Kirkby-in-Ashfield is a market town in Nottinghamshire, with a population of 25,265, falling to 20,672 for the total of the 3 Ashfield Wards taken at the 2011 census. It is a part of the Mansfield Urban Area; the Head Offices of Ashfield District Council are located on Urban Road in the town centre. Kirkby-in-Ashfield lies on the eastern edge of the Erewash Valley which separates Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Kirkby, as it is locally known, was a Danish settlement and is a collection of small villages including Old Kirkby, The Folly and Kirkby Woodhouse, it is mentioned in the Domesday Book and has two main churches: St Wilfrid's, a Norman church, gutted by fire on 6 January 1907 but re-built. Kirkby-in-Ashfield was once an important centre of coal mining and railways in west Nottinghamshire, with three active coal mines and several railway junctions; the former Mansfield and Pinxton Railway from the Erewash Valley Line was joined here by the Midland Railway line from Nottingham. The Great Central Railway main line passed to the south-west side of the town and had a double junction with the Great Northern Railway Leen Valley Extension line to Langwith Junction and the Mansfield Railway to Clipstone.
The town expanded during the Victorian era. However the closure of the coal mines in the 1980s and early 1990s led to a major slump in the local economy, the area suffered a high level of socio-economic depression; the railways were closed during the Beeching era of the early 1960s when branch-line passenger services suffered widespread disruption, leaving the town without a link to central Nottingham and nearby Mansfield. The railway tracks were re-opened to passengers in the 1990s as part of the Robin Hood Line, providing links to other North Nottinghamshire towns and to Nottingham where a transport interchange allows transfer to the trams of Nottingham Express Transit system; the town centre is undergoing a renovation during late 2014 and 2015 including the demolition of the old Co-Operative foodstore and county library with surrounding plaza, to be rebuilt with a central Morrisons store, is progressively changing from a traditional mining town to a commuter town for the surrounding areas, however the transition from industrial centre to dormitory town is in its infancy and will take some years to develop.
The town has Ashfield School and Kirkby College. Local politics have been dominated by the Labour Party for much of the 20th century, however Ashfield attracted media attention in the late 1970s with a shock by-election win for the Conservatives. Since the 2010 General Election, the MP has been Gloria De Piero, best known for her work with GMTV, she took over from Geoff Hoon, one-time Secretary of State for Defence during the premiership of Tony Blair. She was elected with a slim majority of 192 votes from the Liberal Democrats' Jason Zadrozny; the town's most famous historical resident is Harold Larwood. The area around St Wilfrid's Church is designated a conservation area, consists of former farm buildings built from local stone, some of which are listed. In the conservation area, at the junction of Church Street, Chapel Street and Sutton Road, is Kirkby Cross; this is the remains of a thirteenth-century village cross in dressed stone, is a listed structure and designated ancient monument. It is thought the cross has been in place since 1218, some years before the village was granted a market and fair.
It has been restored. On the edge of Kirkby is Portland Park a mixture of woodland and grassland areas which, together with a number of small ponds and streams, are home to a wide variety of wildlife; the visitor centre, which doubles up as local cafe The Wild Rabbit, was opened in October 1994, is an environmentally friendly building and a centre of excellence for energy conservation. The building is used as a popular venue for local live acts and other entertainment; the area surrounding The Wild Rabbit Cafe is a place of scientific interest due to the unique limestone outside to the rear of the cafe. The 1981 series of TV programmes Shillingbury Tales were based on old Kirkby, as the writer Francis Essex's aunt lived nearby; the characters were based on locals. Filming was switched to Aldbury in Kent at the last minute because of costs and lack of space for filming; the Rev. Sir Richard Kaye, 6th Baronet. F. R. S.. Rector of Kirkby in Ashfield from 1765 to 1809 and Dean of Lincoln. Kaye employed Samuel Hieronymous Grimm to make a notable series of drawings of life in Ashfield in the late 18th.
Century. Oliver Hynd MBE – 2016 & 2012 Paralympic, Silver, Bronze medalist in swimming, younger brother of Sam Hynd Sam Hynd – 2008 Paralympic, double gold medalist in swimming. Enid Bakewell - English Cricket Player - inaugurated in the ICC Hall of Fame, considered one of the best all rounders in women's cricket Harold Larwood – English Cricket Player – famous for the Ashes'Bodyline Series' Bill Voce – English Cricket Player – associated alongside Harold Larwood for the Ashes'Bodyline Series' Dave Thomas – former English Footballer, played for Everton and Queens Park Rangers. Newstead Abbey Sherwood Observatory Kirkby Marketplace Kirkby-in-Ashfield railway station St John the Evanglist's Church, Kirkby Woodhouse St Wilfrid's Church, Kirkby-in-Ashfield Hollinwell incident
Kimberley is a town and civil parish in Nottinghamshire, lying 6 miles northwest of Nottingham along the A610. The town grew as a centre for coal mining and hosiery manufacturing. Together with the neighbouring villages of Giltbrook and Swingate it has a population of around 6,500 people. At the 2011 Census the appropriate ward was Kimberley; this had a population of 6,659. There has been no mining or hosiery manufacturing in the town for many years and the local brewery was sold and closed at the end of 2006; however as of 2017 it has a retail park centre, which includes a local newsagent, a wine shop, a pharmacy, as well as big national chains like Greggs bakery and a Sainsburys superstore. Kimberley is referred to as Chinemarelie in William the Conqueror's Domesday Book. With the accession of William to the throne Kimberley came into the possession of William de Peveril; the Peverils lost control when they supported the losing side in the civil war which preceded the accession of Henry II of England in 1154.
The King became the owner of the land. King John of England granted land in the area to Ralph de Greasley in 1212 who took up residence at Greasley Castle and at around this time to Henry de Grey whose son re-built Codnor Castle on the site of an earlier castle established by William Peveril. Ralph de Greasley's land passed by inheritance and marriage to Nicholas de Cantelupe who took part in Edward III of England's Scottish campaigns and the Battle of Crécy. Nicholas founded Beauvale Priory using part of his Kimberley holding in 1343; that part of Kimberley which had become the property of Beauvale Priory was claimed by King Henry VIII during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century. The Priory's land was redistributed by the King and came into the possession of Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham again by inheritance and marriage in 1627. Arthur was beheaded in 1649 having fought for the Royalists in the English Civil War. Arthur's son was created Earl of Essex in 1661. In 1753 the land was purchased by Sir Matthew Lamb whose grandson William Lamb became Prime Minister in 1834.
The Lamb's Kimberley estates passed by marriage to the 5th Earl Cowper in 1805 and on the death of the 7th Earl in 1913 were sold off in pieces. That part of Kimberley retained by the Cantelupe's passed by inheritance and marriage to John Lord Zouch who died at the Battle of Bosworth with Richard III in 1485, he was posthumously found guilty of high treason with his property forfeited to Henry VII. John Savage received this part of Kimberley in gratitude for his efforts on behalf of Henry VII at Bosworth; the Savage family sold this land to the Earl of Rutland in the early 17th century. The Duke of Rutland's Kimberley estates were sold in parcels in the early 19th century. Kimberley has been home to a lot of industry including: coal mining and hosiery manufacturing. All major industry in kimberley has stopped, the last being Kimberley Brewery which ceased brewing in Dec 2006. Most businesses are now retail based concerns. One of Kimberley's most notable structures is its unusual war memorial, in the form of a rotunda, used as the emblem of Kimberley School.
This secondary school has a catchment area which extends into the neighbouring areas of Nuthall, Eastwood and Hempshill Vale. On the South side of Kimberley lies Swingate, which has many different walking and cycling routes into the woods and surrounding countryside; the twin towns of Kimberley are Échirolles in Grugliasco in Italy. Kimberley Brewery was taken over by Greene King in 2006, another major brewer in a multimillion-pound deal which marked the end of the traditional Kimberley Ales as ale brewing ceased shortly afterwards and only a distribution centre remained there; the former Kimberley Brewery site has within its boundaries a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is listed under the title of "Kimberley Railway Cutting" as an important location for Permian Gymnosperm fossils; the Permian - Carboniferous unconformity can be found in the Kimberley Railway Cutting. Since 1974, Kimberley forms part of the borough of Broxtowe. From 1894 to 1974 it was part of Basford Rural District Council area.
There has been speculation that the Nottingham Express Tram want to extend their Phoenix Park tram stop into Kimberley towards Giltbrook Retail Park William Bryan, first-class cricketer John Reynolds was British Superbike Champion, 1992, 2001 and 2004 Sergeant Richard Bolitho was the Rear Gunner on a Lancaster bomber which crashed with the loss of the whole crew during the Dambuster raid in World War II. Tim Wheatley was the man who scored 242* for Kimberley Institute Cricket Club, the highest recorded score for the club Kimberley Town F. C. were the main local football team until they folded in 2012. Kimberley Miners Welfare F. C. Kimberley Institute Cricket Club is the town's cricket team. Awsworth - Kimberley & District Rifle Club Kimberley West railway station Kimberley East railway station Watnall railway station Kimberley Brewery Domesday Book: A Complete Transliteration. London: Penguin. 2003. ISBN 0-14-143994-7. Ottewell, David. Old Kimberley. Stenlake Publishing. ISBN 1-84033-155-0. Lee, John.
M.. A Brief History of Kimberley. Plumb, Arthur. Kimberley in old picture postcards. European Library. ISBN 90-288-4669-7. "Kimberley Railway Cutting". Kimberley Railway Cutting photos
Hucknall Hucknall Torkard, is an English town in the district of Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. It was a centre for framework knitting and for mining, but is now a focus for other industries and a dormitory town for Nottingham, it was the site. It is the final resting place of Lord Byron in 1824 and of his estranged daughter, the mathematician and pioneer computer programmer Ada Lovelace in 1852. Hucknall is 7 miles north-west of Nottingham, on the west bank of the Leen Valley, on land which rises from the Trent Valley in the south to the hills of the county north of Kirkby-in-Ashfield; the Whyburn or Town Brook flows through the town centre. Farleys Brook marks its southern boundary; the town's highest point is Long Hill, at 460 ft above sea level, with views over the city and Trent Valley, which descends to 22–24 metres AOD, flowing just beyond most of the city centre. The town is surrounded by parkland. To the north-west lie Misk Hills and Annesley. To the north-east of the town are the villages of Linby and Papplewick, beyond these two, Newstead Abbey and its grounds, once the residence of Lord Byron.
To the west lies Eastwood, birthplace of D. H. Lawrence and the inspiration for many of his novels and short stories. To the east of the town is Bestwood Country Park; the contiguous settlements of Butler's Hill and Westville appear as distinct entities on maps, but are regarded as part of Hucknall. They are part of its historic and present-day Church of England parish, although the town itself has no civil parish council. However, the identity is reinforced by being part of the post town and by being shared wards of Hucknall. Hucknall was once a thriving market town, its focal point is the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene, next to the town's market square; the church was built by the Anglo-Saxons and completed after the Norman Conquest, though much of it was restored in the Victorian era. The medieval church consisted only of a chancel, north aisle and tower, but the changes in the Victorian area enlarged it. In 1872 the south aisle was added and in 1887 the unusually long transepts, while the rest of the building apart from the tower was restored.
The top stage of the tower is 14th-century. There are 25 fine stained-glass windows by Charles Eamer Kempe, added in the 1880s. There is a modest memorial to Lord Byron. From 1295 until 1915, the town was known as Hucknall Torkard, taken from Torcard, the name of a dominant landowning family. Signs of the old name can still be seen on some of the older buildings. During the 19th and 20th centuries, coal was discovered and mined throughout the Leen Valley, which includes Hucknall; this brought increased wealth to the town, along with the construction of three railway lines. The first was the Midland Railway line from Nottingham to Mansfield and Worksop, closed to passengers on 12 October 1964 though retained as a freight route serving collieries at Hucknall and Annesley; the Hucknall station on this line was known as Hucknall Byron in its latter years. In the 1990s this line was reopened to passengers in stages as the Robin Hood Line, the section through Hucknall in 1993, with a new station on the site of the old "Byron", though called Hucknall.
The second line was the Great Northern Railway route up the Leen Valley and on up to Shirebrook, serving many of the same places as the Midland south of Annesley. It closed to passengers on 14 September 1931, but remained in use for freight until 25 March 1968; the Hucknall station on this line was known as Hucknall Town. The third line was the Great Central Railway, the last main line built from the north of England to London, opened on 15 March 1899; the stretch through Hucknall closed on 5 September 1966, but the Hucknall station here, had closed earlier, on 4 March 1963. From 1894 until 1974 Hucknall was the seat of Hucknall Urban District Council. With the abolition of the UDC, local government was transferred to Ashfield. In 1956 the Church of St Peter and St Paul, Hucknall was built to serve western parts of Hucknall. Hucknall was recorded as Hokeuhale and Hokenale, suggesting “nook of land of Hōcanere”, from Old English halh; this same tribe's name occurs in Oxfordshire. It has been suggested that the name Hucknall once referred to a larger area on the Nottinghamshire/Derbyshire border.
Two other settlements in the locality are called Hucknall. It is that Hucknall Torkard marked the southern boundary of this larger Hucknall Area. In the Domesday Book the name appears as Hochenale; the Hucknall Tourism and Regeneration Group has a mission statement: "To help Hucknall regain its position as a strong and prosperous town. To retain the historical legacy of the town and surrounding area. To attract visitors and boost the local economy by raising awareness of our heritage to both visitors and residents alike." The Hucknall Tourism and Regeneration Group was inaugurated in 2002. It consists of people from all aspects of Hucknall life, who have a desire to help regenerate the town through tourism, after the devastating loss of the mining industry and large portions of the textile industry. Members of the group include business owners, volunteer workers and councillors. HTRG works with other well-established organisations such as the Hucknall Round Table, the Rotary Club of Hucknall
Tesco plc trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues, it has shops in seven countries across Asia and Europe, is the market leader of groceries in the UK, Ireland and Thailand. Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls; the Tesco name first appeared in 1924, after Cohen purchased a shipment of tea from T. E. Stockwell and combined those initials with the first two letters of his surname, the first Tesco shop opened in 1931 in Burnt Oak, Barnet, his business expanded and by 1939 he had over 100 Tesco shops across the country. A UK grocer, Tesco has expanded globally since the early 1990s, with operations in 11 other countries in the world; the company pulled out of the USA in 2013, but as of 2018 continues to see growth elsewhere.
Since the 1960s, Tesco has diversified into areas such as the retailing of books, electronics, toys, software, financial services and internet services. In the 1990s Tesco repositioned itself from being a down-market high-volume low-cost retailer, to one designed to attract a range of social groups by offering products ranging from low-cost "Tesco Value" items to its "Tesco Finest" range; this broadening of its appeal was successful and saw the chain grow from 500 shops in the mid-1990s to 2,500 shops fifteen years later. Tesco is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization of £18.1 billion as of 22 April 2015, the 28th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell war-surplus groceries from a stall at Well Street Market, Hackney, in the East End of London; the Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about, he made new labels using the initials of the supplier's name, the first two letters of his surname, forming the word TESCO.
After experimenting with his first permanent indoor market stall at Tooting in November 1930, Jack Cohen opened the first Tesco shop in September 1931 at 54 Watling Street, Burnt Oak, Middlesex. Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores Limited; the first self-service shop opened in St Albans in 1956, the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. In 1961 Tesco Leicester made an appearance in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest shop in Europe. During the 1950s and 1960s, Tesco grew organically, through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 shops; the company purchased 70 Williamson's shops, 200 Harrow Stores outlets, 212 Irwins shops, 97 Charles Phillips shops and the Victor Value chain. Jack Cohen's business motto was "pile it high and sell it cheap", to which he added an internal motto of "YCDBSOYA" which he used to motivate his sales force. In May 1987, Tesco completed its hostile takeover of the Hillards chain of 40 supermarkets in the North of England for £220 million.
In 1994, the company took over the supermarket chain William Low after fighting off Sainsbury's for control of the Dundee-based firm, which operated 57 shops. This paved the way for Tesco to expand its presence in Scotland, in which its presence was weaker than in England. Tesco introduced a loyalty card, branded'Clubcard' in 1995, an Internet shopping service. In 1996 the typeface of the logo was changed to the current version with stripe reflections underneath, whilst the corporate font used for shop signage was changed from the familiar "typewriter" font, used since the 1970s. Overseas operations were introduced the same year. Terry Leahy assumed the role of Chief Executive on 21 February 1997, the appointment having been announced on 21 November 1995. On 21 March 1997, Tesco announced the purchase of the retail arm of Associated British Foods, which consisted of the Quinnsworth and Crazy Prices chains in Ireland and Northern Ireland, associated businesses, for £640 million; the deal was approved by the European Commission on 6 May 1997.
The company was the subject of a letter bomb campaign lasting five months from August 2000 to February 2001 as a bomber calling himself "Sally" sent letter bombs to Tesco customers and demanded Clubcards modified to withdraw money from cash machines. The company started to expand the range of products it sold during the 1960s to include household goods and clothing under the Delamare brand, in 1974 opened its first petrol station. In July 2001, Tesco became involved in internet groceries retailing in the USA when it obtained a 35% stake in GroceryWorks. In 2002, Tesco purchased 13 HIT hypermarkets in Poland, it made a major move into the UK's convenience shop market with its purchase of T & S Stores, owner of 870 convenience shops in the One Stop and Day & Nite chains in the UK. In June 2003, Tesco purchased the C Two-Network in Japan, it acquired a majority stake in Turkish supermarket chain Kipa. In January 2004, Tesco acquired Adminstore, owner of 45 Cullens and Harts convenience shops, in and around London.
In Thailand, Tesco Lotus was a joint venture of the Charoen Pokphand Group and Tesco, but faci
Sainsbury's is the third largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector. Founded in 1869, by John James Sainsbury with a shop in Drury Lane, the company became the largest retailer of groceries in 1922, was an early adopter of self-service retailing in the United Kingdom, had its heyday during the 1980s. In 1995, Tesco overtook Sainsbury's to become the market leader, Asda became the second largest in 2003, demoting Sainsbury's to third place for most of the subsequent period until January 2014, when Sainsbury's regained second place. In April 2019, whilst awaiting to merge with rival Asda, Sainsbury's were again demoted into third place as their rival placed second; the holding company, J Sainsbury plc, is split into three divisions: Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, Sainsbury's Bank and Sainsbury's Argos. The group's head office is in Sainsbury's Support Centre in City of London; as of February 2018, the largest overall shareholder is the sovereign wealth fund of Qatar, the Qatar Investment Authority, which holds 21.99% of the company.
It is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Sainsbury's was established as a partnership in 1869, when John James Sainsbury and his wife Mary Ann opened a shop at 173 Drury Lane in Holborn, London. Sainsbury started as a retailer of fresh foods and expanded into packaged groceries such as tea and sugar, his trading philosophy, as stated on a sign outside his first shop in Islington, was: "Quality perfect, prices lower". Shops started to look similar, so in order that people could recognise them throughout London, a high cast-iron'J. SAINSBURY' sign featured on every shop so their shops could be seen from a distance, round-the-back deliveries started to add extra convenience and not upset rivals due to Sainsbury's popularity. In 1922, J Sainsbury was incorporated as a private company, as'J. Sainsbury Limited', when it became the United Kingdom's largest retailer of groceries. By this time each shop had the following departments: dairy and hams, poultry and game, cooked meats, fresh meats. Groceries were introduced in 1903, when John James purchased a grocer's branch at 12 Kingsland High Street, Dalston.
Home delivery featured in every shop. Sites were chosen, with a central position in a parade selected in preference to a corner shop; this allowed a larger display of products, which could be kept cooler in summer, important as there was no refrigeration. By the time John James Sainsbury died in 1928, there were over 128 shops, his last words were said to be:'Keep the shops well lit'. He was replaced by his eldest son, John Benjamin Sainsbury, who had gone into partnership with his father in 1915. During the 1930s and 1940s, with the company now run by John Benjamin Sainsbury, the company continued to refine its product offerings and maintain its leadership in terms of shop design and cleanliness; the company acquired the Midlands-based Thoroughgood chain in 1936. The founder's grandsons Alan Sainsbury and Sir Robert Sainsbury became joint managing directors in 1938, after their father, John Benjamin Sainsbury, had a minor heart attack. Following the outbreak of World War II, many of the men who worked for Sainsbury's were called to perform National Service and were replaced by women.
The Second World War was a difficult time for Sainsbury's, as most of its shops were trading in the London area and were bombed or damaged. Turnover fell to half the prewar level. Food was rationed, one particular shop in East Grinstead was so badly damaged on Friday 9 July 1943 that it had to move to the local church, while a new one was built; this shop was not completed until 1951. In 1956, Alan Sainsbury became chairman after the death of John Benjamin Sainsbury. During the 1950s and 1960s, Sainsbury's was a keen early adopter of self-service supermarkets in the United Kingdom. On a trip to the United States of America, Alan Sainsbury realised the benefits of self-service shops and believed the future of Sainsbury's was self-service supermarkets of 10,000 sq ft, with the added bonus of a car park for extra convenience; the first self-service branch opened in Croydon in 1950. Sainsbury's was a pioneer in the development of own-brand goods, it expanded more cautiously than did Tesco, shunning acquisitions, it never offered trading stamps.
Until the company went public on 12 July 1973, as J Sainsbury plc, the company was wholly owned by the Sainsbury family. It was at the time the largest flotation on the London Stock Exchange. A million shares were set aside for staff, which led to many staff members buying shares that shot up in value. Within one minute the list of applications was closed: £495 million had been offered for £14.5 million available shares. The Sainsbury family at the time retained 85% of the firm's shares. Most of the senior positions were held by family members. John Davan Sainsbury, a member of the fourth generation of the founding family, took over the chairmanship from his uncle Sir Robert Sainsbury in 1969, chairman for two years from 1967 following Alan Sainsbury's retirement. Sainsbury's started to replace its 10,000 sq ft High Street shops with self-service supermarkets above 20,000 sq ft, which were either in out of town locations or in regenerated town centres
Mansfield is a market town in Nottinghamshire, the main town in the District of Mansfield and Mansfield Urban Area. Nestling in the Maun Valley surrounded by hills, it lies 12 miles north of Nottingham in a urban district, most of whose 106,556 population live in Mansfield, with Market Warsop a secondary centre, it is adjacent to the urban area of Sutton-in-Ashfield. Mansfield is the only major sub-regional centre in the county, covering an area of 30 square miles, it is the county's one local authority area directly to elect its Mayor. The district has been influenced by its industrial past of coal mining and textiles, which thrived into the 1990s. Today's Mansfield has 20.2 per cent of its working-age population seeking key out-of-work benefits. The population has fallen over the last century along with this industrial base, despite some diversification. Settlement in the Mansfield area is known to date back to Roman times, with a villa discovered in 1787 by a Major Rooke between Mansfield Woodhouse and Pleasley and a cache of denarii coins found near King's Mill in 1849.
After the end of Roman occupation, the early English royalty are said to have stayed there, with the Mercian Kings having used it as a base for hunting in the nearby Sherwood Forest. The Domesday Book compiled in 1086 has the settlement recorded as Mammesfeld whereas in market-petition documents of 1227 the spelling had changed to Maunnesfeld. By the time King Richard II signed a warrant in November 1377 granting the right for tenants to hold a four-day fair every year, the spelling had changed again to Mannesfeld. There are remains of the 12th-century King John's Palace, in Clipstone, between Mansfield and Edwinstowe, in an area, a retreat for royal families and dignitaries in the 14th and 15th centuries, for its location in Sherwood Forest and famed fresh air and exclusiveness. Access to the town was via a small horse-drawn carriageway from the city of Nottingham, was en route to Sheffield. On West Gate within the town centre, a commemorative wall plaque marks the point, thought to be the centre of Sherwood Forest 2013.
A tree has been planted nearby. Access to the town between the 16th and 17th centuries was via several stable yards; the Harte, the Swan, the Talbot, the White Bear, the Ram and the White Lion were known to date from medieval times. Several timber-framed cruck buildings were demolished in 1929 and another in 1973, documented by a local historical society during its demolition and was dated at around 1400 or earlier. Other Tudor houses in Stockwell Gate, Bridge Street and Lime Tree Place were demolished to make way for developments before they could be viewed for being listed properties; the majority of buildings remaining are from the 17th century onwards. Like most of the UK, Mansfield experiences a Temperate oceanic climate; this brings in a narrow temperature range, an spread of rainfall, low levels of sunshine, breezy conditions throughout the year. The closest weather station to Mansfield for which records are available is the Warsop, located in Meden Vale, about seven miles to the north.
The absolute maximum temperature record for the area stands at 34.6 °C, recorded in August 1990. In a typical year the warmest day should reach 28.9 °C, 12.72 days should reach 25.1 °C or higher. The absolute minimum temperature record for the area is −19.1 °C, recorded during January 1987. Rainfall averages 634mm annually, with 113 days reporting in excess of 1 mm of rain. All averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000. Mansfield has a large market square with surrounding commercial and retail centre including a museum, the Palace Theatre and numerous restaurants, fast-food outlets, pubs and night clubs. On 6 April 2010 a town-centre Business Improvement District was established with offices based in the old Town Hall in the Market Place, financed by a 2 per cent additional levy on the rateable value of nearby businesses; the Mansfield BID operates to a five-year business plan with a rolling yearly operational plan. Before the end of its tenure in 2015, over 560 shops and other town centre businesses were canvassed in late 2014 to vote on the first continuation period, dubbed a BID Ballot.
Mansfield District Council as an electoral services provider contracted out this procedure at a projected cost to council tax payers of £8,000. A 55 per cent turnout participated in the ballot with 77 per cent vote to continue the BID for a further five years; the BID provides additional services and delivery of projects to enhance the town centre as a shopping destination, including enabling events to attract visitors and raise awareness, additional security for the town centre including management of persistent offender banning orders and improvement of shop frontages. Records show the first yearly income to have been £294,697, with an operating surplus of £151,610 over expenses. One of BID's achievements during 2012 to 2013 was a crowd-funded town centre Wi-Fi internet installation costing £37,000 and completed by June 2013, using an extensive network of AP nodes requiring potential users to register before free use is enabled, with a dedicated optional BID local information "App" for Android and iPhone available for download.
The intention was to encourage shoppers and visitors alike to linger in the town centre for longer than to offer internet access to small businesses, to provide market traders with a means of accepting non-cash payme
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is 33 kilometres east of Dorchester, adjoins Bournemouth to the east. Since 1 April 2019 the local authority is Bournemouth and Poole Council, a unitary authority. Poole had an estimated population of 151,500 making it the second largest town in ceremonial county of Dorset. Together with Bournemouth and Christchurch, Poole has a total population of over 465,000. Human settlement in the area dates back to before the Iron Age; the earliest recorded use of the town's name was in the 12th century when the town began to emerge as an important port, prospering with the introduction of the wool trade. The town had important trade links with North America and, at its peak during the 18th century, it was one of the busiest ports in Britain. In the Second World War, Poole was one of the main departing points for the Normandy landings. Poole is a tourist resort, attracting visitors with its large natural harbour, the Lighthouse arts centre and Blue Flag beaches.
The town has a commercial port with cross-Channel passenger ferry services. The headquarters of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution are in Poole, the Royal Marines have a base in the town's harbour. Despite their names, Poole is the home of The Arts University Bournemouth, the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and a significant part of Bournemouth University; the town's name derives from a corruption of the Celtic word bol and the Old English word pool meaning a place near a pool or creek. Variants include Pool, Poles, Polle and Poolman; the area around modern Poole has been inhabited for the past 2,500 years. During the 3rd century BC, Celts known as the Durotriges moved from hilltop settlements at Maiden Castle and Badbury Rings to heathland around the River Frome and Poole Harbour; the Romans landed at Poole during their conquest of Britain in the 1st century and took over an Iron Age settlement at Hamworthy, an area just west of the modern town centre. In Anglo-Saxon times, Poole was included in the Kingdom of Wessex.
The settlement was used as a base for fishing and the harbour a place for ships to anchor on their way to the River Frome and the important Anglo-Saxon town of Wareham. Poole experienced two large-scale Viking invasions during this era: in 876, Guthrum sailed his fleet through the harbour to attack Wareham, in 1015, Canute began his conquest of England in Poole Harbour, using it as a base to raid and pillage Wessex. Following the Norman conquest of England, Poole grew into a busy port as the importance of Wareham declined; the town was part of the manor of Canford, but does not exist as an identifiable entry in the Domesday Book. The earliest written mention of Poole occurred on a document from 1196 describing the newly built St James's Chapel in "La Pole"; the Lord of the Manor, Sir William Longspée, sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of Poole in 1248 to raise funds for his participation in the Seventh Crusade. Poole gained a small measure of freedom from feudal rule and acquired the right to appoint a mayor and hold a court within town.
Poole's growing importance was recognised in 1433 when it was awarded staple port status by King Henry VI, enabling the port to begin exporting wool and in turn granting a licence for the construction of a town wall. In 1568, Poole gained further autonomy when it was granted legal independence from Dorset and made a county corporate by the Great Charter of Elizabeth I. During the English Civil War, Poole's puritan stance and its merchants' opposition to the ship money tax introduced by King Charles I led to the town declaring for Parliament. Poole escaped any large-scale attack and with the Royalists on the brink of defeat in 1646, the Parliamentary garrison from Poole laid siege to and captured the nearby Royalist stronghold at Corfe Castle. Poole established successful commerce with the North American colonies in the 16th century, including the important fisheries of Newfoundland. Trade with Newfoundland grew to meet the demand for fish from the Catholic countries of Europe. Poole's share of this trade varied but the most prosperous period started in the early 18th century and lasted until the early 19th century.
The trade followed a three-cornered route. By the early 18th century Poole had more ships trading with North America than any other English port and vast wealth was brought to Poole's merchants; this prosperity supported much of the development which now characterises the Old Town where many of the medieval buildings were replaced with Georgian mansions and terraced housing. The end of the Napoleonic Wars and the conclusion of the War of 1812 ended Britain's monopoly over the Newfoundland fisheries and other nations took over services provided by Poole's merchants at a lower cost. Poole's Newfoundland trade declined and within a decade most merchants had ceased trading; the town grew during the industrial revolution as urbanisation took place and the town became an area of mercantile prosperity and overcrowded poverty. At the turn of the 19th century, nine out of ten workers were engaged in harbour activities, but as the century progressed ships became too large for the shallow harbour and the port lost business to the deep water ports at Liverpool and Plymouth.
Poole's first railway station opened in Hamworthy in 1847 and extended to the centre of Poole in 1872 ending the port's busy coastal shipping trade. The beaches and landscape of southern Dorset and south-west Hampshire began to attract tourists during