Eisenhuth Horseless Vehicle Company
Eisenhuth Horseless Vehicle Company was a manufacturer of Brass Age automobiles who were based in New York City. In 1902 the company purchased the Keating Wheel and Automobile Company and established manufacturing operations in Middletown, Connecticut. During 1903, the company merged with the Graham Fox Motor Car Company, absorbing that firm and expanding operations in Middletown. In 1904, the company was sued by Colonel Frank A. Fox of the Graham Fox Motor Car Company, who claimed that he had "invented certain essential features of the motors now being made by the Eisenhuth company," and went bankrupt in 1907. In 1909, the Eisenhuth factory was sold to the "Noiseless Typewriter Company."Their automobile was an unusual model called the Compound with three cylinders. Two were working cylinders, the larger middle one further expanded the exhaust gases of the outer working cylinders, this concept received the name:'5-Stroke engine'; the 1904 Compound was a touring car model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat 7 passengers and sold for $6000 to 8000.
The vertical-mounted straight-3, situated at the front of the car, produced 35 hp. A 3-speed sliding gear transmission was fitted; the car weighed 3100 lb. Brass Era car List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly Patents ES0156621.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. Compounding, composition or nominal composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes; that is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words or signs are joined to make one longer word or sign. The meaning of the compound may be similar to or different from the meaning of its components in isolation; the component stems of a compound may be of the same part of speech—as in the case of the English word footpath, composed of the two nouns foot and path—or they may belong to different parts of speech, as in the case of the English word blackbird, composed of the adjective black and the noun bird. With few exceptions, English compound words are stressed on their first component stem; the process occurs in other Germanic languages for different reasons. Words can be concatenated both to mean the same as the sum of two words or where an adjective and noun are compounded; the addition of affix morphemes to words should not be confused with nominal composition, as this is morphological derivation.
Some languages form compounds from what in other languages would be a multi-word expression. This can result in unusually long words, a phenomenon known in German as Bandwurmwörter or tapeworm words. Sign languages have compounds, they are created by combining two or more sign stems. Compound formation rules vary across language types. In a synthetic language, the relationship between the elements of a compound may be marked with a case or other morpheme. For example, the German compound Kapitänspatent consists of the lexemes Kapitän and Patent joined by an -s-. Conversely, in the Hebrew language compound, the word בֵּית סֵפֶר bet sefer, it is the head, modified: the compound means "house-of book", with בַּיִת bayit having entered the construct state to become בֵּית bet; this latter pattern is common throughout the Semitic languages, though in some it is combined with an explicit genitive case, so that both parts of the compound are marked. Agglutinative languages tend to create long words with derivational morphemes.
Compounds may not require the use of derivational morphemes also. The longest compounds in the world may be found in the Germanic languages. In German extendable compound words can be found in the language of chemical compounds, where, in the cases of biochemistry and polymers, they can be unlimited in length because the German rule suggests combining all noun adjuncts with the noun as the last stem. German examples include Farbfernsehgerät, Funkfernbedienung, the quoted jocular word Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmütze, which can of course be made longer and more absurd, e.g. Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmützenreinigungsausschreibungsverordnungsdiskussionsanfang etc. According to several editions of the Guinness Book of World Records, the longest published German word has 79 letters and is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft, but there is no evidence that this association actually existed. In Finnish, although there is theoretically no limit to the length of compound words, words consisting of more than three components are rare.
Those with less than three components can look mysterious to non-Finnish speakers, such as hätäuloskäynti. Internet folklore sometimes suggests that lentokonesuihkuturbiinimoottoriapumekaanikkoaliupseerioppilas is the longest word in Finnish, but evidence of it being used is scant and anecdotal at best. Compounds can be rather long when translating technical documents from English to some other language, since the lengths of the words are theoretically unlimited in chemical terminology. For example, when translating an English technical document to Swedish, the term "Motion estimation search range settings" can be directly translated to rörelseuppskattningssökintervallsinställningar, though in reality, the word would most be divided in two: sökintervallsinställningar för rörelseuppskattning – "search range settings for motion estimation". A common semantic classification of compounds yields four types: endocentric exocentric copulative appositionalAn endocentric compound consists of a head, i.e. the categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole compound, modifiers, which restrict this meaning.
For example, the English compound doghouse, where house is the head and dog is the modifier, is understood as a house intended for a dog. Endocentric compounds tend to be of the same part of speech as their head, as in the case of doghouse. An exocentric compound is a hyponym of some unexpressed semantic category (such as a person, plant, or anima
Compound chocolate is a product made from a combination of cocoa, vegetable fat and sweeteners. It is used as a lower-cost alternative to true chocolate, as it uses less-expensive hard vegetable fats such as coconut oil or palm kernel oil in place of the more expensive cocoa butter, it may be known as "compound coating" or "chocolatey coating" when used as a coating for candy. It is used in less expensive candy bars to replace enrobed chocolate on a product. Cocoa butter must be tempered to maintain coating. A chocolatier tempers chocolate by cooling the chocolate mass below its setting point rewarming the chocolate to between 31 and 32 °C for milk chocolate, or between 32 and 33 °C for semi-sweet chocolate. Compound coatings, however, do not need to be tempered. Instead, they are warmed to between 3 and 5 °C above the coating's melting point. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate an emulsifier made from castor beans used in compound chocolate Types of chocolate
The Compound known as Street Patterns or The Grid, is an area in southwestern Palm Bay, similar to Flagler Estates. It is a undeveloped area of some 200 miles of paved road. General Development Corporation began development of the area in the 1980s, but went bankrupt in 1991. Bombardier Boulevard: Now home to a facility for Bombardier Recreational Products, after which the road was renamed. Gamrott Street Olsen Street Gatsin Street Hammonton Street Hanford Road Gamewell Road Gaspar Street Heritage Street Emerson Drive: Paved, renamed Osmosis Drive as of late 2009. Olean Street Olsmar Street: Paved as of late 2009. Galicia Street Lachine Street Ocarina Street Friendly Street Fitchburg Street: Paved as of late 2009. Garder Road Olin Road Felton Street Fredrick Street Frazer Street Labra Road Haines Road Franzing Road La Fleur Street Faulkner Street St. Andre Boulevard: Paved as of 2016 for use in the recent St. Johns Heritage Parkway extension. Most roads in the area have not since been repaved.
The Compound is located at 27°56′08″N 80°42′11″W. The area of The Compound is 12.2 square miles. To the west is the St. Johns River and Three Forks Marsh. To the southeast is Deer Run. To the east is Bayside Lakes, to the north is Palm Bay Regional Park; the average elevation is 10 feet above sea level. A section of Palm Bay is home to the first city-run paintball park known as Hurricane Paintball Park. Discharge of a paintball gun is illegal within the city of Palm Bay, except at a municipal paintball field. In response to complaints of illegal paintball games within the compound, the Palm Bay City Council ordered the Palm Bay Department of Parks and Recreation to develop a city paintball park as a safe and affordable place to play paintball within the city. Constructed with city funds, materials donated by local businesses and volunteer labor provided by local paintball players, the park has suffered several closures due to management issues, allegations of wrongdoing by contractors and budget issues.
The most recent of, "Invincibles Paintball," a commercial paintball field operator that runs additional locations in Port St. Lucie and Fort Pierce; as of December 26, 2009, Fillion Paintball has been in charge of park operations. The compound is used by off-road sports enthusiasts. There are sections of the area; the sand tends to be sugar sand and soft in spots, making it challenging at times. Riding dirt bikes and ATVs off road here is illegal and would be considered trespassing, but as long as the riders refrain from becoming nuisances, they are tolerated; the police have cracked down on off-road use after several events resulting in the death of riders. The northern edge of the property is appealing to dirt bikers and ATV riders because there are some large man-made hills there, but this is private property owned by Bombardier Industries. Used as a means of surveillance by law enforcement, the Palm Bay Police Department began paramotoring in the vicinity of the compound. Para sport enthusiasts since, have used The Compound, due to its large open spaces, contiguous uninhabited areas and skyline free from obstructions for both recreational purposes and training.
As a safe minimal risk operating location for paramotoring, the paramotoring community has contributed much to the preservation of The Compound, by working with law-enforcement, reporting law and traffic violations while providing a general custodianship of the properties. The paramotoring community further enhances public relations, by organizing property maintenance such as mowing, occasional roadway maintenance and trash removal; the air space overhead The Compound and some of the adjacent agricultural and swamp areas, is arguably the least congested airspace in the entire state of Florida. It is therefore an ideal safe haven for the activity, which brings a significant financial revenue to the greater municipal areas of Palm Bay. RC airplane enthusiasts use the stretch of Sapodilla Rd SW by Wishbone Ave SW; the Compound has played host to two annual Tough Mudder events in 2015, 2016 respectively. Both events generated large amounts of revenue for both Palm Bay and surrounding areas that hosted competitors.
As of 2017, it unknown. The St. Johns Heritage Parkway will pass through this portion of Palm Bay as a part of the future connection to the under construction Interstate 95 interchange just north of Micco Rd. construction of this section of the parkway is tentatively set to begin in the early 2020s. Hog Wild Paintball Field Hurricane Paintball Park Tough Mudder
In military science, a compound is a type of fortification made up of walls or fences surrounding several buildings in the center of a large piece of land. The walls can either serve the purpose of being tall and impenetrable, in which case they would be made of wood, stone, or some other like substance. Compounds can be designed to double as living spaces and military structures in the middle of hostile territory or as a military area within a country's territory. A number of survivalists own fortified compound-like structures as a means of protection in case civilization breaks down or their government becomes abusive; the term compound is used to refer to an unfortified enclosure in Africa and Asia. See compound. Stockade Boma Compound Gated community
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. A chemical element bonded to an identical chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element, not two different elements, is involved. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service: its CAS number.
A compound can be converted to a different chemical composition by interaction with a second chemical compound via a chemical reaction. In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the interacting compounds, bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms. Any substance consisting of two or more different types of atoms in a fixed stoichiometric proportion can be termed a chemical compound, it follows from their being composed of fixed proportions of two or more types of atoms that chemical compounds can be converted, via chemical reaction, into compounds or substances each having fewer atoms. The ratio of each element in the compound is expressed in a ratio in its chemical formula. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O.
In the case of non-stoichiometric compounds, the proportions may be reproducible with regard to their preparation, give fixed proportions of their component elements, but proportions that are not integral. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or the subset of chemical complexes that are held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds, failing the two or more atom requirement, though they consist of molecules composed of multiple atoms. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service: its CAS number. There is varying and sometimes inconsistent nomenclature differentiating substances, which include non-stoichiometric examples, from chemical compounds, which require the fixed ratios.
Many solid chemical substances—for example many silicate minerals—are chemical substances, but do not have simple formulae reflecting chemically bonding of elements to one another in fixed ratios. It may be argued that they are related to, rather than being chemical compounds, insofar as the variability in their compositions is due to either the presence of foreign elements trapped within the crystal structure of an otherwise known true chemical compound, or due to perturbations in structure relative to the known compound that arise because of an excess of deficit of the constituent elements at places in its structure. Other compounds regarded as chemically identical may have varying amounts of heavy or light isotopes of the constituent elements, which changes the ratio of elements by mass slightly. Compounds are held together through a variety of different types of bonding and forces; the differences in the types of bonds in compounds differ based on the types of elements present in the compound.
London dispersion forces are the weakest force of all intermolecular forces. They are temporary attractive forces that form when the electrons in two adjacent atoms are positioned so that they create a temporary dipole. Additionally, London dispersion forces are responsible for condensing non polar substances to liquids, to further freeze to a solid state dependent on how low the temperature of the environment is. A covalent bond known as a molecular bond, involves the sharing of electrons between two atoms; this type of bond occurs between elements that fall close to each other on the periodic table of elements, yet it is observed between some metals and nonmetals. This is due to the mechanism of this type of bond. Elements that fall close to each other on the periodic table tend to have similar electronegativities, which means they have a similar affinity for electrons. Since neither element has a stronger affinity to donate or gain electrons, it causes the elements to share electrons so both elements have a more stable octet.
Ionic bonding occurs when valence electrons are transferred between elements. Opposite to covalent bonding, this chemical bond creates two oppositely charged ions; the metals in ionic bonding
Pharmaceutical compounding is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient. To do this, compounding pharmacists process appropriate ingredients using various tools; this may be done for medically necessary reasons, such as to change the form of the medication from a solid pill to a liquid, to avoid a non-essential ingredient that the patient is allergic to, or to obtain the exact dose needed or deemed best of particular active pharmaceutical ingredient. It may be done for more optional reasons, such as adding flavors to a medication or otherwise altering taste or texture. Compounding is most routine in the case of intravenous/parenteral medication by hospital pharmacists, but is offered by owned compounding pharmacies and certain retail pharmacies for various forms of medication. Whether routine or rare, intravenous or oral, etc. when a given drug product is made or modified to have characteristics that are prescribed for an individual patient, it is known as "traditional" compounding.
Due to the rising cost of compounding and the shortage of drugs, many hospitals have shown a tendency to rely more upon large-scale compounding pharmacies to meet their regular requirement of sterile-injectable medications. When compounding is done on bulk production of a given formulation rather than patient-specific production, it is known as "non-traditional" compounding; this development raises concerns about patient safety and makes a case for proper regulatory control and monitoring. Before mass production of medications became widespread, compounding was a routine activity among pharmacists. Community pharmacists who have experience with compounding techniques are now less common. Pharmaceutical compounding has ancient roots. Hunter-gatherer societies had some knowledge of the medicinal properties of the animals, molds and bacteria as well as inorganic minerals within their environment. Ancient civilizations used pharmaceutical compounding for religion, keeping the healthy well, treating the ill and preparing the dead.
These ancient compounders produced the first oils from animals. They discovered the antidotes, they made ointments for wounded perfumes for customers. The earliest chemists were familiar with their uses; these drug artisans compounded a variety of preparations such as medications, incense, ceremonial compounds and cosmetics. Drug compounders seeking gold and the fountain of youth drove the alchemy movement. Alchemy contributed to the creation of modern pharmacy and the principles of pharmacy compounding. In the medieval Islamic world in particular, Muslim pharmacists and chemists developed advanced methods of compounding drugs; the first drugstores were opened by Muslim pharmacists in Baghdad in 754. The modern age of pharmacy compounding began in the 19th century with the isolation of various compounds from coal tar for the purpose of producing synthetic dyes. From this one natural product came the earliest antibacterial sulfa drugs, phenolic compounds made famous by Joseph Lister, plastics. During the 1800s, pharmacists specialized in the raising and compounding of crude drugs.
Crude drugs, like opium, are from natural sources and contain several chemical compounds. The compounding pharmacist extracted these crude drugs using water or alcohol to form extracts and decoctions. Pharmacists began isolating and identifying the active ingredients contained within these crude drug concoctions. Using fractionation or recrystallization, the compounding pharmacist would separate the active ingredients, like morphine, use it in place of the crude drug. During this time modern medicine began. With the isolation of medications from the raw materials or crude drugs came the birth of the modern pharmaceutical company. Pharmacists were trained to compound the preparations made by the drug companies, but they could not do it efficiently on a small scale. So economies of scale, not lack of skill or knowledge, produced the modern pharmaceutical industry. With the turn of the 20th century came greater government regulation of the practice of medicine; these new regulations forced the drug companies to prove that any new medication they brought to market was safe.
With the discovery of penicillin, modern marketing techniques and brand promotion, the drug manufacturing industry came of age. Pharmacists continued to compound most prescriptions until the early 1950s when the majority of dispensed drugs came directly from the large pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical compounding is a branch of pharmacy that continues to play the crucial role of drug development. Compounding pharmacists and medicinal chemists develop and test combinations of active pharmaceuticals and delivery systems for new pharmaceutical formulations so that the active ingredients are effective, easy to use, acceptable to patients. However, for actual clinical trials, production of drug products is considered manufacturing because compounding is defined as being for small batch or single individual patient production only. Physicians may prescribe an individually compounded medication for a patient with an unusual health need; this allows the physician to tailor a prescription to each individual.
Compounding preparations are prevalent for: Patients requiring an individualized compounded formulation to be developed by the pharmacist Patients who cannot take commercially prepared prescriptions Patients requiring limited dosage strengths, such as a small