descended from military drummers, can be arranged as a performance of a drum, a group of drummers, or as a part of a larger marching band.
Their uniforms will have a military style and a fancy hat. In recent times, it is more common to see drummers in parades wearing costumes with an African, Latin, Native American, or tribal look and sound. Various indigenous cultures use the drum to create a sense of unity with others during recreational events; the drum helps in prayers and meditations. List of drummers Drum beat Drum machine Drum tracks Kathleen. "Drum". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 598