Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape. It is the set of all points in a plane; the distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. A circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior. A circle may be defined as a special kind of ellipse in which the two foci are coincident and the eccentricity is 0, or the two-dimensional shape enclosing the most area per unit perimeter squared, using calculus of variations. A circle is a plane figure bounded by one line, such that all right lines drawn from a certain point within it to the bounding line, are equal; the bounding line is called the point, its centre. Annulus: a ring-shaped object, the region bounded by two concentric circles.

Arc: any connected part of a circle. Specifying two end points of an arc and a center allows for two arcs that together make up a full circle. Centre: the point equidistant from all points on the circle. Chord: a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle, thus dividing a circle in two sements. Circumference: the length of one circuit along the circle, or the distance around the circle. Diameter: a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle and that passes through the centre; this is the largest distance between any two points on the circle. It is a special case of a chord, namely the longest chord for a given circle, its length is twice the length of a radius. Disc: the region of the plane bounded by a circle. Lens: the region common to two overlapping discs. Passant: a coplanar straight line that has no point in common with the circle. Radius: a line segment joining the centre of a circle with any single point on the circle itself. Sector: a region bounded by two radii of equal length with a common center and either of the two possible arcs, determined by this center and the endpoints of the radii.

Segment: a region bounded by a chord and one of the arcs connecting the chord's endpoints. The length of the chord imposes a lower boundary on the diameter of possible arcs. Sometimes the term segment is used only for regions not containing the center of the circle to which their arc belongs to. Secant: an extended chord, a coplanar straight line, intersecting a circle in two points. Semicircle: one of the two possible arcs determined by the endpoints of a diameter, taking its midpoint as center. In non-technical common usage it may mean the interior of the two dimensional region bounded by a diameter and one of its arcs, technically called a half-disc. A half-disc is a special case of a segment, namely the largest one. Tangent: a coplanar straight line that has one single point in common with a circle. All of the specified regions may be considered as open, that is, not containing their boundaries, or as closed, including their respective boundaries; the word circle derives from the Greek κίρκος/κύκλος, itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος, meaning "hoop" or "ring".

The origins of the words circus and circuit are related. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. Natural circles would have been observed, such as the Moon, a short plant stalk blowing in the wind on sand, which forms a circle shape in the sand; the circle is the basis for the wheel, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern machinery possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. Early science geometry and astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars, many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or "perfect" that could be found in circles; some highlights in the history of the circle are: 1700 BCE – The Rhind papyrus gives a method to find the area of a circular field. The result corresponds to 256/81 as an approximate value of π. 300 BCE – Book 3 of Euclid's Elements deals with the properties of circles. In Plato's Seventh Letter there is a detailed explanation of the circle.

Plato explains the perfect circle, how it is different from any drawing, definition or explanation. 1880 CE – Lindemann proves that π is transcendental settling the millennia-old problem of squaring the circle. The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is π, an irrational constant equal to 3.141592654. Thus the length of the circumference C is related to the radius r and diameter d by: C = 2 π r = π d; as proved by Archimedes, in his Measurement of a Circle, the area enclosed by a circle is equal to that of a triangle whose base has the length of the circle's circumference and whose height equals the circle's radius, which comes to π multiplied by the radius squared: A r e a = π r 2. Equivalently, denoting diameter by d, A r e

Mathematics

Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.

Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.

The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.

Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.

The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to

Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold is a type of manifold, locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts known as an atlas. One may apply ideas from calculus while working within the individual charts, since each chart lies within a linear space to which the usual rules of calculus apply. If the charts are suitably compatible computations done in one chart are valid in any other differentiable chart. In formal terms, a differentiable manifold is a topological manifold with a globally defined differential structure. Any topological manifold can be given a differential structure locally by using the homeomorphisms in its atlas and the standard differential structure on a linear space. To induce a global differential structure on the local coordinate systems induced by the homeomorphisms, their composition on chart intersections in the atlas must be differentiable functions on the corresponding linear space. In other words, where the domains of charts overlap, the coordinates defined by each chart are required to be differentiable with respect to the coordinates defined by every chart in the atlas.

The maps that relate the coordinates defined by the various charts to one another are called transition maps. Differentiability means different things in different contexts including: continuously differentiable, k times differentiable and holomorphic. Furthermore, the ability to induce such a differential structure on an abstract space allows one to extend the definition of differentiability to spaces without global coordinate systems. A differential structure allows one to define the globally differentiable tangent space, differentiable functions, differentiable tensor and vector fields. Differentiable manifolds are important in physics. Special kinds of differentiable manifolds form the basis for physical theories such as classical mechanics, general relativity, Yang–Mills theory, it is possible to develop a calculus for differentiable manifolds. This leads to such mathematical machinery as the exterior calculus; the study of calculus on differentiable manifolds is known as differential geometry.

The emergence of differential geometry as a distinct discipline is credited to Carl Friedrich Gauss and Bernhard Riemann. Riemann first described manifolds in his famous habilitation lecture before the faculty at Göttingen, he motivated the idea of a manifold by an intuitive process of varying a given object in a new direction, presciently described the role of coordinate systems and charts in subsequent formal developments: Having constructed the notion of a manifoldness of n dimensions, found that its true character consists in the property that the determination of position in it may be reduced to n determinations of magnitude... – B. RiemannThe works of physicists such as James Clerk Maxwell, mathematicians Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and Tullio Levi-Civita led to the development of tensor analysis and the notion of covariance, which identifies an intrinsic geometric property as one, invariant with respect to coordinate transformations; these ideas found a key application in Einstein's theory of general relativity and its underlying equivalence principle.

A modern definition of a 2-dimensional manifold was given by Hermann Weyl in his 1913 book on Riemann surfaces. The accepted general definition of a manifold in terms of an atlas is due to Hassler Whitney. A presentation of a topological manifold is a second countable Hausdorff space, locally homeomorphic to a vector space, by a collection of homeomorphisms called charts; the composition of one chart with the inverse of another chart is a function called a transition map, defines a homeomorphism of an open subset of the linear space onto another open subset of the linear space. This formalizes the notion of "patching together pieces of a space to make a manifold" – the manifold produced contains the data of how it has been patched together. However, different atlases may produce "the same" manifold. Thus, one defines a topological manifold to be a space as above with an equivalence class of atlases, where one defines equivalence of atlases below. There are a number of different types of differentiable manifolds, depending on the precise differentiability requirements on the transition functions.

Some common examples include the following: A differentiable manifold is a topological manifold equipped with an equivalence class of atlases whose transition maps are all differentiable. More a Ck-manifold is a topological manifold with an atlas whose transition maps are all k-times continuously differentiable. A smooth manifold or C∞-manifold is a differentiable manifold for which all the transition maps are smooth; that is, derivatives of all orders exist. An equivalence class of such atlases is said to be a smooth structure. An analytic manifold, or Cω-manifold is a smooth manifold with the additional condition that each transition map is analytic: the Taylor expansion is convergent and equals the function on some open ball. A complex manifold is a topological space modeled on a Euclidean space over the complex field and for which all the transition maps are holomorphic. While there is a meaningful notion of a Ck atlas, there is no distinct notion of a Ck manifold other than C0 and C∞, because for every Ck-structure with k > 0, there is a unique Ck-equivalent C∞-structure – a result of Whitney.

In fact, eve

Algebraic variety

Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry. Classically, an algebraic variety is defined as the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations over the real or complex numbers. Modern definitions generalize this concept in several different ways, while attempting to preserve the geometric intuition behind the original definition.:58Conventions regarding the definition of an algebraic variety differ slightly. For example, some definitions require an algebraic variety to be irreducible, which means that it is not the union of two smaller sets that are closed in the Zariski topology. Under this definition, non-irreducible algebraic varieties are called algebraic sets. Other conventions do not require irreducibility; the concept of an algebraic variety is similar to that of an analytic manifold. An important difference is that an algebraic variety may have singular points, while a manifold cannot; the fundamental theorem of algebra establishes a link between algebra and geometry by showing that a monic polynomial in one variable with complex number coefficients is determined by the set of its roots in the complex plane.

Generalizing this result, Hilbert's Nullstellensatz provides a fundamental correspondence between ideals of polynomial rings and algebraic sets. Using the Nullstellensatz and related results, mathematicians have established a strong correspondence between questions on algebraic sets and questions of ring theory; this correspondence is a defining feature of algebraic geometry. An affine variety over an algebraically closed field is conceptually the easiest type of variety to define, which will be done in this section. Next, one can define quasi-projective varieties in a similar way; the most general definition of a variety is obtained by patching together smaller quasi-projective varieties. It is not obvious that one can construct genuinely new examples of varieties in this way, but Nagata gave an example of such a new variety in the 1950s. For an algebraically closed field K and a natural number n, let An be affine n-space over K; the polynomials f in the ring K can be viewed as K-valued functions on An by evaluating f at the points in An, i.e. by choosing values in K for each xi.

For each set S of polynomials in K, define the zero-locus Z to be the set of points in An on which the functions in S vanish, to say Z =. A subset V of An is called an affine algebraic set if V = Z for some S.:2 A nonempty affine algebraic set V is called irreducible if it cannot be written as the union of two proper algebraic subsets.:3 An irreducible affine algebraic set is called an affine variety.:3 Affine varieties can be given a natural topology by declaring the closed sets to be the affine algebraic sets. This topology is called the Zariski topology.:2Given a subset V of An, we define I to be the ideal of all polynomial functions vanishing on V: I =. For any affine algebraic set V, the coordinate ring or structure ring of V is the quotient of the polynomial ring by this ideal.:4 Let k be an algebraically closed field and let Pn be the projective n-space over k. Let f in k be a homogeneous polynomial of degree d, it is not well-defined to evaluate f on points in Pn in homogeneous coordinates.

However, because f is homogeneous, meaning that f = λd f , it does make sense to ask whether f vanishes at a point. For each set S of homogeneous polynomials, define the zero-locus of S to be the set of points in Pn on which the functions in S vanish: Z =. A subset V of Pn is called a projective algebraic set if V = Z for some S.:9 An irreducible projective algebraic set is called a projective variety.:10Projective varieties are equipped with the Zariski topology by declaring all algebraic sets to be closed. Given a subset V of Pn, let I be the ideal generated by all homogeneous polynomials vanishing on V. For any projective algebraic set V, the coordinate ring of V is the quotient of the polynomial ring by this ideal.:10A quasi-projective variety is a Zariski open subset of a projective variety. Notice that every affine variety is quasi-projective. Notice that the complement of an algebraic set in an affine variety is a quasi-projective variety. In classical algebraic geometry, a

Cartesian product

In set theory, a Cartesian product is a mathematical operation that returns a set from multiple sets. That is, for sets A and B, the Cartesian product A × B is the set of all ordered pairs where a ∈ A and b ∈ B. Products can be specified using e.g.. A × B =. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of columns. If the Cartesian product rows × columns is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form. More a Cartesian product of n sets known as an n-fold Cartesian product, can be represented by an array of n dimensions, where each element is an n-tuple. An ordered pair is a couple; the Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, further generalized in terms of direct product. An illustrative example is the standard 52-card deck; the standard playing card ranks form a 13-element set. The card suits form a four-element set; the Cartesian product of these sets returns a 52-element set consisting of 52 ordered pairs, which correspond to all 52 possible playing cards.

Ranks × Suits returns a set of the form. Suits × Ranks returns a set of the form. Both sets are distinct disjoint; the main historical example is the Cartesian plane in analytic geometry. In order to represent geometrical shapes in a numerical way and extract numerical information from shapes' numerical representations, René Descartes assigned to each point in the plane a pair of real numbers, called its coordinates; such a pair's first and second components are called its x and y coordinates, respectively. The set of all such pairs is thus assigned to the set of all points in the plane. A formal definition of the Cartesian product from set-theoretical principles follows from a definition of ordered pair; the most common definition of ordered pairs, the Kuratowski definition, is =. Under this definition, is an element of P, X × Y is a subset of that set, where P represents the power set operator. Therefore, the existence of the Cartesian product of any two sets in ZFC follows from the axioms of pairing, power set, specification.

Since functions are defined as a special case of relations, relations are defined as subsets of the Cartesian product, the definition of the two-set Cartesian product is prior to most other definitions. Let A, B, C, D be sets; the Cartesian product A × B is not commutative, A × B ≠ B × A, because the ordered pairs are reversed unless at least one of the following conditions is satisfied: A is equal to B, or A or B is the empty set. For example: A =. × C ≠ A × If for example A = × A = ≠ = A ×. The Cartesian product behaves nicely with respect to intersections. × = ∩. × ≠ ∪ In fact, we have that: ∪ = ∪ ∪ [ ( B

Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, his work on Fourier series, his contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. His famous 1859 paper on the prime-counting function, containing the original statement of the Riemann hypothesis, is regarded as one of the most influential papers in analytic number theory. Through his pioneering contributions to differential geometry, Riemann laid the foundations of the mathematics of general relativity, he is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Riemann was born on September 17, 1826 in Breselenz, a village near Dannenberg in the Kingdom of Hanover, his father, Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, was a poor Lutheran pastor in Breselenz who fought in the Napoleonic Wars.

His mother, Charlotte Ebell, died. Riemann was the second of six children and suffering from numerous nervous breakdowns. Riemann exhibited exceptional mathematical skills, such as calculation abilities, from an early age but suffered from timidity and a fear of speaking in public. During 1840, Riemann went to Hanover to attend lyceum. After the death of his grandmother in 1842, he attended high school at the Johanneum Lüneburg. In high school, Riemann studied the Bible intensively, but he was distracted by mathematics, his teachers were amazed by his adept ability to perform complicated mathematical operations, in which he outstripped his instructor's knowledge. In 1846, at the age of 19, he started studying philology and Christian theology in order to become a pastor and help with his family's finances. During the spring of 1846, his father, after gathering enough money, sent Riemann to the University of Göttingen, where he planned to study towards a degree in Theology. However, once there, he began studying mathematics under Carl Friedrich Gauss.

Gauss recommended that Riemann enter the mathematical field. During his time of study, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Jakob Steiner, Gotthold Eisenstein were teaching, he stayed in Berlin for two years and returned to Göttingen in 1849. Riemann held his first lectures in 1854, which founded the field of Riemannian geometry and thereby set the stage for Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. In 1857, there was an attempt to promote Riemann to extraordinary professor status at the University of Göttingen. Although this attempt failed, it did result in Riemann being granted a regular salary. In 1859, following Dirichlet's death, he was promoted to head the mathematics department at the University of Göttingen, he was the first to suggest using dimensions higher than three or four in order to describe physical reality. In 1862 he married Elise Koch and they had a daughter. Riemann fled Göttingen when the armies of Hanover and Prussia clashed there in 1866, he died of tuberculosis during his third journey to Italy in Selasca where he was buried in the cemetery in Biganzolo.

Riemann was a dedicated Christian, the son of a Protestant minister, saw his life as a mathematician as another way to serve God. During his life, he held to his Christian faith and considered it to be the most important aspect of his life. At the time of his death, he was reciting the Lord’s Prayer with his wife and died before they finished saying the prayer. Meanwhile, in Göttingen his housekeeper discarded some of the papers in his office, including much unpublished work. Riemann refused to publish incomplete work, some deep insights may have been lost forever. Riemann's tombstone in Biganzolo refers to Romans 8:28: Here rests in God Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann Professor in Göttingen born in Breselenz, 17 September 1826 died in Selasca, 20 July 1866 For those who love God, all things must work together for the best. Riemann's published works opened up research areas combining analysis with geometry; these would subsequently become major parts of the theories of Riemannian geometry, algebraic geometry, complex manifold theory.

The theory of Riemann surfaces was elaborated by Felix Klein and Adolf Hurwitz. This area of mathematics is part of the foundation of topology and is still being applied in novel ways to mathematical physics. In 1853, Gauss asked his student Riemann to prepare a Habilitationsschrift on the foundations of geometry. Over many months, Riemann developed his theory of higher dimensions and delivered his lecture at Göttingen in 1854 entitled "Ueber die Hypothesen welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen", it was only published twelve years in 1868 by Dedekind, two years after his death. Its early reception appears to have been slow but it is now recognized as one of the most important works in geometry; the subject founded by this work is Riemannian geometry. Riemann found the correct way to extend into n dimensions the differential geometry of surfaces, which Gauss himself proved in his theorema egregium; the fundamental object is called the Riemann curvature tensor. F

Complex projective space

In mathematics, complex projective space is the projective space with respect to the field of complex numbers. By analogy, whereas the points of a real projective space label the lines through the origin of a real Euclidean space, the points of a complex projective space label the complex lines through the origin of a complex Euclidean space. Formally, a complex projective space is the space of complex lines through the origin of an -dimensional complex vector space; the space is denoted variously as Pn or CPn. When n = 1, the complex projective space CP1 is the Riemann sphere, when n = 2, CP2 is the complex projective plane. Complex projective space was first introduced by von Staudt as an instance of what was known as the "geometry of position", a notion due to Lazare Carnot, a kind of synthetic geometry that included other projective geometries as well. Subsequently, near the turn of the 20th century it became clear to the Italian school of algebraic geometry that the complex projective spaces were the most natural domains in which to consider the solutions of polynomial equations – algebraic varieties.

In modern times, both the topology and geometry of complex projective space are well understood and related to that of the sphere. Indeed, in a certain sense the -sphere can be regarded as a family of circles parametrized by CPn: this is the Hopf fibration. Complex projective space carries a metric, called the Fubini–Study metric, in terms of which it is a Hermitian symmetric space of rank 1. Complex projective space has many applications in both mathematics and quantum physics. In algebraic geometry, complex projective space is the home of projective varieties, a well-behaved class of algebraic varieties. In topology, the complex projective space plays an important role as a classifying space for complex line bundles: families of complex lines parametrized by another space. In this context, the infinite union of projective spaces, denoted CP∞, is the classifying space K. In quantum physics, the wave function associated to a pure state of a quantum mechanical system is a probability amplitude, meaning that it has unit norm, has an inessential overall phase: that is, the wave function of a pure state is a point in the projective Hilbert space of the state space.

The notion of a projective plane arises out of the idea of perspection in geometry and art: that it is sometimes useful to include in the Euclidean plane an additional "imaginary" line that represents the horizon that an artist, painting the plane, might see. Following each direction from the origin, there is a different point on the horizon, so the horizon can be thought of as the set of all directions from the origin; the Euclidean plane, together with its horizon, is called the real projective plane, the horizon is sometimes called a line at infinity. By the same construction, projective spaces can be considered in higher dimensions. For instance, the real projective 3-space is a Euclidean space together with a plane at infinity that represents the horizon that an artist would see; these real projective spaces can be constructed in a more rigorous way as follows. Here, let Rn+1 denote the real coordinate space of n+1 dimensions, regard the landscape to be painted as a hyperplane in this space.

Suppose that the eye of the artist is the origin in Rn+1. Along each line through his eye, there is a point of the landscape or a point on its horizon, thus the real projective space is the space of lines through the origin in Rn+1. Without reference to coordinates, this is the space of lines through the origin in an -dimensional real vector space. To describe the complex projective space in an analogous manner requires a generalization of the idea of vector and direction. Imagine that instead of standing in a real Euclidean space, the artist is standing in a complex Euclidean space Cn+1 and the landscape is a complex hyperplane. Unlike the case of real Euclidean space, in the complex case there are directions in which the artist can look which do not see the landscape. However, in a complex space, there is an additional "phase" associated with the directions through a point, by adjusting this phase the artist can guarantee that he sees the landscape; the "horizon" is the space of directions, but such that two directions are regarded as "the same" if they differ only by a phase.

The complex projective space is the landscape with the horizon attached "at infinity". Just like the real case, the complex projective space is the space of directions through the origin of Cn+1, where two directions are regarded as the same if they differ by a phase. Complex projective space is a complex manifold that may be described by n + 1 complex coordinates as Z = ∈ C n + 1, ≠ where the tuples differing by an overall rescaling are identified: ( Z