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Brodmann area 19
Brodmann area 19, or BA 19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. Along with area 18, it comprises the extrastriate cortex. In humans with normal sight, extrastriate cortex is a visual association area, with feature-extracting, shape recognition and multimodal integrating functions; this area is known as peristriate area 19, it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined occipital region of cerebral cortex. In the human it is located in parts of the lingual gyrus, the cuneus, the lateral occipital gyrus and the superior occipital gyrus of the occipital lobe where it is bounded by the parieto-occipital sulcus, it is bounded on one side by the parastriate area 18. It is bounded rostrally by the angular area 39 and the occipitotemporal area 37. Brodmann area 19-1909 is a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture, it is cytoarchitecturally homologous to the peristriate area 19 of the human. Distinctive features: Compared to Brodmann area 18-1909, the pyramidal cells of sublayer 3b of the external pyramidal layer are not as densely distributed, the layer is not as narrow, its boundary with the internal granular layer is not as distinct.
Area 19 is a histologically delineated band anterolaterally abutting visual area 18. Single-cell electrophysiological recordings from area 19 in the cat suggest sensitivity to motion-delineated forms. In humans, this band is reputed to contain regions of the visual areas designated V3, V4, V5, V6 in the primate. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows the existence of various retinotopic maps within area 19. In general, the diverse fields that comprise area 19 have reciprocal connections with areas 17 and 18, as well as posterior parietal and inferior temporal association areas. Area 19 has been noted to receive inputs from the retina via the superior colliculus and pulvinar, may contribute to the phenomenon of blindsight. In patients blind from a young age, the area has been found to be activated by somatosensory stimuli; because of these findings, it is thought that area 19 is the differentiation point of the two visual streams, of the'what' and'where' visual pathways. The dorsal region may contain motion-sensitive neurons, ventral areas may be specialised for object recognition.
Brodmann area List of regions in the human brain Hyvarinen, J. Carlson, Y. and Hyvarinen, L. Early visual deprivation alters modality of neuronal responses in area 19 of monkey cortex, Neurosci. Lett. 26, 239–243 Theories of visual cortex organization in primates: areas of the third level, Prog Brain Res. 1996.
A simple cell in the primary visual cortex is a cell that responds to oriented edges and gratings. These cells were discovered by David Hubel in the late 1950s; such cells are tuned to different frequencies and orientations with different phase relationships for extracting disparity information and to attribute depth to detected lines and edges. This may result in a 3D'wire-frame' representation as used in computer graphics; the fact that input from the left and right eyes is close in the so-called cortical hypercolumns is an indication that depth processing occurs at a early stage, aiding recognition of 3D objects. Many other cells with specific functions have been discovered: end-stopped cells which are thought to detect singularities like line and edge crossings and line endings; the latter are not linear operators because a bar cell does not respond when seeing a bar, part of a periodic grating, a grating cell does not respond when seeing an isolated bar. Using the mathematical Gabor model with sine and cosine components, complex cells are modeled by computing the modulus of complex Gabor responses.
Both simple and complex cells are linear operators and are seen as filters because they respond selectively to a large number of patterns. However, it has been claimed that the Gabor model does not conform to the anatomical structure of the visual system as it short-cuts the LGN and uses the 2D image as it is projected on the retina. Azzopardi and Petkov have proposed a computational model of a simple cell, which combines the responses of model LGN cells with center-surround receptive fields, they call it Combination of RFs model. Besides orientation selectivity, it exhibits cross orientation suppression, contrast invariant orientation tuning and response saturation; these properties are not possessed by the Gabor model. Using simulated reverse correlation they demonstrate that the RF map of the CORF model can be divided into elongated excitatory and inhibitory regions typical of simple cells. Lindeberg has derived axiomatically determined models of simple cells in terms of directional derivatives of affine Gaussian kernels over the spatial domain in combination with temporal derivatives of either non-causal or time-causal scale-space kernels over the temporal domain and shown that this theory both leads to predictions about receptive fields with good qualitative agreement with the biological receptive field measurements performed by DeAngelis et al. and guarantees good theoretical properties of the mathematical receptive field model, including covariance and invariance properties under natural image transformations.
These cells were discovered by David Hubel in the late 1950s. Hubel and Wiesel named these cells "simple," as opposed to "complex cell", because they shared the following properties: They have distinct excitatory and inhibitory regions; these regions follow the summation property. These regions have mutual antagonism - excitatory and inhibitory regions balance themselves out in diffuse lighting, it is possible to predict responses of moving stimuli given the map of excitatory and inhibitory regions. Some other researchers such as Peter Bishop and Peter Schiller used different definitions for simple and complex cells. Visual system Spatiotemporal receptive field Axiomatic theory of receptive fields
The visual cortex of the brain is that part of the cerebral cortex which processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe. Visual nerves run straight from the eye to the primary visual cortex to the Visual Association cortex. Visual information coming from the eye goes through the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus and reaches the visual cortex; the part of the visual cortex that receives the sensory inputs from the thalamus is the primary visual cortex known as visual area 1, the striate cortex. The extrastriate areas consist of visual areas 2, 3, 4, 5. Both hemispheres of the brain contain a visual cortex; the primary visual cortex is located around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere's V1 receives information directly from its ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus that receives signals from the contralateral visual hemifield. Neurons in the visual cortex fire action potentials when visual stimuli appear within their receptive field. By definition, the receptive field is the region within the entire visual field that elicits an action potential.
But, for any given neuron, it may respond best to a subset of stimuli within its receptive field. This property is called neuronal tuning. In the earlier visual areas, neurons have simpler tuning. For example, a neuron in V1 may fire to any vertical stimulus in its receptive field. In the higher visual areas, neurons have complex tuning. For example, in the inferior temporal cortex, a neuron may fire only when a certain face appears in its receptive field; the visual cortex receives its blood supply from the calcarine branch of the posterior cerebral artery. V1 transmits information to two primary pathways, called the dorsal stream; the ventral stream begins with V1, goes through visual area V2 through visual area V4, to the inferior temporal cortex. The ventral stream, sometimes called the "What Pathway", is associated with form recognition and object representation, it is associated with storage of long-term memory. The dorsal stream begins with V1, goes through Visual area V2 to the dorsomedial area and Visual area MT and to the posterior parietal cortex.
The dorsal stream, sometimes called the "Where Pathway" or "How Pathway", is associated with motion, representation of object locations, control of the eyes and arms when visual information is used to guide saccades or reaching. The what vs. where account of the ventral/dorsal pathways was first described by Ungerleider and Mishkin. More Goodale and Milner extended these ideas and suggested that the ventral stream is critical for visual perception whereas the dorsal stream mediates the visual control of skilled actions, it has been shown that visual illusions such as the Ebbinghaus illusion distort judgements of a perceptual nature, but when the subject responds with an action, such as grasping, no distortion occurs. Work such as the one from Scharnowski and Gegenfurtner suggests that both the action and perception systems are fooled by such illusions. Other studies, provide strong support for the idea that skilled actions such as grasping are not affected by pictorial illusions and suggest that the action/perception dissociation is a useful way to characterize the functional division of labor between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways in the cerebral cortex.
The primary visual cortex is the most studied visual area in the brain. In mammals, it is located in the posterior pole of the occipital lobe and is the simplest, earliest cortical visual area, it is specialized for processing information about static and moving objects and is excellent in pattern recognition. The functionally defined primary visual cortex is equivalent to the anatomically defined striate cortex; the name "striate cortex" is derived from the line of Gennari, a distinctive stripe visible to the naked eye that represents myelinated axons from the lateral geniculate body terminating in layer 4 of the gray matter. The primary visual cortex is divided into six functionally distinct layers, labeled 1 to 6. Layer 4, which receives most visual input from the lateral geniculate nucleus, is further divided into 4 layers, labelled 4A, 4B, 4Cα, 4Cβ. Sublamina 4Cα receives magnocellular input from the LGN, while layer 4Cβ receives input from parvocellular pathways; the average number of neurons in the adult human primary visual cortex in each hemisphere has been estimated at around 140 million.
The tuning properties of V1 neurons differ over time. Early in time individual V1 neurons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli; that is, the neuronal responses can discriminate small changes in visual orientations, spatial frequencies and colors. Furthermore, individual V1 neurons in humans and animals with binocular vision have ocular dominance, namely tuning to one of the two eyes. In V1, primary sensory cortex in general, neurons with similar tuning properties tend to cluster together as cortical columns. David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel proposed the classic ice-cube organization model of cortical columns for two tuning properties: ocular dominance and orientation. However, this model cannot accommodate the color, spatial frequency and many other features to which neurons are tuned; the exact organization of all these cortical columns within V1 remains a hot topic of current research. The mathematical modeling of this function has been compared t
The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron. This region can be a hair in the cochlea or a piece of skin, tongue or other part of an animal's body. Additionally, it can be the space surrounding an animal, such as an area of auditory space, fixed in a reference system based on the ears but that moves with the animal as it moves, or in a fixed location in space, independent of the animal's location. Receptive fields have been identified for neurons of the auditory system, the somatosensory system, the visual system; the term receptive field was first used by Sherrington to describe the area of skin from which a scratch reflex could be elicited in a dog. According to Alonso and Chen it was Hartline who applied the term to single neurons, in this case from the retina of a frog; the concept of receptive fields can be extended further up the nervous system. For example, the receptive field of a ganglion cell in the retina of the eye is composed of input from all of the photoreceptors which synapse with it, a group of ganglion cells in turn forms the receptive field for a cell in the brain.
This process is called convergence. The auditory system processes the temporal and spectral characteristics of sound waves, so the receptive fields of neurons in the auditory system are modeled as spectro-temporal patterns that cause the firing rate of the neuron to modulate with the auditory stimulus. Auditory receptive fields are modeled as spectro-temporal receptive fields, which are the specific pattern in the auditory domain that causes modulation of the firing rate of a neuron. Linear STRFs are created by first calculating a spectrogram of the acoustic stimulus, which determines the how the spectral density of the acoustic stimulus changes over time using the Short-time Fourier transform. Firing rate is modeled over time for the neuron using a peristimulus time histogram if combining over multiple repetitions of the acoustic stimulus. Linear regression is used to predict the firing rate of that neuron as a weighted sum of the spectrogram; the weights learned by the linear model are the STRF, represent the specific acoustic pattern that causes modulation in the firing rate of the neuron.
STRFs can be understood as the transfer function that maps an acoustic stimulus input to a firing rate response output. In the somatosensory system, receptive fields are regions of the skin or of internal organs; some types of mechanoreceptors have large receptive fields. Large receptive fields allow the cell to detect changes over a wider area, but lead to a less precise perception. Thus, the fingers, which require the ability to detect fine detail, have many, densely packed mechanoreceptors with small receptive fields, while the back and legs, for example, have fewer receptors with large receptive fields. Receptors with large receptive fields have a "hot spot", an area within the receptive field where stimulation produces the most intense response. Tactile-sense-related cortical neurons have receptive fields on the skin that can be modified by experience or by injury to sensory nerves resulting in changes in the field's size and position. In general these neurons have large receptive fields.
However, the neurons are able to discriminate fine detail due to patterns of excitation and inhibition relative to the field which leads to spatial resolution. R e c e p t i v e f i e l d = c e n t e r + s u r r o u n d In the visual system, receptive fields are volumes in visual space, they are smallest in the fovea where they can be a few minutes of arc like a dot on this page, to the whole page. For example, the receptive field of a single photoreceptor is a cone-shaped volume comprising all the visual directions in which light will alter the firing of that cell, its apex is located in the center of the lens and its base at infinity in visual space. Traditionally, visual receptive fields were portrayed in two dimensions, but these are slices, cut along the screen on which the researcher presented the stimulus, of the volume of space to which a particular cell will respond. In the case of binocular neurons in the visual cortex, receptive fields do not extend to optical infinity. Instead, they are restricted to a certain interval of distance from the animal, or from where the eyes are fixating.
The receptive field is identified as the region of the retina where the action of light alters the firing of the neuron. In retinal ganglion cells, this area of the retina would encompass all the photoreceptors, all the rods and cones from one eye that are connected to this particular ganglion cell via bipolar cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells. In binocular neurons in the visual cortex, it is necessary to specify the corresponding area in both retinas. Although these can be mapped separately in each retina by shutting one or the other eye, the full influence on the neu
Torsten Nils Wiesel is a Swedish neurophysiologist. Together with David H. Hubel, he received the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. Wiesel was born in Sweden in 1924, the youngest of five children. In 1947, he began his scientific career in Carl Gustaf Bernhard's laboratory at the Karolinska Institute, where he received his medical degree in 1954, he went on to teach in the Institute's department of physiology and worked in the child psychiatry unit of the Karolinska Hospital. In 1955 he moved to the United States to work at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine under Stephen Kuffler. Wiesel began a fellowship in ophthalmology, in 1958 he became an assistant professor; that same year, he met David Hubel, beginning a collaboration. In 1959 Wiesel and Hubel moved to Harvard University, he became an instructor in pharmacology at Harvard Medical School, beginning a 24-year career with the university. He became professor in the new department of neurobiology in 1968 and its chair in 1971.
In 1983, Wiesel joined the faculty of Rockefeller University as Vincent and Brooke Astor Professor and head of the Laboratory of Neurobiology. He was president of the university from 1991 to 1998. At Rockefeller University he remains the director of the Shelby White and Leon Levy Center for Mind and Behavior. From 2000-2009, Wiesel served as Secretary-General of the Human Frontier Science Program, an organization headquartered in Strasbourg, which supports international and interdisciplinary collaboration between investigators in the life sciences. Wiesel has chaired the scientific advisory board of China's National Institute of Biological Science in Beijing, co-chairs the board of governors of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, he is member of the boards of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, the Hospital for Special Surgery, an advisory board member of the European Brain Research Institute. Wiesel has served as chair of the board of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, president of the Society for Neuroscience, the International Brain Research Organization.
He was chair of the board of governors of the New York Academy of Sciences. Wiesel sits on the President's Council at University of the People; the Hubel and Wiesel experiments expanded the scientific knowledge of sensory processing. In one experiment, done in 1959, they inserted a microelectrode into the primary visual cortex of an anesthetized cat, they projected patterns of light and dark on a screen in front of the cat. They found that some neurons fired when presented with lines at one angle, while others responded best to another angle, they called these neurons "simple cells." Still other neurons, which they termed "complex cells," responded best to lines of a certain angle moving in one direction. These studies showed how the visual system builds an image from simple stimuli into more complex representations. Hubel and Wiesel were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1981 for their work on ocular dominance columns in the 1960s and 1970s. By depriving kittens from using one eye, they showed that columns in the primary visual cortex receiving inputs from the other eye took over the areas that would receive input from the deprived eye.
These kittens did not develop areas receiving input from both eyes, a feature needed for binocular vision. Hubel and Wiesel's experiments showed that the ocular dominance develops irreversibly early in childhood development; these studies opened the door for the understanding and treatment of childhood cataracts and strabismus. They were important in the study of cortical plasticity. Wiesel is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, a foreign fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, he holds the following awards and honors: In 2001, Wiesel was nominated for a position on an advisory panel in the National Institutes of Health to advise on assisting research in developing countries. Republican Tommy Thompson, who at the time was Secretary of Health and Human Services, rejected Wiesel. In addition to Wiesel, Thompson's office rejected another 18 nominations and in return recommended other scientists that whistleblower Gerald Keusch described in an interview as "lightweights" with "no scientific credibility".
When Wiesel's name was rejected, an official in Thompson's office told Keusch that Wiesel had "signed too many full-page letters in The New York Times critical of President Bush." This incident was cited by the advocacy group Union of Concerned Scientists as part of a report detailing their allegations of abuse of science under President George W. Bush's administration. Wiesel was among the eight 2005 recipients of the National Medal of Science. In 2006, he was awarded the Ramon Y Cajal Gold Medal from the Spanish National Research Council. In 2007, both Wiesel and Hubel were awarded the Marshall M. Parks, MD Medal from The Children's Eye Foundation. Wiesel is married to Lizette Mususa Reyes. Wiesel was married to Teeri Stenhammar from 1956-1970, Ann Yee from 1973-1981, author and editor Jean Stein from 1995-2007, his daughter Sara Elisabeth was born in 1975. Wiesel has done much work as a global human rights advocate, he served for 10 years as chair of the Committee of Human Rights of the National Academies of Science in the U.
S. A. as well as the International