1980 in music
This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1980. 1980 in British music 1980 in Norwegian music 1980 in country music 1980 in heavy metal music 1980 in hip hop music 1980 in jazz January 1 Cliff Richard is appointed an MBE by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The Zorros audition drummer Greg Pedley. January 5 – Donna Summer Brings her 3 double album in a 14-month period, to the top of the Billboard Albums charts. January 7 – At the age of 44, songwriter Larry Williams is found dead in his Los Angeles, home of a gunshot wound to the head. Investigators are never able to determine whether his death was a suicide. January 13 – The Beach Boys, Grateful Dead, Jefferson Starship perform at a benefit concert at Oakland Coliseum for the people of Kampuchea. January 14 – Rush release Permanent Waves, which becomes the band's fifth platinum album. January 16 – Paul McCartney is arrested in Tokyo for possession of a half pound of marijuana; the remaining part of McCartney's and Wings' tour was canceled.
January 19 – The first UK Indie Chart is published in Record Week, with Spizzenergi's "Where's Captain Kirk" topping the singles chart, Adam and the Ants' Dirk Wears White Sox topping the album chart. January 25 – Paul McCartney is released from a Japanese jail and ejected from the country by Japanese authorities. February 7 – Pink Floyd's The Wall Tour opens at the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena. February 8 – David Bowie and his wife of nearly 10 years, file for divorce. Bowie gets custody of Zowie. February 14 – Lou Reed marries Sylvia Morales in New York City's Greenwich Village. February 19 – Bon Scott, lead singer of AC/DC, dies in London. Although common folklore cites pulmonary aspiration of vomit as the cause of his death, the official cause is listed as "Acute alcohol poisoning" and "Death by Misadventure". February 23 – Ron Wood of the Rolling Stones and his wife are arrested for cocaine possession on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, they are set free after spending five days in custody due to the inability of authorities to prove the cocaine in the apartment belonged to either of them.
February 29 – Buddy Holly's trademark glasses and the Big Bopper's wristwatch are "rediscovered" in old police files by the Mason City, sheriff. March 1 – Patti Smith marries former MC5 member Fred "Sonic" Smith. March 3 – Sotheby's auction house in London auctions off a Rivera Hotel, Las Vegas, napkin signed by Elvis Presley for ₤500. Other items auctioned included four American dollar bills autographed by the Beatles, for £220 and a collection of personal letters belonging to the Rolling Stones for £220. March 8–16 – Tbilisi Rock Festival: the first state-sanctioned rock music festival in the Soviet Union. March 14 – Record producer Quincy Jones receives a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. March 19 – Elvis Presley's autopsy was subpoenaed during the trial of Dr. George Nichopoulous, who would be found guilty of over-prescribing drugs to Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis and other clients. March 20 – Radio Caroline shuts down in the UK after radio ship Mi Amigo sinks in a storm. April 1 – Brian Johnson is made the new lead singer of AC/DC replacing the late Bon Scott.
April 13 – The Broadway musical Grease closes its run of 3,388 performances, making it the longest running show on Broadway up until that time. April 14 A member of the New Jersey State assembly introduces a resolution to make Bruce Springsteen's "Born to Run" the official state song. Iron Maiden release their self-titled debut album. April 17 – As the "official guests of State", Bob Marley and the Wailers perform at Zimbabwe's Independence festival. Marley calls the event the "greatest honor of my life." April 19 – Johnny Logan wins the 25th Eurovision Song Contest for Ireland, with the song "What's Another Year". April 25 – Black Sabbath release Heaven and Hell, their first album to feature Ronnie James Dio on vocals. April 30 – The Roger Daltrey film, McVicar, opens in London. May 4 – America's Top 10, the television version of radio's American Top 40 and hosted by Casey Kasem, debuts this week in syndication. May 18 – Ian Curtis, vocalist of pioneering post-punk group Joy Division, hangs himself in his Macclesfield home, just one day before Joy Division are scheduled to begin their first U.
S. tour. June 25 Roll pioneer Bill Haley performs for the last time during a tour of South Africa. After this tour, his health deteriorates and he dies in February 1981. July 1980 marks the 25th anniversary of Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" reaching No. 1 on the American singles charts. The Sony Walkman goes on sale in the United States. Kiss plays its first show with new drummer Eric Carr at the New York Palladium. June 27 – John Lydon and Keith Levene of Public Image Ltd make an appearance on The Tomorrow Show with host Tom Snyder. In a famously uncomfortable interview, Lydon gives curt and vague responses to most of Snyder's questions. July 11 – Ultravox release their fourth studio album, Vienna, their first album with new lead singer Midge Ure following the departures of frontman John Foxx and guitarist Robin Simon, Vienna marks a radical shift in Ultravox's direction and image, transforming the former post-punk band into a more sophisticatedly-oriented new wave/synthpop group. Despite this stylistic shift alienating fans and critics who were more favorable towards the Foxx-led incarnation of the band, Vienna would go on to become Ultravox's most successful studio album to date.
July 18 – The documentary and concert film No Nukes opens in New York. July 25 – Over five months after the death of lead singer Bon Scott, AC/DC release Back in Black, their f
A ballad is a form of verse a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were "danced songs". Ballads were characteristic of the popular poetry and song of Ireland and Britain from the medieval period until the 19th century, they were used across Europe, in Australia, North Africa, North America and South America. Ballads are 13 lines with an ABABBCBC form, consisting of couplets of rhymed verse, each of 14 syllables. Another common form is ABCB repeated, in alternating 8 and 6 syllable lines. Many ballads were sold as single sheet broadsides; the form was used by poets and composers from the 18th century onwards to produce lyrical ballads. In the 19th century, the term took on the meaning of a slow form of popular love song and is used for any love song the sentimental ballad of pop or rock, although the term is associated with the concept of a stylized storytelling song or poem when used as a title for other media such as a film; the ballad derives its name from medieval French dance songs or "ballares", from which'ballet' is derived, as did the alternative rival form that became the French ballade.
As a narrative song, their theme and function may originate from Scandinavian and Germanic traditions of storytelling that can be seen in poems such as Beowulf. Musically they were influenced by the Minnelieder of the Minnesang tradition; the earliest example of a recognizable ballad in form in England is "Judas" in a 13th-century manuscript. Ballads were written to accompany dances, so were composed in couplets with refrains in alternate lines; these refrains would have been sung by the dancers in time with the dance. Most northern and west European ballads are written in ballad stanzas or quatrains of alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, known as ballad meter. Only the second and fourth line of a quatrain are rhymed, taken to suggest that ballads consisted of couplets of rhymed verse, each of 14 syllables; this can be seen in this stanza from "Lord Thomas and Fair Annet": The horse | fair Ann | et rode | upon | He amb | led like | the wind |, With sil | ver he | was shod | before, With burn | ing gold | behind |.
There is considerable variation on this pattern in every respect, including length, number of lines and rhyming scheme, making the strict definition of a ballad difficult. In southern and eastern Europe, in countries that derive their tradition from them, ballad structure differs like Spanish romanceros, which are octosyllabic and use consonance rather than rhyme. Ballads are influenced by the regions in which they originate and use the common dialect of the people. Scotland's ballads in particular, both in theme and language, are characterised by their distinctive tradition exhibiting some pre-Christian influences in the inclusion of supernatural elements such as travel to the Fairy Kingdom in the Scots ballad "Tam Lin"; the ballads do not correct version. The ballads remained an oral tradition until the increased interest in folk songs in the 18th century led collectors such as Bishop Thomas Percy to publish volumes of popular ballads. In all traditions most ballads are narrative in nature, with a self-contained story concise, rely on imagery, rather than description, which can be tragic, romantic or comic.
Themes concerning rural laborers and their sexuality are common, there are many ballads based on the Robin Hood legend. Another common feature of ballads is repetition, sometimes of fourth lines in succeeding stanzas, as a refrain, sometimes of third and fourth lines of a stanza and sometimes of entire stanzas. Scholars of ballads have been divided into "communalists", such as Johann Gottfried Herder and the Brothers Grimm, who argue that ballads are communal compositions, "individualists" such as Cecil Sharp, who assert that there was one single original author. Communalists tend to see more recent printed, broadside ballads of known authorship as a debased form of the genre, while individualists see variants as corruptions of an original text. More scholars have pointed to the interchange of oral and written forms of the ballad; the transmission of ballads comprises a key stage in their re-composition. In romantic terms this process is dramatized as a narrative of degeneration away from the pure'folk memory' or'immemorial tradition'.
In the introduction to Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border the romantic poet and historical novelist Walter Scott argued a need to'remove obvious corruptions' in order to attempt to restore a supposed original. For Scott, the process of multiple recitations'incurs the risk of impertinent interpolations from the conceit of one rehearser, unintelligible blunders from the stupidity of another, omissions to be regretted, from the want of memory of a third.' John Robert Moore noted'a natural tendency to oblivescence'. According to Scott, transcribed ballads have a'flatness and insipidity' compared to their oral counterparts. European Ballads have been classified into three major groups: traditional and literary. In America a distinction is drawn between ballads that are versions of European British and Irish songs, and'Native American ballads
Bombers (Gary Numan song)
"Bombers" is the second single by Tubeway Army, released in 1978. The song is in a somewhat more conventional rock style than their punk-oriented debut, "That's Too Bad", features sound effects simulating air raid sirens, dive bombers, machine gun fire. Like its predecessor, the single failed to chart, it is one of the few recordings in his career. Though their musical styles differ, the song's subject matter is seen as a thinly disguised rewrite of David Bowie's "Five Years", the opening track of The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. Both songs feature detached observations of urban panic caused by impending catastrophe. "Bombers" is sung from the perspective of both a witness on the bomber pilot. In his review for Record Mirror in October 1978, Robin Smith stated that "..the market for this sort of heavyweight monotony has died." The B-sides were "Blue Eyes", which harked back to the fast-paced punk style of "That's Too Bad", "O. D. Receiver", a slower piece whose lyrics reflected a Burroughsian world of drug addiction.
All tracks on the original vinyl single were credited to'Valerian', the name that Numan had chosen for himself prior to Tubeway Army's début album. "Bombers" was later released as a gatefold with the single "That's Too Bad" "Bombers" – 3:52 "Blue Eyes" – 1:43 "O. D. Receiver" – 2:37 Producers: Kenny Denton Musicians: Gary Numan: Vocals, Guitar Paul Gardiner: Bass guitar Barry Benn: Drums Sean Burke: Guitar Five recordings of "Bombers" have been released: The original demo version, recorded 7–9 March 1978 at Spaceward Studios, near Cambridge; this recording was not released to the public until October 1984, on an album of unissued tracks from the same sessions called The Plan. These sessions featured Gary Numan, Paul Gardiner, Numan's uncle Jess Lidyard on drums; the single version released in July the same year. This session was produced by Kenny Denton, featured a short-lived band line-up of Numan, Barry Benn, Sean Burke, it has since appeared on CD reissues of The Plan. The single features a revised lyric: on the demo, the third verse starts with "All the junkies pulling needles from their arms."
Beggars Banquet feared that the word "junkies" would prevent the song receiving airplay and so, for the single, Numan changed the line to "All the nurses pulling needles from their arms." An ink tracing by Garry Robson of Numan's face on the single's sleeve would provide the design for the 1979 reissue cover of Tubeway Army's eponymously titled debut album. A live version recorded 28 September 1979 at the Hammersmith Odeon and released on the B-side of the single "Complex" that year; this arrangement differed from the earlier recordings, featuring a Roland CR-78 drum machine and synthesizer, along with guitar and conventional percussion. The track was included as a bonus track on various CD re-releases of The Pleasure Principle, as well as on an expanded version of Numan's live album Living Ornaments'79, where it appeared as the first of three songs utilising the same CR-78 preset drum pattern, the others being "Remember I Was Vapour" and "On Broadway"; the Hammersmith recording was released on the limited edition bonus disc issued with The Pleasure Principle 30th anniversary edition.
This edition shows that it was supposed to have been released as part of a Live E. P. in January 1980. Live version, recorded 31 May 1980 in Sydney and released on the live album Engineers; this album was available and for a limited time on Numan's official website in early 2008. Live version, recorded 6 November 1993, released on the album Dream Corrosion; this rendition resembles the original, rock-oriented version of the song rather than the slowed-down version from'The Touring Principle'. Live version, recorded on the Machine Music Tour at the Dome, Brighton on 3rd June 2012, released on Machine Music Live, June 2013. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Wembley Arena is an indoor arena in Wembley, London. With 12,500 seats, it is London's second-largest indoor arena after The O2 Arena, the eighth-largest in the United Kingdom; the Empire Pool was built for the 1934 British Empire Games at Wembley, by Arthur Elvin, housed a swimming pool, as reflected by its name. The pool itself was last used for the 1948 Summer Olympics; the building is used for music, family entertainment and sport. It was designed without the employment of an architect. Williams built a unique structure, with cantilevers meeting in the middle, thus avoiding the need for internal pillars, he used high quality concrete, meaning that it has aged far better than many more recent concrete buildings. Work on the Empire Pool began in November 1933, it was opened on 25 July 1934 by the Duke of Gloucester. At the time it had the largest span of any similar structure in the world; as with the Stadium, construction was supervised by R. J. Fowler, Wembley's chief building inspector. Elvin introduced ice hockey to the new Empire Pool in October 1934.
In 1976, the Empire Pool was awarded Grade II Listed status, recognising it as a building of special architectural interest, technological innovation and virtuosity. On 1 February 1978, the Empire Pool was renamed Wembley Arena; when the venue was known as the Empire Pool, it hosted the annual NME Poll Winners Concerts during the mid-1960s. Audiences of 10,000 viewed acts like The Beatles, T. Rex; the Eagles on their Hotel California 1978 tour, The Grateful Dead, Dire Straits, who played there on their "Brothers In Arms" tour in 1985 and "On Every Street" tour in 1991, Status Quo, The Who, Dave Dee, Beaky, Mick & Tich, were among many others. The individual performances were finished by a famous personality joining the respective performer on stage and presenting them with their award; the Beatles were presented with one of their awards by actor Roger Moore and Joe Brown was joined on stage by Roy Orbison, to present him with his own award. These ceremonies were filmed and broadcast on television.
The venue was renovated, along with Wembley Stadium, as part of the early-21st-century regeneration of the Wembley Park area. The arena was temporarily closed in February 2005, with refurbishment costing £35m. Concerts were held at the neighbouring temporary 10,000-seat Wembley Arena Pavilion instead; the new arena opened to the public on 2 April 2006, with a concert by the English electronic-music band Depeche Mode. The temporary pavilion was moved to Malta Fairs & Convention Centre in Attard, where it opened in December 2006. In September 2013, it was announced that AEG Facilities had signed a 15-year contract to operate the arena; the building was renamed The SSE Arena on 1 June 2014 after SSE plc bought the naming rights to the venue for 10 years. The Grateful Dead have released recordings of complete shows from 7–8 April 1972 as part of Europe'72: The Complete Recordings; the Grateful Dead performed at Wembley Arena on 31 October 1990 as part of their fall 1990 European concert tour. Bruce Hornsby accompanied the band for this concert.
A notable attendance record was set in the early 1970s by David Cassidy, in his first tour of Great Britain in 1973, when he sold out six performances in one weekend. The experience and the associated mass hysteria was documented in a TV special called "David Cassidy: Weekend At Wembley". ABBA played six sold-out concerts, from 5 to 10 November 1979; the shows were filmed by Swedish television for a documentary, released in 2004 on DVD as ABBA in Concert. In September 2014 Universal Music released Live at Wembley Arena, featuring most of the concert of 10 November on CD, vinyl LP and digital format. After the tour, the members of the band talked about the warmth of the Wembley audience. "It was like coming home after a couple of nights," said guitarist Björn Ulvaeus. A finale from these concerts, "The Way Old Friends Do", is the closing track on ABBA's seventh studio album, Super Trouper. Vocalist Agnetha Fältskog said it was the vibe from the audience that made the track work so much better as a live performance than as a studio track.
Tina Turner is the female artist with the most shows, with 25 and with 5 at Wembley Stadium Cliff Richard is the male artist with the most number of shows with 61, whereas Status Quo hold the record for a rock band with 45 performances. Irish band Westlife are the pop band with most shows with 28, comedian Lee Evans 23 performances. American pop superstar Prince played 35 concerts at the venue between 1986–1998. During their 1998 Spiceworld Tour the Spice Girls played a total of 8 sold out concerts at the venue in April 1998; the arena hosted the final of The X Factor in 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. After a shake up, in 2017, it was instead hosted at The ExCel Centre, but in November 2018, it was confirmed Wembley Arena would return to host The X Factor Final 2018. Britney Spears performed there on 10, 11 and 12 October 2000 as part of her Oops!... I Did It Again Tour, she returned on 2004 for four shows during her The Onyx Hotel Tour. Kylie Minogue performed there on 24, 25, 26 and 27 May 2002 as part of her KylieFever2002.
She returned in 2007 for seven shows during her Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour. B
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion