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Component-based software engineering

Component-based software engineering called components-based development, is a branch of software engineering that emphasizes the separation of concerns with respect to the wide-ranging functionality available throughout a given software system. It is a reuse-based approach to defining and composing loosely coupled independent components into systems; this practice aims to bring about an wide-ranging degree of benefits in both the short-term and the long-term for the software itself and for organizations that sponsor such software. Software engineering practitioners regard components as part of the starting platform for service-orientation. Components play this role, for example, in web services, more in service-oriented architectures, whereby a component is converted by the web service into a service and subsequently inherits further characteristics beyond that of an ordinary component. Components can be used for event-driven architectures. An individual software component is a software package, a web service, a web resource, or a module that encapsulates a set of related functions.

All system processes are placed into separate components so that all of the data and functions inside each component are semantically related. Because of this principle, it is said that components are modular and cohesive. With regard to system-wide co-ordination, components communicate with each other via interfaces; when a component offers services to the rest of the system, it adopts a provided interface that specifies the services that other components can utilize, how they can do so. This interface can be seen as a signature of the component - the client does not need to know about the inner workings of the component in order to make use of it; this principle results in components referred to as encapsulated. The UML illustrations within this article represent provided interfaces by a lollipop-symbol attached to the outer edge of the component. However, when a component needs to use another component in order to function, it adopts a used interface that specifies the services that it needs.

In the UML illustrations in this article, used interfaces are represented by an open socket symbol attached to the outer edge of the component. Another important attribute of components is that they are substitutable, so that a component can replace another, if the successor component meets the requirements of the initial component. Components can be replaced with either an updated version or an alternative without breaking the system in which the component operates; as a rule of thumb for engineers substituting components, component B can replace component A, if component B provides at least what component A provided and uses no more than what component A used. Software components take the form of objects or collections of objects, in some binary or textual form, adhering to some interface description language so that the component may exist autonomously from other components in a computer. In other words, a component acts without changing its source code. Although, the behavior of the component's source code may change based on the application's extensibility, provided by its writer.

When a component is to be accessed or shared across execution contexts or network links, techniques such as serialization or marshalling are employed to deliver the component to its destination. Reusability is an important characteristic of a high-quality software component. Programmers should design and implement software components in such a way that many different programs can reuse them. Furthermore, component-based usability testing should be considered when software components directly interact with users, it takes significant effort and awareness to write a software component, reusable. The component needs to be: documented tested robust - with comprehensive input-validity checking able to pass back appropriate error messages or return codes designed with an awareness that it will be put to unforeseen usesIn the 1960s, programmers built scientific subroutine libraries that were reusable in a broad array of engineering and scientific applications. Though these subroutine libraries reused well-defined algorithms in an effective manner, they had a limited domain of application.

Commercial sites created application programs from reusable modules written in assembly language, COBOL, PL/1 and other second- and third-generation languages using both system and user application libraries. As of 2010, modern reusable components encapsulate both data structures and the algorithms that are applied to the data structures. Component-based software engineering builds on prior theories of software objects, software architectures, software frameworks and software design patterns, the extensive theory of object-oriented programming and the object-oriented design of all these, it claims that software components, like the idea of hardware components, used for example in telecommunications, can be made interchangeable and reliable. On the other hand, it is argued that it is a mistake to focus on independent components rather than the framework; the idea that software should be componentized - built from prefabricated components - first became prominent with Douglas McIlroy's address at the NATO conference on software engineering in Garmisch, Germany, 1968, titled Mass Produced Software Components.

The conference set out to counter the so-called software crisis. McIlroy's subsequent inclusion of pipes and filters into the Unix ope

U─čur Pamuk

Uğur Pamuk is an Azerbaijani international footballer who plays for Manisaspor, as a midfielder and striker. Pamuk moved to Khazar Lenkaran from fellow Azerbaijan Premier League side Sumgayit during the 2013 winter transfer window. On 1 July 2016, Pamuk signed a two-year contract with Manisaspor. Pamuk received his first call to the Azerbaijan national team in May 2012, when he was selected for a training camp by national coach Berti Vogts, he earned his first cap that month against Andorra, replacing Vugar Nadyrov for the final 18 minutes of a 0-0 draw. He was added to the squad for Azerbaijan's World Cup qualifier against Northern Ireland in November 2012, but remained on the bench in the match; as of 25 February 2015 Uğur Pamuk – UEFA competition record Uğur Pamuk at Soccerway

Philip, Duke of Parma

Philip of Spain was Infante of Spain by birth, Duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. He founded the House of a cadet line of the Spanish branch of the dynasty, he was a son-in-law of Louis XV. Born at the Royal Alcazar in Madrid as Felipe de Borbón y Farnesio, he was the third child and second son of Philip V of Spain and his wife, Elisabeth Farnese, he was raised in Madrid. He was the 12th Count of Chinchón and Grandee of Spain First Class with a coat of arms of Bourbon after the alienation with royal authorization in 1738 of the 11th Count of Chinchón, Don Jose Sforza-Cesarini, Duke of Canzano, a title he ceded to his brother Louis in 1754, his mother came from the family of Farnese, which had ruled the Duchy of Parma and Guastalla for many generations. The duchy had been ruled between 1731 and 1736 by his elder brother Charles, but was exchanged with Austria for The Two Sicilies after the War of Polish Succession. Twelve years in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Austria lost the duchy and Philip became the new duke, founding the House of Bourbon-Parma.

As part of the Second Treaty of Versailles between Austria and France, it was intended that Phillip would become king of the Southern Netherlands in a deal that would see French troops occupy key positions in the country – however this arrangement was repudiated by the subsequent Third Treaty of Versailles and Phillip continued in Parma. The Duchy of Parma was ruined by many years of warfare, in 1759 Philip named the able Frenchman Guillaume du Tillot as his minister to restore the economy. Philip was an enlightened ruler who stimulated education and philosophy, attracting personalities like Étienne Bonnot de Condillac. Philip married his first cousin once removed Princess Louise Élisabeth of France in Alcalá de Henares, Spain on 25 October 1739, they had the following children: Isabella Luisa Antonietta Ferdinanda Giuseppina Saveria Dominica Giovanna of Parma – she married Marie Antoinette's older brother, the Austrian emperor, Joseph II. She had issue. Ferdinando Maria Filippo Lodovico Sebastiano Francesco Giacomo of Parma, ) – he succeeded his father as Duke of Parma in 1765 and married his older sister's sister-in-law, Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria.

He left issue. Luisa Maria Teresa Ana of Parma – she was known as Maria Luisa, she was Queen of Spain as the wife of her cousin, Charles IV of Spain. She left issue, their marriage was an unhappy one, Louise Elisabeth died of smallpox at the age of 32 in 1759. Philip died unexpectedly on 18 July 1765 in Alessandria, after having accompanied his daughter Maria Luisa on her way to Genoa, where she sailed for Spain to marry Infante Charles. Through Philip's daughter Maria Luisa, he is an ancestor of the Bourbons of Spain, the Bourbons of the Two Sicilies, the House of Orléans. France: Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit Heraldry of Philip, Duke of Parma

Digital root

The digital root of a natural number in a given number base is the value obtained by an iterative process of summing digits, on each iteration using the result from the previous iteration to compute a digit sum. The process continues. Let n be a natural number. For base b > 1, we define the digit sum F b: N → N to be the following: F b = ∑ i = 0 k − 1 d i where k = ⌊ log b ⁡ n ⌋ + 1 is the number of digits in the number in base b, d i = n mod b i + 1 − n mod b i b i is the value of each digit of the number. A natural number n is a digital root if it is a fixed point for F b, which occurs if F b = n. All natural numbers n are preperiodic points for F b, regardless of the base; this is because if n ≥ b n = ∑ i = 0 k − 1 d i b i and therefore F b = ∑ i = 0 k − 1 d i < ∑ i = 0 k − 1 d i b i = n because b > 1. If n < b trivially F b = n Therefore, the only possible digital roots are the natural numbers 0 ≤ n < b, there are no cycles other than the fixed points of 0 ≤ n < b. In base 12, 8 is the multiplicative digital root of the base 10 number 3110, as for n = 3110 d 0 = 3110 mod 12 0 + 1 − 3110 mod 1 2 0 12 0 = 3110 mod 12 − 3110 mod 1 1 = 2 − 0 1 = 2 1 = 2 d 1 = 3110 mod 12 1 + 1 − 3110 mod 1 2 1 12 1 = 3110 mod 144 − 3110 mod 1 2 12 = 86 − 2 12 = 84 12 = 7 d 2 = 3110 mod 12 2 + 1 − 3110 mod 1 2 2 12 2 = 3110 mod 1728 − 3110 mod 1 44 144 = 1382 − 86 144 = 1296 144 = 9 d 3 = 3110 mod 12 3

BCFS Health and Human Services

BCFS Health and Human Services is a U. S. 501 organization based in San Antonio, specializing in emergency shelter, foster care, adoption. It was founded as an orphanage in 1944. By 2014, BCFS ran two large temporary detention centers and six permanent shelters for unaccompanied migrant minors. In 2015, BCFS received more funding than any other Office of Refugee Resettlement contractor and nearly a quarter of total funding designated for the unaccompanied minor's program. In 2000, BCFS was a partner with Texas Youth Commission and Bexar County Juvenile Probation in establishing the first transition center in Texas for youth aging out of foster care with a grant from United States Department of Labor. Former Major League Baseball pitcher Jimmy Morris was hired as a motivational speaker in 2015, saying "It's my job to tell the kids what they're capable of... It's not about me. It's about what God can do through me."BCFS has operated Guadalupe Street Coffee and Westside Community Center in San Antonio as a service to area youth and their families in partnership with city agencies, non-profits, faith-based organizations.

BCFS coordinated shelter for the 462 children displaced from YFZ Ranch in 2008. Affiliate Baptist Children’s Home Youth Ranch was adapted to support keeping large amounts of siblings together. In 2017, a 10 year-old girl with cerebal palsy was arrested after traveling in an ambulance unaccompanied for a gall bladder operation. Representative Joaquin Castro attempted to visit her at BCFS shelter and was refused access while her deportation status was being determined. District judge Fred Biery suggested; the child was released without deportation following objections from the ACLU. BCFS operated Tornillo tent city, the largest detention camp for minors at the time, June 2018-January 2019. In December 2018 it is estimated that the camp held more than 2,800 minors from Central America, employed 2,000 people. CEO Kevin Dinnin claimed that the organization was pressured to expand their operations by the federal government. Dinnin notified the Department of Health and Human Services on December 17 that the organization would not accept additional detainees.

It was announced the following day that controversial fingerprinting requirements would be rolled back to expedite sponsorships. Conditions of the camp were not subject to scrutiny by state agencies and standard FBI fingerprint background checks for employees were waived, raising alarm about the safety of detained minors. Employees at Wayfair staged a walk out in protest of a contract with BCFS for a minor detention facility in Carrizo Springs, Texas, a former Stratton Oilfield Systems "man camp" that has estimated capacity for 1,000 detainees. Official website BCFS Health and Human Services Interactive: Federal Children's Shelters in Texas

National Museum of Korean Contemporary History

The National Museum of Korean Contemporary History, which opened on December 26, 2012, is dedicated to the modern and contemporary history of the Republic of Korea. It collects, preserves and exhibits objects related to the history of modern and contemporary Korea, it is located at Saejongdae-ro 198, Jongno-gu, near the Gyeongbokgung Palace. The museum features four permanent exhibition halls which cover the period from the late 19th century to the present, with the themes of ‘Prelude to the Republic of Korea', ‘Foundation of the Republic of Korea', ‘Development of the Republic of Korea' and ‘Modernization and Korea's Vision of Future'; the Museum includes a children’s museum and a special exhibition gallery which enables visitors to explore modern and contemporary Korean history through various themes and topics. It offers education programs and cultural events. Admission is free. 2008-08-15: President declares plan to construct a museum on Korean modern history on Liberation Day speech 2009-02-11: Regulation on the Committee for the National Museum of the Republic of Korea is enacted 2009-04-16: Committee for the National Museum of the Republic of Korea is established 2009-05-04: Committee for the Founding of the National Museum of the Republic of Korea is established 2009-10-19: Name is changed to "The National Museum of Korean Contemporary History" 2010-11-25: Museum's groundbreaking ceremony is held 2012-05-23: Construction of the Museum is completed 2012-09-01: Museum administration is established 2012-12-17: "Kim Wang Sik", the inaugural director, takes office 2012-12-26: Museum opens 2014-02-17: Reorganization of the National Museum of Korean Contemporary History,“Education & Communication Division” divided into “Cultural Relations & Publicity Division“ and ”Education Division“ 2015-07-20: Reorganization of the National Museum of Korean Contemporary History, “Chief Curator’s Office” newly established, “Planning & General Affairs Division“ renamed as “General Administration Division”, “Research Division” renamed as “Research & Planning Division” 2015-12-03: Special Exhibition Hall 1 and 2 have been extended 2016-01-25: "Kim Yong-Jick", inaugurated as the 2nd Director 2017-11-01: "Chin Oh, Chu", inaugurated as the 3rd Director National Museum of Korean Contemporary History - official site