Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the term "the etymology" means the origin of the particular word and for place names, there is a specific term, toponymy. For Greek—with a long written history—etymologists make use of texts, texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods and when they entered the language. Etymologists apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family. Though etymological research grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.
The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία, itself from ἔτυμον, meaning "true sense", the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of". In linguistics, the term etymon refers to a word or morpheme from which a word derives. For example, the Latin word candidus, which means "white", is the etymon of English candid. Etymologists apply a number of methods to study the origins of words, some of which are: Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available. Making use of dialectological data; the form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history. The comparative method. By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead borrowed from another language; the study of semantic change. Etymologists must make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words.
Such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well. Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are language change, borrowing. While the origin of newly emerged words is more or less transparent, it tends to become obscured through time due to sound change or semantic change. Due to sound change, it is not obvious that the English word set is related to the word sit, it is less obvious that bless is related to blood. Semantic change may occur. For example, the English word bead meant "prayer", it acquired its modern meaning through the practice of counting the recitation of prayers by using beads. English derives from Old English, a West Germanic variety, although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages; the Old English roots may be seen in the similarity of numbers in English and German seven/sieben, eight/acht, nine/neun, ten/zehn.
Pronouns are cognate: I/mine/me and ich/mein/mich. However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, simplified in modern English, certain elements of vocabulary, some of which are borrowed from French. Although many of the words in the English lexicon come from Romance languages, most of the common words used in English are of Germanic origin; when the Normans conquered England in 1066, they brought their Norman language with them. During the Anglo-Norman period, which united insular and continental territories, the ruling class spoke Anglo-Norman, while the peasants spoke the vernacular English of the time. Anglo-Norman was the conduit for the introduction of French into England, aided by the circulation of Langue d'oïl literature from France; this led to many paired words of English origin. For example, beef is related, through borrowing, to modern French bœuf, veal to veau, pork to porc, poultry to poulet. All these words and English, refer to the meat rather than to the animal.
Words that refer to farm animals, on the other hand, tend to be cognates of words in other Germanic languages. For example, swine/Schwein, cow/Kuh, calf/Kalb, sheep/Schaf; the variant usage has been explained by the proposition that it was the Norman rulers who ate meat and the Anglo-Saxons who farmed the animals. This explanation has been disputed. English has proved accommodating to words from many languages. Scientific terminology, for example, relies on words of Latin and Greek origin, but there are a great many non-scientific examples. Spanish has contributed many words in the southwestern United States. Examples include buckaroo, rodeo and states' names such as Colorado and Florida. Albino, lingo and coconut from Portuguese. Modern French has contributed café, naive and many more. Smorgasbord, slalom
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Middle English was a form of the English language, spoken after the Norman conquest until the late 15th century. English underwent distinct developments following the Old English period. Scholarly opinion varies, but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period when Middle English was spoken as being from 1150 to 1500; this stage of the development of the English language followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English saw significant changes to its grammar and orthography. Writing conventions during the Middle English period varied widely. Examples of writing from this period that have survived show extensive regional variation; the more standardized Old English language became fragmented and was for the most part, being improvised. By the end of the period and aided by the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439, a standard based on the London dialect had become established; this formed the basis for Modern English spelling, although pronunciation has changed since that time.
Middle English was succeeded in England by the era of Early Modern English, which lasted until about 1650. Scots language developed concurrently from a variant of the Northumbrian dialect. During the Middle English period, many Old English grammatical features either became simplified or disappeared altogether. Noun and verb inflections were simplified by the reduction of most grammatical case distinctions. Middle English saw considerable adoption of Norman French vocabulary in the areas of politics, the arts and religion. Conventional English vocabulary retained its Germanic etiology, with Old Norse influences becoming more apparent. Significant changes in pronunciation took place involving long vowels and diphthongs which in the Middle English period, began to undergo the Great Vowel Shift. Little survives of early Middle English literature, due in part to Norman domination and the prestige that came with writing in French rather than English. During the 14th century, a new style of literature emerged with the works of writers including John Wycliffe and Geoffrey Chaucer, whose Canterbury Tales remains one of the most studied and read works of the period.
Transition from Late Old English to Early Middle English occurred in the latter part of the 11th century. The influence of Old Norse aided the development of English from a synthetic language with free word order, to a more analytic or isolating language with a more strict word order. Both Old English and Old Norse were synthetic languages with complicated inflections; the eagerness of Vikings in the Danelaw to communicate with their southern Anglo-Saxon neighbours resulted in the erosion of inflection in both languages. Old Norse may have had a more profound impact on Middle and Modern English development than any other language. Simeon Potter notes: "No less far-reaching was the influence of Scandinavian upon the inflexional endings of English in hastening that wearing away and leveling of grammatical forms which spread from north to south.". Viking influence on Old English is most apparent in the more indispensable elements of the language. Pronouns, comparatives, pronominal adverbs and prepositions, show the most marked Danish influence.
The best evidence of Scandinavian influence appears in extensive word borrowings, yet no texts exist in either Scandinavia or in Northern England from this period to give certain evidence of an influence on syntax. The change to Old English from Old Norse was substantive, of a democratic character. Like close cousins, Old Norse and Old English resembled each other, with some words in common, they understood each other, it is most "important to recognise that in many words the English and Scandinavian language differed chiefly in their inflectional elements. The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding. In the mixed population which existed in the Danelaw these endings must have led to much confusion, tending to become obscured and lost." This blending of peoples and languages resulted in "simplifying English grammar."While the influence of Scandinavian languages was strongest in the dialects of the Danelaw region and Scotland, words in the spoken language emerge in the tenth and eleventh centuries near the transition from the Old to Middle English.
Influence on the written language only appeared at the beginning of the thirteenth century because of a scarcity of literary texts from an earlier date. The Norman conquest of England in 1066 saw the replacement of the top levels of the English-speaking political and ecclesiastical hierarchies by Norman rulers who spoke a dialect of Old French known as Old Norman, which developed in England into Anglo-Norman; the use of Norman as the preferred language of literature and polite discourse fundamentally altered the role of Old English in education and administration though many Normans of this period were illiterate and depended on the clergy for written communication and record-keeping. A significant number of words of French origin began to appear in the English language alongside native English words of similar meaning, giving rise to such Modern English synonyms as pig/pork, chicken/poultry, calf/veal, cow/beef, sheep/mutton, wood/forest, house/mansion, worthy/valuable, bold/courageous
The King's Wardrobe, together with the Chamber, made up the personal part of medieval English government known as the King's household. The room where the king's clothes and treasure were stored, the term was expanded to describe both its contents and the department of clerks who ran it. Early in the reign of Henry III the Wardrobe emerged out of the fragmentation of the Curia Regis to become the chief administrative and accounting department of the Household; the Wardrobe received regular block grants from the Exchequer for much of its history. There were in fact two main Wardrobes for much of this period: around 1300 the confusingly-named Great Wardrobe, responsible only for expenditure on such things as clothing, textiles and spices, split away from the more senior Wardrobe, which remained responsible for financing the king's personal expenditure and his military operations. In addition there were smaller Privy Wardrobes at various royal palaces. By the 15th century the Wardrobe had lost much of its earlier influence, it merged into the Household and lost its separate identity.
At the same time, the Great Wardrobe began to be referred to, more as "the Wardrobe", to some extent taking on the identity of its forebear. In the Middle Ages persons of wealth and power slept in a chamber, alongside which a secure room or wardrobe would be provided for storage of clothes and other valuables. In the royal household, the Chamber came to represent the king's nearest advisers. Before long the Wardrobe emerged, under the auspices of the Chamber, to become an administrative body in its own right, providing secure storage for the robes, treasures and armaments of the king. Like other offices of the household it was an itinerant operation: carts and cases containing valuables travelled with the King and his Court as they moved from place to place around the realm. Prior to the 13th century references to the Wardrobe and its keepers are few; the 10th-century King Eadred bequeathed substantial sums of money in his will to his hrœgelthegns, which may suggest that these were persons of some importance.
By the reign of Henry II the king's Wardrobe is identified as a'place of safe deposit' with its own staff, its own premises within various royal palaces or strongholds. After 1200, the Wardrobe grew in activity and in prestige as a result of King John's constant travelling of the realm, which required a more immediate source of funds than the fixed Exchequer; the Wardrobe first rivalled, eclipsed the Chamber in terms of power within the Court and in relation to the governance of the realm. Thus we see, early in the reign of Henry III, the office of Treasurer of the Chamber annexed to that of Keeper of the Wardrobe. At around the same time the Keeper's deputy was given oversight of the Privy Seal; this meant that the Wardrobe, which served as a repository of important documents and Charters, began producing them as well. With these developments, a third official, the Cofferer of the Wardrobe, began to take increasing responsibility for the day-to-day business of the Wardrobe; the administrative historian T. F.
Tout has speculated that a reason for the Wardrobe's increasing influence was its "new and elastic" nature: it was not hidebound by restrictive traditions or customary ways of working. Moreover, it was able to respond in times when speedy expenditure was required - most in time of war - and with a flexibility which suited both the monarch and the nascent powers of English government, it did so by securing loans, on the basis of its valuable assets and treasures, from Italian bankers. In this way the Wardrobe became an independently powerful financial office. There was however a political dimension to the Wardrobe's rise; as G. M. Trevelyan put it, "If one office...was secured by the baronial opposition, the King could dive underground and still govern the country through the Wardrobe": hence the baronial demand in 1258 that all money should in future go through the Exchequer. During the reign of Edward I, the Wardrobe was at the height of its power as a financial and military department of the Household and State.
It was "the brain and hand of the Court". Its seal, the Privy Seal, no longer functioned as the personal seal of the King, but began to serve as a second, somewhat less formal, State seal alongside the Great Seal of the Realm.. It was by letters authenticated by this seal that officials across the Ki
Treasurer of the Household
The Treasurer of the Household is a member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. The position is held by one of the government deputy Chief Whips in the House of Commons; the Treasurer was a member of the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. The position had its origin in the office of Keeper of the Wardrobe of the Household and was ranked second after the Lord Steward. On occasion the office was vacant for a considerable period and its duties undertaken by the Cofferer; the office was staffed by the promotion of the Comptroller and was held by a commoner. The Treasurer was automatically a member of the privy council; the role is held by Christopher Pincher. John Tiptoft, 1st Baron Tiptoft 1406–1408 Roger Leche 1413–1416 Walter Beauchamp 1421–1430 Sir John Tyrrell of Heron May 1431 – April 1437 John Popham 1437–1439 Sir Roger Fiennes 1439–1446 John Stourton, 1st Baron Stourton 1446–1453 Sir Thomas Tuddenham 1458 Sir John Fogge 1461–1468 Sir John Howard 1468–1474 Sir John Elrington 1474–1483 Sir William Hopton 1483–1484 Sir Richard Croft 1484–1488 vacant 1488 on: office performed by cofferers: John Payne 1488–1492 William Fisher 1492–1494 William Cope 1494-?1508 Sir Andrew Windsor 1513 Sir Thomas Lovell 1502 -c. 1519 Sir Edward Poynings 1519–1521 Sir Thomas Boleyn 1521–1525 Sir William FitzWilliam 1525–1537 Sir William Paulet 1537–1539 Sir Thomas Cheney 1539–1558 Sir Thomas Parry 1559–1560 vacant 1560–1570 Sir Francis Knollys 1570–1596 The Lord North 1596–1600 vacant 1600–1602 Sir William Knollys 1602–1616 The Lord Wotton 1616–1618 Sir Thomas Edmonds 1618–1639 Sir Henry Vane 1639–1641 The Viscount Savile 1641–1649 Sir Frederick Cornwallis 1660–1663 The Viscount Fitzhardinge 1663–1668 Sir Thomas Clifford 1668–1672 The Lord Newport 1672–1686 The Earl of Yarmouth 1686–1689 The Earl of Bradford 1689–1708 The Earl of Cholmondeley 1708–1712 The Lord Lansdown 1712–1714 The Earl of Cholmondeley 1714–1725 Paul Methuen 1725–1730 The Lord Bingley 1730–1731 The Lord De La Warr 1731–1737 The Earl FitzWalter 1737–1755 The Lord Berkeley of Stratton 1755–1756 The Viscount Bateman 1756–1757 The Earl of Thomond 1757–1761 The Earl of Powis 1761–1765 Lord Edgcumbe 1765–1766 John Shelley 1766–1777 The Earl of Carlisle 1777–1779 The Lord Onslow 1779–1780 Viscount Cranborne 1780–1782 The Earl of Effingham 1782–1783 Charles Francis Greville 1783–1784 The Earl of Courtown 1784–1793 Viscount Stopford 1793–1806 Lord Ossulston 1806–1807 Viscount Stopford 1807–1812 Viscount Jocelyn 1812 Lord Charles Bentinck 1812–1826 Sir William Henry Fremantle 1826–1837 The Earl of Surrey 1837–1841 Hon. George Byng 1841 Earl Jermyn 1841–1846 Lord Robert Grosvenor 1846–1847 Lord Marcus Hill 1847–1852 Lord Claud Hamilton 1852 The Earl of Mulgrave 1853–1858 Lord Claud Hamilton 1858–1859 Viscount Bury 1859–1866 Lord Otho FitzGerald 1866 Lord Burghley 1866–1867 Hon. Percy Egerton Herbert 1867–1868 The Lord de Tabley 1868–1872 The Lord Poltimore 1872–1874 The Lord Monson 1874 Earl Percy 1874–1875 Lord Henry Thynne 1875–1880 The Earl of Breadalbane 1880–1885 Viscount Folkestone 1885–1886 The Earl of Elgin 1886 Viscount Folkestone 1886–1891 Lord Walter Gordon-Lennox 1891–1892 The Earl of Chesterfield 1892–1894 Arthur Brand 1894–1895 The Marquess of Carmarthen 1895–1896 Viscount Curzon 1896–1900 Victor Cavendish 1900–1903 The Marquess of Hamilton 1903–1905 Sir Edward Strachey, Bt 1905–1909 William Dudley Ward 1909–1912 Hon. Frederick Edward Guest 1912–1915 James Hope 1915–1916 James Craig 1916–1918 vacancy January–June 1918 Robert Sanders 1918–1919 Bolton Eyres-Monsell 1919–1921 George Gibbs 1921–1924 Thomas Griffiths 1924 George Gibbs 1924–1928 George Hennessy 1928–1929 Ben Smith 1929–1931 George Hennessy 1931 Sir Frederick Charles Thomson, Bt 1931–1935 Sir Frederick Penny, Bt 1935–1937 Sir Lambert Ward 1937 Arthur Hope 1937–1939 Charles Waterhouse 1939 Hon. Robert Grimston 1939–1942 Sir James Edmondson 1942–1945 George Mathers 1945–1946 Arthur Pearson 1946–1951 Cedric Drewe 1951–1955 Tam Galbraith 1955–1957 Hendrie Oakshott 1957–1959 Hon. Peter Legh 1959–1960 Edward Wakefield 1960–1962 Michael Hughes-Young 1962–1964 Sydney Irving 1964–1966 John Silkin 1966 Charles Grey 1966–1969 Charles Richard Morris 1969–1970 Humphrey Atkins 1970–1973 Bernard Weatherill 1973–1974 Walter Harrison 1974–1979 John Stradling Thomas 1979–1983 Anthony Berry 1983 John Cope 1983–1987 David Hunt 1987–1989 Tristan Garel-Jones 1989–1990 Alastair Goodlad 1990–1992 David Heathcoat-Amory 1992–1993 Greg Knight 1993–1996 Andrew MacKay 1996–1997 George Mudie 1997–1998 Keith Bradley 1998–2001 List of Treasurers to British royal consorts 1484–1649: Green Cloth Officeholders 1660–1837: Officeholders database Whips 1970–1997 </ref>*1513
Comptroller General of the United States
The Comptroller General of the United States is the director of the Government Accountability Office, a legislative branch agency established by Congress in 1921 to ensure the fiscal and managerial accountability of the federal government. The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 "created an establishment of the Government to be known as the General Accounting Office, which shall be independent of the executive departments and under the control and direction of the Comptroller General of the United States"; the act provided that the "Comptroller General shall investigate, at the seat of government or elsewhere, all matters relating to the receipt and application of public funds, shall make to the President when requested by him, to Congress... recommendations looking to greater economy or efficiency in public expenditures." The Comptroller General is appointed for fifteen years by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate per 31 U. S. C. § 703. Per 31 U. S. C. § 703 when the office of Comptroller General is to become vacant the current Comptroller General must appoint an executive or employee of the GAO to serve as the Acting Comptroller General until such time as a new Comptroller General is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
The Comptroller General has the responsibility to audit the financial statements that the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget present to the Congress and the President. For every fiscal year since 1996, when consolidated financial statements began, the Comptroller General has refused to endorse the accuracy of the consolidated figures for the federal budget, citing " serious financial management problems at the Department of Defense, the federal government’s inability to adequately account for and reconcile intragovernmental activity and balances between federal agencies, the federal government’s ineffective process for preparing the consolidated financial statements."The current Comptroller General is Eugene Louis Dodaro, who became Comptroller General on December 22, 2010. He was preceded by David M. Walker. On February 15, 2008, David Walker Comptroller General announced that he was resigning from GAO to head The Peter G. Peterson Foundation.
Eugene Louis Dodaro became Acting Comptroller General of the United States on March 13, 2008, was subsequently appointed by the President on September 22, 2010, confirmed by the Senate on December 22, 2010, as the Comptroller General. Dodaro was sworn in as Comptroller General at a ceremony at the GAO on December 30, 2010. Supreme Audit Institution INTOSAI Comptroller General Presentations GAO Press Release about David Walker Departure Detailed Table on U. S. Comptrollers General as of January 2011
A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The significant core functions of a corporate treasurer include cash and liquidity management, risk management, corporate finance; the treasury of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy and revenue. The treasurer is the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury or Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Australia, the Treasurer is a senior Minister and the second most important member of the Government after the Prime Minister. From 1867 to 1993, Ontario's Minister of Finance was called the Treasurer of Ontario; the word referred to the person in charge of the treasure of a noble. In the UK during the 17th Century, a position of Lord High Treasurer was used on several occasions as the third great officer of the Crown. Now the title First Lord of the Treasury is the official title of the British Prime Minister. In the Inns of Court, the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales, the bencher or Master of the bench who heads the Inn for that year holds the title'Master Treasurer'.
This title is used by other legal associations sharing a British heritage, such as the Law Society of Upper Canada. Many volunteer organizations not-for-profit organizations such as charities and theaters, appoint treasurers who are responsible for conservation of the treasury, whether this be through pricing of a product, organizing sponsorship, or arranging fundraising events; the treasurer would be part of the group which would oversee how the money is spent, either directly dictating expenditure or authorizing it as required. It is their responsibility to ensure that the organization has enough money to carry out their stated aims and objectives, that they do not overspend, or under spend, they report to the board meetings and/or to the general membership the financial status of the organization to ensure checks and balances. Accurate records and supporting documentation must be kept to a reasonable level of detail that provides a clear audit trail for all transactions. Bursary Certified Treasury Professional Chief financial officer Comptroller Comptroller and Auditor General Treasury Management National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee.
Spotlight on You the Treasurer. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-26-9. Treasury Management International, The Functions of a Corporate Treasury, Dr Heinrich Degenhart, Verband Deutscher Treasurer e. V. O*NET-SOC 11-3031.01 ~ Treasurers and Controllers U. S. Department of Labor SOC 11-3031 ~ Financial Managers Association of Public Treasurers of the United States and Canada California Municipal Treasurers Association Oklahoma Municipal Treasurers' Association Government Treasurers' Organization of Texas Virginia Treasurers' Association