Chocolate coins, or chocolate money, are foil covered chocolates in the shape of coins. The gift of chocolate coins to children is a Christmas tradition in parts of Europe, may occur on Saint Nicholas' Day. Chocolate coins have been incorporated into Jewish celebrations, as Hanukkah gelt and St. Patrick's Day as gifts left behind from Leprechauns the night before; as a Christmas tradition, the chocolate coin giving is said to be inspired by the deeds of Saint Nicholas in the fourth century, with chocolate coins introduced some time after chocolate's introduction into Europe in the sixteenth century. In the United Kingdom chocolate coins mimic the design of real money; when children visit a friend or relative they are allowed to find and take chocolates from the tree as a treat. A variant of this is that chocolate coins are hidden somewhere in the house for children to find in the form of a treasure trail. Hanukkah gelt List of candies
Chocolate is a sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods; the earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs, with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including Aztecs. Indeed, the word "chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl; the seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried and roasted; the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor; the liquor may be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar.
Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than it contains cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter and milk, but no cocoa solids. Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist desserts, including cakes, mousse, chocolate brownies, chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Valentine's Day, Hanukkah. Chocolate is used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.
Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, continued exploitation of child labor. Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating earlier, to 1900 BC; the residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.
An early Classic-period Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life; the Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink. By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture, they associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice and honey; the Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire.
Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute". Cocoa beans were used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans; the Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, chocolate drinks with sacrificial human blood. The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it turns red.... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself." Until the 16th century, no European had heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade.
Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of t
Chocolate milk is sweetened chocolate-flavored milk. It can be made by mixing chocolate syrup with milk, it can be purchased pre-mixed with milk or made at home by blending milk with cocoa powder and a sweetener, melted chocolate, chocolate syrup, or a pre-made powdered chocolate milk mix. Other ingredients, such as starch, carrageenan, vanilla, or artificial flavoring are sometimes added. To add nutritional value to the product, sometimes some minerals like zinc oxide or iron are added; the carrageenan is used at low concentrations to form an imperceptible weak gel that prevents the large, dense particles of chocolate from sedimentation. Chocolate milk should be refrigerated like unflavored milk, with the exception of some ultra high temperature pasteurized drinks, which can be stored at room temperature. Chocolate milk was first created by Hans Sloane in Ireland during the late 1700s, is served cold; the nutritional qualities of chocolate milk are the subject of debate: while some studies criticize the high sugar content of chocolate milk, other studies suggest that chocolate milk is nutritionally superior to white milk.
Some nutritionists have criticized chocolate milk for its high sugar content and its relationship to childhood obesity. In New York City, school food officials report that nearly 60 percent of the 100 million cartons served each year contain fat-free chocolate milk; because chocolate milk can contain twice as much sugar as plain low-fat milk from added sugars, some school districts have stopped serving the product altogether, including some areas in California and Washington, D. C. According to a nationally representative online survey commissioned by the Innovation Center of U. S. Dairy, seven percent of American adults believe. A number of studies have been issued in regards to chocolate milk nutrition. A 2005 study by the New York City Department of Education found that by removing whole milk and replacing it with low-fat or fat-free chocolate milk, students were served an estimated 5,960 fewer calories and 619 fewer grams of fat per year. However, more recent studies show that fat-free and low-fat milk may increase body fat and contribute to obesity.
Whole milk may in fact be healthier for obese children than non-fat milk. In a study conducted in 2006, researchers stated that the benefits of drinking chocolate milk were due to its ratio of carbohydrates to protein, among other nutritional properties. However, this study was small in scale as it was conducted on only nine athletes and was funded by the dairy industry. Furthermore, the study compared chocolate milk to two energy drinks and unflavored milk was not used as a comparison, so it is unknown if chocolate milk is superior to unflavored milk as a recovery drink. An April 2007 study from Loughborough University indicated that chocolate milk can boost recovery when taken after athletic workouts; the study found. A November 2009 study conducted by scientists in Barcelona, Spain suggests that consuming skimmed milk with cocoa rich in flavonoids may reduce inflammation and slow or prevent the development of atherosclerosis. However, the study notes. A study published in 2009 compared chocolate milk to a commercial recovery beverage administered to cyclists after intense workouts.
The researchers found no difference in post-workout plasma creatine kinase levels and muscle soreness, nor in cycling time to exhaustion. However, being that chocolate milk is less expensive than commercial recovery beverages, the researchers concluded that chocolate milk "serves as a more convenient, cheaper...recovery beverage option for many athletes". A May 2010 sports nutrition study concluded that "exercise recovery during short-term periods of heavy soccer training appears to be similar when isocaloric CM and CHO beverages are consumed post-exercise", yet another study in 2011 at Kean University in New Jersey concluded similar results in male soccer players discovering that there was an increase in time to fatigue when chocolate milk was consumed. The Kean University study viewed chocolate milk's effects on female soccer players undergoing morning and afternoon practices during preseason, they were either given the carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage or chocolate milk between morning and afternoon preseason practices.
Following every afternoon practice, each athlete completed. The study concluded that chocolate milk is just as beneficial as the carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage in promoting recovery in women. There are 5 milligrams of caffeine in each mini carton of chocolate milk. Chocolate has oxalic acid, which reacts with the calcium in the milk producing calcium oxalate, thus preventing the calcium from being absorbed in the intestine. However, it is present in small enough amounts; as chocolate contains small amounts of oxalate, it is unclear to what extent chocolate consumption affects healthy people with calcium-rich diets. In a 2008 study, participants who consumed one or more servings of chocolate on a daily basis had lower bone density and strength than those participants who ate a serving of chocolate six times a week or less. Researchers believe this may be due to oxalate inhibiting calcium absorption – but it could be due to sugar content in chocolate, which may increase calcium excretion, it is clear however, that consuming foods high in oxalate – and in turn their effect on calcium absorption – is a more signi
Cocoa butter called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean. It is used to make chocolate, as well as some ointments and pharmaceuticals. Cocoa butter has aroma, its melting point is just below human body temperature. Cocoa butter is obtained from whole cocoa beans. For use in chocolate manufacture, the beans are fermented before being dried; the beans are roasted and separated from their hulls to produce cocoa nibs. About 54–58% of the cocoa nibs is cocoa butter; the cocoa nibs are ground to form cocoa mass, liquid at temperatures above the melting point of cocoa butter and is known as cocoa liquor or chocolate liquor. Chocolate liquor is pressed to separate the cocoa butter from the non-fat cocoa solids. Cocoa butter is sometimes deodorized to remove undesirable tastes. Cocoa butter contains a high proportion of saturated fats as well as monounsaturated oleic acid, which occurs in each triglyceride; the predominant triglycerides are POS, SOS, POP, where P = palmitic, O = oleic, S = stearic acid residues.
Cocoa butter, unlike non-fat cocoa solids, contains only traces of theobromine. Some food manufacturers substitute less expensive materials such as vegetable oils and fats in place of cocoa butter. Several analytical methods exist for testing for diluted cocoa butter. Adulterated cocoa butter is indicated by its lighter color and its diminished fluorescence upon ultraviolet illumination. Unlike cocoa butter, adulterated fat tends to have a higher non-saponifiable content. Cocoa butter is becoming costly. Substitutes have been designed to use as alternatives. In the United States, 100% cocoa butter must be used for the product to be called chocolate; the EU requires. Substitutes include: coconut, soybean, rapeseed and illipe oils. Cocoa butter is a major ingredient in all types of chocolates; this application continues to dominate consumption of cocoa butter. Pharmaceutical companies use; as a nontoxic solid at room temperature that melts at body temperature, it is considered an ideal base for medicinal suppositories.
For a fat melting around body temperature, cocoa has good stability. This quality, coupled with natural antioxidants, prevents rancidity – giving it a storage life of two to five years; the velvety texture, pleasant fragrance and emollient properties of cocoa butter have made it a popular ingredient in products for the skin, such as soaps and lotions. Cocoa butter has a melting point of around 34–38 °C, so chocolate is solid at room temperature but melts once inside the mouth. Cocoa butter displays polymorphism, having different crystalline forms with different melting points. Conventionally the assignment of cocoa butter crystalline forms uses the nomenclature of Wille and Lutton with forms I, II, III, IV, V and VI having melting points 17.3, 23.3, 25.5, 27.5, 33.8 and 36.3 °C, respectively. The production of chocolate aims to crystallise the chocolate so that the cocoa butter is predominantly in form V, the most stable form that can be obtained from melted cocoa butter.. A uniform form V crystal structure will result in smooth texture and snap.
This structure is obtained by chocolate tempering. Melting the cocoa butter in chocolate and allowing it to solidify without tempering leads to the formation of unstable polymorphic forms of cocoa butter; this can happen when chocolate bars are allowed to melt in a hot room and leads to the formation of white patches on the surface of the chocolate called fat bloom or chocolate bloom
Dark chocolate is a form of chocolate containing cocoa solids, cocoa butter and sugar, without the milk found in milk chocolate. Government and industry standards of what products may be labeled "dark chocolate" vary by country and market. Although dark chocolate has a reputation as a healthier alternative to other types of chocolate, such as milk chocolate, high-quality evidence for significant health benefits, such as on blood pressure, has not been shown; as of 2018, high-quality clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the effects of cocoa compounds on physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure for which only small changes resulted from short-term consumption of chocolate up to 105 grams and 670 milligrams of flavonols per day. In dark chocolate, flavanols include monomers and catechins. Dark chocolate is 1% water, 46% carbohydrates, 43% fat, 8% protein. In a 100 grams reference amount, dark chocolate supplies several dietary minerals in significant content, such as iron at 92% of the Daily Value and vitamin B6 at 29% DV.
Dark chocolate contains 70-100% cocoa solids
Chocolate spread is a sweet chocolate-flavored paste, eaten spread on breads and toasts or similar grain items such as waffles, pancakes and pitas. Although it tastes and looks like chocolate, it does not solidify at room temperature; the paste contains cocoa and vegetable or palm oil, is likely to contain milk and additional flavors. Some varieties include nuts or honey. Chocolate spread is sold in glass jars or plastic tubs. Nutella – Italian Nudossi – German Nugatti – Norwegian Nocilla – Spain Nucrema - Greece List of spreads Cloake, Felicity. "How to make the perfect chocolate spread". The Guardian. Retrieved February 20, 2018. Media related to Chocolate spreads at Wikimedia Commons
History of chocolate in Spain
The history of chocolate in Spain is part of the culinary history of Spain as understood since the 16th century, when the colonization of the Americas began and the cocoa plant was discovered in regions of Mesoamerica, until the present. After the conquest of Mexico, cocoa as a commodity travelled by boat from the port of Nueva España to the Spanish coast; the first such voyage to Europe occurred at an unknown date in the 1520s. However it was only in the 17th century that regular trade began from the port of Veracruz, opening a maritime trade route that would supply the new demand from Spain, from other European countries. Although chocolate wasn't adopted by European societies, it made its way to becoming a high commodity. Once the Europeans realized the societal value of chocolate, they started to incorporate it more into their diet. From the early stages, the cocoa was sweetened with sugar cane, which the Spanish were the first to popularise in Europe. In pre-Columbus America chocolate was flavored with peppers and was a mixture of both bitter and spicy flavours.
This made it an acquired taste and limited its appeal to the Spanish conquistadors, who were soon encouraged to sweeten it with sugar brought from the Iberian Peninsula in addition to heating it. Over a 100-year period since its first appearance in the ports of Andalusia, chocolate became popular as a drink in Spain, where it was served to the Spanish monarchy. However, for a time the formula was unknown in the rest of Europe. Chocolate spread from Spain to the rest of Europe, with the first countries to adopt it being Italy and France; the great popularity of the drink in Spanish society from that time until the 19th century is attested to in various reports written by travellers who visited the Iberian peninsula. It was said that "chocolate is to the Spanish what tea is to the English". In this way chocolate was converted into a national symbol; the unusual fondness for this drink meant that coffee remained unpopular in Spain compared to other European countries. In Spain, chocolate was considered a refreshing drink, it was used in other ways—though there are older Spanish dishes that use cocoa.
After the Spanish Civil War the custom declined in favour of coffee consumption. In modern Spain, traces of the history of the drink can be seen in the chocolate companies, the chocolate shops and museums; the origin of the cacao tree is disputed by modern botanical historians since there are different hypotheses about the region from which it comes. Thus, some theories point to the Amazon region, it is likely that the Olmecs knew the cacao plant, in 1000 BC and transmit its use and cultivation to the Mayans, who were the first to describe cocoa in their hieroglyphics. There is some link between the blood of human sacrifice and the intake of cocoa, samples found in Mayan tombs imply that the drink was common in the noble classes; the role played in religious ceremonies was explained by Diego de Landa, in his book List of Yucatan things. The chronicles of the Spanish conquistadors contain numerous mentions of its use by the Aztecs as a form of currency, which used the Aztec vigesimal system the use of, widespread.
There were specific names, such as the countles consisting of four cocoa beans, the xiquipil consisting of twenty countles and the "burden," which included three xiquipiles. Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo noted: "So in the province of Nicaragua, a Rabbit is worth ten kernels and for four kernels they give eight apples or loquat of that excellent fruit they call munonzapot. Cocoa was valued in other contexts such as religious rituals, marital rituals or as medicine as well as being a nutritious food; the held belief that it was "a gift from the gods" gave it appeal in pre-Columbian societies as a symbol of economic well-being. Its use as a currency was in the payment of taxes to the powerful; the discovery of new foods or preparation methods went through several stages of understanding. Firstly cocoa was understood as a food and as a pleasant taste; the latter was only possible through adapting the food to flavours known. It is in these first encounters of the Spanish conquistadors with cocoa that we can see that the preparation stage was adapted, it was sweetened and flavoured with other spices such as cinnamon and served warm.
After that they had a better understanding of the value of chocolate. Those three simple changes distinguished the chocolate consumed by the Spanish colonisers from the chocolate consumed by the natives; the same pattern occurs in other foods enjoyed at the time by Spanish. Although none of those had an acceptance and a global demand in proportion similar to that of chocolate; the navigator Christopher Columbus, with the economic backing of the Catholic Monarchs, first reached the shores of the New World on 12 October 1492 believing that he had reached India. This voyage was carried out to expand markets by establishing new trade routes and therefore rival the Portuguese Empire, well established in Asia. Following the success of that first voyage to the New World, others were organised with the intention of exploring and creating new trade routes. On his fourth voyage, Columbus, in 1502, met an unexpected storm and was forced to temporarily land on 15 August on the Bay Islands. In their first explorations of the area, Columbus' group came upon a boat of Mayan orig