An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, theatre, video games, or academics in any medium. Audience members participate in different ways in different kinds of art. Media audience studies have become a recognized part of the curriculum. Audience theory offers scholarly insight into audiences in general; these insights shape our knowledge of just how audiences affect and are affected by different forms of art. The biggest art form is the mass media. Films, video games, radio shows and other formats are affected by the audience and its reviews and recommendations. In the age of easy internet participation and citizen journalism, professional creators share space, sometimes attention with the public. American journalist Jeff Jarvis said, "Give the people control of media, they will use it; the corollary: Don't give the people control of media, you will lose. Whenever citizens can exercise control, they will." Tom Curley, President of the Associated Press said, "The users are deciding what the point of their engagement will be — what application, what device, what time, what place."
In rhetoric, some audiences depend on circumstance and situation, are characterized by the individuals that make up the audience. Sometimes these audiences are subject to engage with the ideas of the speaker. Ranging in size and composition, this audience may come together and form a "composite" of multiple groups. An immediate audience is a type of audience, composed of individuals who are face-to-face subjects with a speaker and a speaker's rhetorical text or speech; this audience directly listens to, engages with, consumes the rhetorical text in an unmediated fashion. In measuring immediate audience reception and feedback, one can depend on personal interviews and verbal comments made during and after a rhetorical speech. In contrast to immediate audiences, mediated audiences are composed of individuals who consume rhetorical texts in a manner, different from the time or place in which a speaker presents text. Audiences who consume texts or speeches through television and internet are considered mediated audiences because those mediums separate the rhetor and the audience.
Such audiences are physically away from the audience and the message is controlled. Understanding the size and composition of mediated audiences can be difficult because mediums such as television and Internet can displace the audience from the time and circumstance of a rhetorical text or speech. In measuring mediated audience reception and feedback, one can depend on opinion polls and ratings, as well as comments and forums that may be featured on a website; this applies to may fields such as movies and much more. There are companies. Theoretical audiences are imagined for the purpose of helping a speaker compose, practice, or a critic to understand, a rhetorical text or speech; when a rhetor considers and deliberates over the content of the ideas they are conveying, it can be said that these individuals are addressing the audience of self, or self-deliberating. Scholars Chaim Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca, in their book The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, argue that the rhetor "is in a better position than anyone else to test the value of his own arguments."
The audience of self, while not serving as the ends to all rhetorical purpose or circumstance acts as a type of audience that not only operates as a function of self-help, but as instrument used to discover the available means of persuasion. The universal audience is an imagined audience that serves as an ethical and argumentative test for the rhetor; this requires the speaker to imagine a composite audience that contains individuals from diverse backgrounds and to discern whether or not the content of the rhetorical text or speech would appeal to individuals within that audience. Scholars Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca ascertain that the content addressed to a universal audience "must convince the reader that the reasons adduced are of a compelling character, that they are self-evident, possess an absolute and timeless validity"; the concept of the universal audience has received criticism for being idealistic because it can be considered as an impediment in achieving persuasive effect with particular audiences.
Yet, it still may be useful as an ethical guide for a speaker and a critical tool for a reader or audience. An ideal audience is a rhetor's imagined, intended audience. In creating a rhetorical text, a rhetor imagines is the target audience, a group of individuals that will be addressed, persuaded, or affected by the speech or rhetorical text; this type of audience is not imagined as the most receptive audience, but as the future particular audience that the rhetor will engage with. Imagining such an audience allows a rhetor to formulate appeals that will grant success in engaging with the future particular audience. In considering an ideal audience, a rhetor can imagine future conditions of mediation, size and shared beliefs among the audience to be persuaded. An implied audience is an imaginary audience determined by an auditor or reader as the text's constructed audience; the implied audience is not the actual audience, but the one that can be inferred by reading or analyzing the text. Communications scholar Edwin Black, in his essay, The Second Persona, presents the theoretical concep
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term. Definitions can be classified into two large categories, intensional definitions and extensional definitions. Another important category of definitions is the class of ostensive definitions, which convey the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, thus require multiple definitions. In mathematics, a definition is used to give a precise meaning to a new term, instead of describing a pre-existing term. Definitions and axioms are the basis. In modern usage, a definition is something expressed in words, that attaches a meaning to a word or group of words; the word or group of words, to be defined is called the definiendum, the word, group of words, or action that defines it is called the definiens. In the definition "An elephant is a large gray animal native to Asia and Africa", the word "elephant" is the definiendum, everything after the word "is" is the definiens; the definiens is not the meaning of the word defined, but is instead something that conveys the same meaning as that word.
There are many sub-types of definitions specific to a given field of knowledge or study. These include, among many others, lexical definitions, or the common dictionary definitions of words in a language. An intensional definition called a connotative definition, specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for a thing being a member of a specific set. Any definition that attempts to set out the essence of something, such as that by genus and differentia, is an intensional definition. An extensional definition called a denotative definition, of a concept or term specifies its extension, it is a list naming every object, a member of a specific set. Thus, the "seven deadly sins" can be defined intensionally as those singled out by Pope Gregory I as destructive of the life of grace and charity within a person, thus creating the threat of eternal damnation. An extensional definition would be the list of wrath, sloth, lust and gluttony. In contrast, while an intensional definition of "Prime Minister" might be "the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system", an extensional definition is not possible since it is not known who future prime ministers will be.
A genus–differentia definition is a type of intensional definition that takes a large category and narrows it down to a smaller category by a distinguishing characteristic. More formally, a genus-differentia definition consists of: a genus: An existing definition that serves as a portion of the new definition; the differentia: The portion of the new definition, not provided by the genus. For example, consider the following genus-differentia definitions: a triangle: A plane figure that has three straight bounding sides. A quadrilateral: A plane figure that has four straight bounding sides; those definitions can be expressed as two differentiae. It is possible to have two different genus-differentia definitions that describe the same term when the term describes the overlap of two large categories. For instance, both of these genus-differentia definitions of "square" are acceptable: a square: a rectangle, a rhombus. A square: a rhombus, a rectangle. Thus, a "square" is a member of both the genus "rectangle" and the genus "rhombus".
One important form of the extensional definition is ostensive definition. This gives the meaning of a term by pointing, in the case of an individual, to the thing itself, or in the case of a class, to examples of the right kind. So one can explain; the process of ostensive definition itself was critically appraised by Ludwig Wittgenstein. An enumerative definition of a concept or term is an extensional definition that gives an explicit and exhaustive listing of all the objects that fall under the concept or term in question. Enumerative definitions are only possible for finite sets and only practical for small sets. Divisio and partitio are classical terms for definitions. A partitio is an intensional definition. A divisio is not an extensional definition, but an exhaustive list of subsets of a set, in the sense that every member of the "divided" set is a member of one of the subsets. An extreme form of divisio lists all sets; the difference between this and an extensional definition is that extensional definitions list members, not subsets.
In classical thought, a definition was taken to be a statement of the essence of a thing. Aristotle had it that an object's essential attributes form its "essential nature", that a definition of the object must include these essential attributes; the idea that a definition should state the essence of a thing led to the distinction between nominal and real essence, originating with Aristotle. In
Conversation is interactive communication between two or more people. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is an important part of socialization; the development of conversational skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and learning. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific focus on conversational interaction. No accepted definition of conversation exists, beyond the fact that a conversation involves at least two people talking together; the term is defined by what it is not. A ritualized exchange such as a mutual greeting is not a conversation, an interaction that includes a marked status differential is not a conversation. An interaction with a focused topic or purpose is generally not considered a conversation. Summarizing these properties, one authority writes that "Conversation is the kind of speech that happens informally and for the purposes of establishing and maintaining social ties."From a less technical perspective, a writer on etiquette in the early 20th century defined conversation as the polite give and take of subjects thought of by people talking with each other for company.
Conversations follow rules of etiquette because conversations are social interactions, therefore depend on social convention. Specific rules for conversation arise from the cooperative principle. Failure to adhere to these rules causes the conversation to deteriorate or to end. Contributions to a conversation are responses to what has been said. Conversations may be the optimal form of communication, depending on the participants' intended ends. Conversations may be ideal when, for example, each party desires a equal exchange of information, or when the parties desire to build social ties. On the other hand, if permanency or the ability to review such information is important, written communication may be ideal. Or if time-efficient communication is most important, a speech may be preferable. Conversation involves a implied context that lies beneath just the words. Conversation is face-to-face person-to-person at the same time – online with video applications such as Skype, but might include audio-only phone calls.
It would not include internet written communication which tends to be asynchronous and does not fit the'con'='with' in'conversation'. In face to face conversation it has been suggested that 85% of the communication is non-verbal/body language – a smile, a frown, a shrug, tone of voice conveying much added meaning to the mere words. Short forms of written communication such as sms are thus misunderstood, yet the convenience and apparent control makes them popular now that many people seem to prefer to communicate via short text or Facebook post and/or'like' than meeting face to face. Face to face conversation is deemed less important when people have seen all the relevant news about the other person they have shared online. People would never say face to face some things they might write with the apparent impunity of anonymous online posts. To this extent the decreasing popularity of face to face conversation can be seen as a loss to society and civility. Banter is short witty sentences that bounce forth between individuals.
Banter uses clever put-downs and witty insults, misunderstandings, zippy wisecracks, zingers and puns. The idea is each line of banter should "top" the one before it and in short a verbal war of wit without any physical contact. Films that have used banter as a way of structure in conversations are: The Big Sleep His Girl Friday Bringing Up Baby Important factors in delivering a banter is the subtext and the rapport with the person; every line in a banter should be able to evoke both an emotional response and ownership without hurting one's feelings. Following a structure that the involved parties understand is important if the subject and structure is absurd, a certain level of progression should be kept in a manner that it connects with the involved parties. Different methods of story telling could be used in delivering banter, like making an unexpected turn in the flow of structure, taking the conversation towards an expected crude form with evoking questions, self-conscientiousness or layering the existing pattern with multiple anchors...etc.
It is important to quit the bantering with the sensibility of playground rules, both parties shouldn't obsess on topping each other, continuously after a certain point of interest. It is as Shakespeare said "Brevity is the soul of wit." One element of conversation is discussion: sharing opinions on subjects that are thought of during the conversation. In polite society the subject changes before discussion becomes controversial. For example, if theology is being discussed,maybe no one is insisting a particular view be accepted. Many conversations can be divided into four categories according to their major subject content: Subjective ideas, which serve to extend understanding and awareness. Objective facts, which may serve to consolidate a held view. Other people, which may be either critical, competitive, or supportive; this includes gossip. Oneself, which sometimes indicate attention-seeking behavior or can provide relevant information about oneself to participants in the conversation. Few conversations fall i
Composition studies is the professional field of writing and instruction, focusing on writing at the college level in the United States. In many American colleges and universities, undergraduate students must take freshman—sometimes higher—composition courses. Over seventy American universities offer doctoral study in rhetoric and composition, programs which include study of composition pedagogical theory, research methodologies in rhetoric and composition, the history of rhetoric. Many composition scholars study not only the theory and practice of post-secondary writing instruction, but the influence of different writing conventions and genres on writers' composing processes. Composition scholars publish in the fields of teaching English as a second or foreign language, writing centers, new literacies. Most US universities have a required first-year composition course referred to as FYC; this is not the same as a literature course, which focuses on literary analysis and interpretation, although some colleges and universities do incorporate literature and other humanities into their composition courses.
Writing curricula vary from institution to institution, but it may emphasize many stages of different writing processes, different forms of writing, different portions of the written product, along with different modalities of composing to expand the concept of'writing'. Pedagogies or approaches to teaching writing are grounded in a range of different traditions and philosophies; some universities require further instruction in writing and offer courses that expand upon the skills developed in First-year composition. Second level or advanced composition may emphasize forms of argumentation and persuasion, digital media and source documentation formats, and/or genres of writing across a range of disciplines and genres. For example, the skills required to write business letters or annual reports will differ from those required to write historical or scientific research or personal memoirs. Doctoral programs in Composition Studies are available at more than seventy universities and Masters's programs are available in over 170 universities.
Such programs are housed within English Studies or Education programs. However there are an increasing number of departments dedicated to this field of study. Second language writing is the practice of teaching English composition to non native speakers and writers of English. Teaching writing to ESL students does not receive much attention because in ESL classes teachers focus on speaking and reading, not just writing. Paul Kei Matsuda in his article "Situating ESL Writing in a Cross-Disciplinary Context" stresses the importance of teaching writing with understanding the needs of ESL students to help them improve their writing. Teaching writing has progressed through several approaches during the history of education in the United States. ESL teachers might need to explore common methods which are the cognitive and expressive theories to create an approach that meets the needs of ESL writers and help them to overcome their difficulties; the first one of these approaches is the cognitive view which says that writing is progressing from one stage to another in a series of single steps.
That means "good" writing is a planned process, which includes planning and reviewing. "Understanding Composing" by Sondra Perl explains in detail this approach. She suggests, she took this idea from her observation of different writers. She thinks that writers return to "backwards" parts of the process in order to move "forward" with the overall composition. ESL teachers may find this approach helpful at first in teaching beginning ESL students because at this level students do not have large amounts of vocabulary and grammar or knowledge of the style of essays, the basis of writing English. Al-Buainain Haifa in her article "Student Writing Errors in EFL," points out that, when a researcher asked ESL students by using a survey what they would like to have learned or learned better in their writing classes, they found that the largest percentages expressed specific needs in vocabulary and grammar. Many kinds of grammar make ESL students confused because there are many exceptions; because writing styles are different in different languages, ESL students need time to master them.
Therefore, ESL teachers should find an effective way to teach ESL students vocabulary and style because the writing of English requires them. The cognitive approach can meet these needs because it emphasizes the steps and process of writing. Another approach is the social view which shows the importance of teaching writing by making students learn the different languages of discourse communities; this is what David Bartholomae emphasizes in his article "Inventing the University". He uses "Inventing the University" as a phrase that describes the writing process that a student will experience when writing teachers ask them to write about a topic that relates with
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work. Plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, it is subject to sanctions such as penalties and expulsion from school or work. Cases of "extreme plagiarism" have been identified in academia; the modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe in the 18th century with the Romantic movement. Plagiarism is not in itself a crime. In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense. Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a considerable extent, but they are not equivalent concepts, many types of plagiarism do not constitute copyright infringement, defined by copyright law and may be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism is not punished by law, but rather by institutions. In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses".
Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft. The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620; the Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", plagium, "kidnapping", have the root plaga, based on the Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave". Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud. "Plagiarism" is not mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil. Some cases may be treated as a violation of the doctrine of moral rights; the increased availability of copyrighted material due to the development of information technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal. In short, people are asked to use the guideline, "if you did not write it yourself, you must give credit".
Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, false claims of authorship constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience. Plagiarism is considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is supposed to be original content. In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong. Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, articulated honor codes. Indeed, there is a uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong; each year students are brought before their institutions’ disciplinary boards on charges that they have misused sources in their schoolwork." However, the practice of plagiarizing by use of sufficient word substitutions to elude detection software, known as rogeting, has evolved as students and unethical academics seek to stay ahead of detection software. An extreme form of plagiarism, known as contract cheating involves students paying someone else, such as an essay mill, to do their work for them. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, reporters caught plagiarizing face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment.
Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Predicated upon an expected level of learning/comprehension having been achieved, all associated academic accreditation becomes undermined if plagiarism is allowed to become the norm within academic submissions. For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are heard by internal disciplinary committees, by which students and professors have agreed to
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character", used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions and morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way; the word's use in rhetoric is based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion. Ethos is a Greek word meaning "accustomed place", "custom, habit", equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos, meaning "moral, showing moral character"; as an adjective in the neuter plural form ta ethika, used for the study of morals, it is the origin of the modern English word ethics. In modern usage, ethos denotes the disposition, character, or fundamental values particular to a specific person, corporation, culture, or movement. For example, the poet and critic T. S. Eliot wrote in 1940 that "the general ethos of the people they have to govern determines the behaviour of politicians".
The historian Orlando Figes wrote in 1996 that in Soviet Russia of the 1920s "the ethos of the Communist party dominated every aspect of public life". Ethos may change in response to new forces. For example, according to the Jewish historian Afrie Krampf, ideas of economic modernization which were imported into Palestine in the 1930s brought about "the abandonment of the agrarian ethos and the reception of...the ethos of rapid development". In rhetoric, ethos is one of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion discussed by Aristotle in'Rhetoric' as a component of argument. Speakers must establish ethos from the start; this can involve "moral competence" only. Ethos is limited, by what the speaker says. Others however contend that a speaker's ethos extends to and is shaped by the overall moral character and history of the speaker—that is, what people think of his or her character before the speech has begun. According to Aristotle, there are three categories of ethos: phronesis – useful skills & wisdom arete – virtue, goodwill eunoia – goodwill towards the audienceIn a sense, ethos does not belong to the speaker but to the audience.
Thus, it is the audience. Violations of ethos include: The speaker has a direct interest in the outcome of the debate. Dismissing an argument based on any of the above violations of ethos is an informal fallacy; the argument may indeed be suspect. For Aristotle, a speaker's ethos was a rhetorical strategy employed by an orator whose purpose was to "inspire trust in his audience". Ethos was therefore achieved through the orator's "good sense, good moral character, goodwill", central to Aristotelian virtue ethics was the notion that this "good moral character" was increased in virtuous degree by habit. Aristotle links virtue and ethos most succinctly in Book II of Nichomachean Ethics: "Virtue being of two kinds and moral, intellectual virtue in the main owes both its birth and its growth to teaching while moral virtue comes about as a result of habit, whence its name ethike is one, formed by a slight variation from the word ethos". Discussing women and rhetoric, scholar Karlyn Kohrs Campbell notes that entering the public sphere was considered an act of moral transgression for females of the nineteenth century: "Women who formed moral reform and abolitionist societies, who made speeches, held conventions, published newspapers, entered the public sphere and thereby lost their claims to purity and piety".
Crafting an ethos within such restrictive moral codes, meant adhering to membership of what Nancy Fraser and Michael Warner have theorized as counterpublics. While Warner contends that members of counterpublics are afforded little opportunity to join the dominant public and therefore exert true agency, Nancy Fraser has problematized Habermas's conception of the public sphere as a dominant "social totality" by theorizing "subaltern counterpublics", which function as alternative publics that represent "parallel discursive arenas where members of subordinated social groups invent and circulate counterdiscourses, which in turn permit them to formulate oppositional interpretations of their identities and needs". Though feminist rhetorical theorists have begun to offer more nuanced ways to conceive of ethos, they remain cognizant of how these classical associations have shaped and still do shape women's use of the rhetorical tool. Johanna Schmertz draws on Aristotelian ethos to reinterpret the term alongside feminist theories of subjectivity, writing that, "Instead of following a tradition that, it seems to me, reads ethos somewhat in the manner of an Aristotelian quality proper to the speaker's identity, a quality capable of being deployed as needed to fit a rhetorical situation, I will ask how ethos may be dislodged from identity and read in such a way as to multiply the positions from which women may speak".
Rhetorical scholar and professor Kate Ronald's claim that "ethos is the appeal residing in
Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. As a narrative, philosophical or didactic device, it is chiefly associated in the West with the Socratic dialogue as developed by Plato, but antecedents are found in other traditions including Indian literature. In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Martin Buber, David Bohm. Although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional and context-dependent process of creating meaning. Educators such as Freire and Ramón Flecha have developed a body of theory and techniques for using egalitarian dialogue as a pedagogical tool; the term dialogue stems from the Greek διάλογος. The first extant author who uses the term is Plato, in whose works it is associated with the art of dialectic. Latin took over the word as dialogus.
Dialogue as a genre in the Middle East and Asia dates back to ancient works, such as Sumerian disputations preserved in copies from the late third millennium BC, Rigvedic dialogue hymns and the Mahabharata. In the East, In 13th century Japan, dialogue was used in important philosophical works. In the 1200s, Nichiren Daishonin wrote some of his important writings in dialogue form, describing a meeting between two characters in order to present his argument and theory, such as in "Conversation between a Sage and an Unenlightened Man", "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land", while in other writings he used a question and answer format, without the narrative scenario, such as in "Questions and Answers about Embracing the Lotus Sutra"; the sage or person answering the questions was understood as the author. In the West, Plato has been credited with the systematic use of dialogue as an independent literary form. Ancient sources indicate, that the Platonic dialogue had its foundations in the mime, which the Sicilian poets Sophron and Epicharmus had cultivated half a century earlier.
These works and imitated by Plato, have not survived and we have only the vaguest idea of how they may have been performed. The Mimes of Herodas, which were found in a papyrus in 1891, give some idea of their character. Plato further simplified the form and reduced it to pure argumentative conversation, while leaving intact the amusing element of character-drawing. By about 400 BC he had perfected the Socratic dialogue. All his extant writings, except the Apology and Epistles, use this form. Following Plato, the dialogue became a major literary genre in antiquity, several important works both in Latin and in Greek were written. Soon after Plato, Xenophon wrote his own Symposium. Two French writers of eminence borrowed the title of Lucian's most famous collection. Contemporaneously, in 1688, the French philosopher Nicolas Malebranche published his Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion, thus contributing to the genre's revival in philosophic circles. In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue did not see extensive use until Berkeley employed it, in 1713, for his treatise, Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous.
His contemporary, the Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. A prominent 19th-century example of literary dialogue was Landor's Imaginary Conversations. In Germany, Wieland adopted this form for several important satirical works published between 1780 and 1799. In Spanish literature, the Dialogues of Valdés and those on Painting by Vincenzo Carducci are celebrated. Italian writers of collections of dialogues, following Plato's model, include Torquato Tasso, Galiani, a host of others. In the 19th century, the French returned to the original application of dialogue; the inventions of "Gyp", of Henri Lavedan, of others, which tell a mundane anecdote wittily and maliciously in conversation, would present a close analogy to the lost mimes of the early Sicilian poets. English writers including Anstey Guthrie adopted the form, but these dialogues seem to have found less of a popular following among the English than their counterparts written by French authors; the Platonic dialogue, as a distinct genre which features Socrates as a speaker and one or more interlocutors discussing some philosophical question, experienced something of a rebirth in the 20th century.
Authors who have employed it include George Santayana, in his eminent Dialogues in Limbo. Edith Stein and Iris Murdoch used the dialogue form. Stein imagined a dialogue between Thomas Aquinas. Murdoch included not only Socrates and Alcibiades as interlocutors in her work Acastos: Two Platonic Dialogues, but featured a young Plato himself as well. More Timothy Williamson wrote Tetralogue, a philosophical exchange on a train between four people with radically different epistemological views. Martin Buber assigns dialogue a pivotal position in his theology, his most influential wor