University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as
Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers and peripherals, their PDP and successor VAX products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the enterprise market and had purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas. However, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own; the company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. As of 2007, PDP-11, VAX, AlphaServer systems were still produced under the HP name. From 1957 until 1992, DEC's headquarters were located in a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002.
Some parts of DEC, notably the compiler business and the Hudson, Massachusetts facility, were sold to Intel. Focusing on the small end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them, their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s the PDP-8 considered to be the first successful minicomputer. Looking to simplify and update their line, DEC replaced most of their smaller machines with the PDP-11 in 1970 selling over 600,000 units and cementing DEC's position in the industry. Designed as a follow-on to the PDP-11, DEC's VAX-11 series was the first used 32-bit minicomputer, sometimes referred to as "superminis"; these systems were able to compete in many roles with larger mainframe computers, such as the IBM System/370. The VAX was a best-seller, with over 400,000 sold, its sales through the 1980s propelled the company into the second largest computer company in the industry. At its peak, DEC was the second largest employer in Massachusetts, second only to the Massachusetts State Government.
The rapid rise of the business microcomputer in the late 1980s, the introduction of powerful 32-bit systems in the 1990s eroded the value of DEC's systems. DEC's last major attempt to find a space in the changing market was the DEC Alpha 64-bit RISC instruction set architecture. DEC started work on Alpha as a way to re-implement their VAX series, but employed it in a range of high-performance workstations. Although the Alpha processor family met both of these goals, for most of its lifetime, was the fastest processor family on the market high asking prices were outsold by lower priced x86 chips from Intel and clones such as AMD. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the enterprise market and had purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas. However, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own.
The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. As of 2007, some of DEC's product lines were still produced under the HP name. Beyond DECsystem-10/20, PDP, VAX and Alpha, DEC was well respected for its communication subsystem designs, such as Ethernet, DNA, DSA, its "dumb terminal" subsystems including VT100 and DECserver products. DEC's Research Laboratories conducted DEC's corporate research; some of them are still operated by Hewlett-Packard. The laboratories were: Western Research Laboratory in Palo Alto, California, US Systems Research Center in Palo Alto, California, US Network Systems Laboratory in Palo Alto, California, US Cambridge Research Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, US Paris Research Laboratory in Paris, France MetroWest Technology Campus in Maynard, Massachusetts, USSome of the former employees of DEC's Research Labs or DEC's R&D in general include: Gordon Bell: technical visionary, VP Engineering 1972–83. DEC supported the ANSI standards the ASCII character set, which survives in Unicode and the ISO 8859 character set family.
DEC's own Multinational Character Set had a large influence on ISO 8859-1 and, by extension, Unicode. The first versions of the C language and the Unix operating system ran on DEC's PDP series of computers, which were among the first commercially viable minicomputers, although for several years DEC itself did not encourage the use of Unix. DEC produced used and influential interactive ope
The differential analyser is a mechanical analogue computer designed to solve differential equations by integration, using wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration. It was one of the first advanced computing devices to be used operationally; the original machines could not add, but it was noticed that if the two wheels of a rear differential are turned, the drive shaft will compute the average of the left and right wheels. A simple gear ratio of 1:2 enables multiplication by two, so addition are achieved. Multiplication is just a special case of integration. Research on solutions for differential equations using mechanical devices, discounting planimeters, started at least as early as 1836, when the French physicist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis designed a mechanical device to integrate differential equations of the first order; the first description of a device which could integrate differential equations of any order was published in 1876 by James Thomson, born in Belfast in 1822, but lived in Scotland from the age of 10.
Though Thomson called his device an "integrating machine", it is his description of the device, together with the additional publication in 1876 of two further descriptions by his younger brother, Lord Kelvin, which represents the invention of the differential analyser. One of the earliest practical uses of Thomson's concepts was a tide-predicting machine built by Kelvin starting in 1872-3. On Lord Kelvin's advice, Thomson's integrating machine was incorporated into a fire-control system for naval gunnery being developed by Arthur Pollen, resulting in an electrically driven, mechanical analogue computer, completed by about 1912. Italian mathematician Ernesto Pascal developed integraphs for the mechanical integration of differential equations and published details in 1914. However, the first practical general purpose differential analyser was constructed by Harold Locke Hazen and Vannevar Bush at MIT, 1928–1931, comprising six mechanical integrators. In the same year, Bush described this machine in a journal article as a "continuous integraph".
When he published a further article on the device in 1931, he called it a "differential analyzer". In this article, Bush stated that " present device incorporates the same basic idea of interconnection of integrating units as did. In detail, there is little resemblance to the earlier model." According to his 1970 autobiography, Bush was "unaware of Kelvin’s work until after the first differential analyzer was operational." Claude Shannon was hired as a research assistant in 1936 to run the differential analyzer in Bush's lab. Douglas Hartree of Manchester University brought Bush's design to England, where he constructed his first "proof of concept" model with his student, Arthur Porter, during 1934: as a result of this, the university acquired a full scale machine incorporating four mechanical integrators in March 1935, built by Metropolitan-Vickers, was, according to Hartree, " first machine of its kind in operation outside the United States". During the next five years three more were added, at Cambridge University, Queen's University Belfast, the Royal Aircraft Establishment in Farnborough.
One of the integrators from this proof of concept is on display in the History of Computing section of the Science Museum alongside a complete Manchester machine. In Norway, the locally built Oslo Analyser was finished during 1938, based on the same principles as the MIT machine; this machine had 12 integrators, was the largest analyser built for a period of four years. In the United States, further differential analysers were built at the Ballistic Research Laboratory in Maryland and in the basement of the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania during the early 1940s; the latter was used extensively in the computation of artillery firing tables prior to the invention of the ENIAC, which, in many ways, was modelled on the differential analyser. In the early 1940s, with Samuel H. Caldwell, one of the initial contributors during the early 1930s, Bush attempted an electrical, rather than mechanical, but the digital computer built elsewhere had much greater promise and the project ceased.
In 1947, UCLA installed a differential analyser built for them by General Electric at a cost of $125,000. By 1950, this machine had been joined by three more; the UCLA differential analyzer appeared in 1951's When Worlds Collide, where it was called, euphemistically, "DA". At Osaka Imperial University around 1944, a complete differential analyser machine was developed to calculate the movement of an object and other problems with mechanical components, draws graphs on paper with a pen, it was transferred to the Tokyo University of Science and has been displayed at the school’s Museum of Science in Shinjuku Ward. Restored in 2014 is one of only two still operational differential analyzers produced before the end of World War II. In Canada, a differential analyser was constructed at the University of Toronto in 1948 by Beatrice Helen Worsley, but it appears to have had little or no use. A differential analyser may have been used in the development of the bouncing bomb, used to attack German hydroelectric dams during World War II.
Differential analysers have been used in the calculation of soil erosion by river control authorities. The differential analyser was rendered obsolete by electronic analogue computers and digital computers; the model differential analyser built at Manchester University in 1934 by Douglas Hartree and Arthur Porter made extensive use of Meccano parts: this meant that the machine was less costly to build, it proved "accurate enough
Computer History Museum
The Computer History Museum is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US. The museum is dedicated to preserving and presenting the stories and artifacts of the information age, exploring the computing revolution and its impact on society; the museum's origins date to 1968 when Gordon Bell began a quest for a historical collection and, at that same time, others were looking to preserve the Whirlwind computer. The resulting Museum Project had its first exhibit in 1975, located in a converted coat closet in a DEC lobby. In 1978, the museum, now The Digital Computer Museum, moved to a larger DEC lobby in Marlborough, Massachusetts. Maurice Wilkes presented the first lecture at TDCM in 1979 – the presentation of such lectures has continued to the present time. TDCM incorporated as The Computer Museum in 1982. In 1984, TCM moved to Boston. In 1996/1997, The TCM History Center in Silicon Valley was established. In 1999, TCMHC incorporated and TCM ceased operation, shipping its remaining artifacts to TCMHC in 2000.
The name TCM had been retained by the Boston Museum of Science so, in 2000, the name TCMHC was changed to Computer History Museum. In 2002, CHM opened its new building, at 1401 N. Shoreline Blvd in Mountain View, California, to the public; the facility was heavily renovated and underwent a two-year $19 million makeover before reopening in January 2011. The Computer History Museum claims to house the largest and most significant collection of computing artifacts in the world; this includes many rare or one-of-a-kind objects such as a Cray-1 supercomputer as well as a Cray-2, Cray-3, the Utah teapot, the 1969 Neiman Marcus Kitchen Computer, an Apple I, an example of the first generation of Google's racks of custom-designed web servers. The collection comprises nearly 90,000 objects and films, as well as 4,000 feet of cataloged documentation and several hundred gigabytes of software; the CHM oral history program conducts video interviews around the history of computing and networking, with over 700 as of 2016.
The museum's 25,000-square-foot exhibit "Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing," opened to the public on January 13, 2011. It covers the history of computing in 20 galleries, from the abacus to the Internet; the entire exhibition is available online. The museum features a Liquid Galaxy in the “Going Places: A History of Silicon Valley” exhibit; the exhibit features 20 preselected locations. The museum has several additional exhibits, including a restoration of an historic PDP-1 minicomputer, two restored IBM 1401 computers, an exhibit on the history of autonomous vehicles, from torpedoes to self-driving cars. An operating Difference Engine designed by Charles Babbage in the 1840s and constructed by the Science Museum of London was on display until January 31, 2016, it had been on loan since 2008 from Nathan Myhrvold, a former Microsoft executive. Former media executive John Hollar was appointed CEO of The Computer History Museum in July 2008. In 2010 the museum began with the collection of source code of important software, beginning with Apple's MacPaint 1.3, written in a combination of Assembly and Pascal and available as download for the public.
In 2012 the APL programming language followed. In February 2013 Adobe Systems, Inc. donated the Photoshop 1.0.1 source code to the collection. On March 25, 2014 followed Microsoft with the source code donation of SCP MS-DOS 1.25 and a mixture of Altos MS-DOS 2.11 and TeleVideo PC DOS 2.11 as well as Word for Windows 1.1a under their own license. On October 21, 2014, Xerox Alto's source code and other resources followed; the CHM Fellows are exceptional men and women'whose ideas have changed the world affected nearly every human alive today'. The first fellow was Rear Admiral Grace Hopper in 1987; the fellows program has grown to 80 members as of 2018. Vintage Computer Festival held annually at The Computer History Museum Computer museums History of computing History of computer science Bell, Gordon. Out of a Closet: The Early Years of the Computer * Museum. Microsoft Technical Report MSR-TR-2011-44. Official website Computer History Museum's channel on YouTube The Computer Museum Archive
The Manchester Baby known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, was the world's first electronic stored-program computer. It was built at the Victoria University of Manchester, England, by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, Geoff Tootill, ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the machine was not intended to be a practical computer, but was instead designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, the first random-access computer memory. Although considered "small and primitive" by the standards of its own time, it was nonetheless the first working machine to contain all the elements essential to a modern electronic computer; as soon as the Baby had demonstrated the feasibility of its design, a project was initiated at the university to develop it into a more usable computer, the Manchester Mark 1. The Mark 1 in turn became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose computer; the Baby had a memory of 32 words. As it was designed to be the simplest possible stored-program computer, the only arithmetic operations implemented in hardware were subtraction and negation.
The first of three programs written for the machine calculated the highest proper divisor of 218, an algorithm that would take a long time to execute—and so prove the computer's reliability—by testing every integer from 218 downwards, as division was implemented by repeated subtraction of the divisor. The program consisted of 17 instructions and ran for 52 minutes before reaching the correct answer of 131,072, after the Baby had performed 3.5 million operations. The first design for a program-controlled computer was Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine in the 1830s. A century in 1936, mathematician Alan Turing published his description of what became known as a Turing machine, a theoretical concept intended to explore the limits of mechanical computation. Turing was not imagining a physical machine, but a person he called a "computer", who acted according to the instructions provided by a tape on which symbols could be read and written sequentially as the tape moved under a tape head. Turing proved that if an algorithm can be written to solve a mathematical problem a Turing machine can execute that algorithm.
Konrad Zuse's Z3 was the world's first working programmable automatic computer, with binary digital arithmetic logic, but it lacked the conditional branching of a Turing machine. On 12 May 1941, it was presented to an audience of scientists of the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt in Berlin; the Z3 stored its program on an external tape. The Colossus of 1943 was the first electronic computing device, but it was not a general-purpose machine; the ENIAC was the first machine, both electronic and general purpose. It was Turing complete, with conditional branching, programmable to solve a wide range of problems, but its program was held in the state of switches in patchcords, not in memory, it could take several days to reprogram. Researchers such as Turing and Zuse investigated the idea of using the computer's memory to hold the program as well as the data it was working on, it was mathematician John von Neumann who wrote a distributed paper describing that computer architecture, still used in all computers.
The construction of a von Neumann computer depended on the availability of a suitable memory device on which to store the program. During the Second World War researchers working on the problem of removing the clutter from radar signals had developed a form of delay line memory, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line, developed by J. Presper Eckert. Radar transmitters send out regular brief pulses of radio energy, the reflections from which are displayed on a CRT screen; as operators are interested only in moving targets, it was desirable to filter out any distracting reflections from stationary objects. The filtering was achieved by comparing each received pulse with the previous pulse, rejecting both if they were identical, leaving a signal containing only the images of any moving objects. To store each received pulse for comparison it was passed through a transmission line, delaying it by the time between transmitted pulses. Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory in October 1945, by which time scientists within the Ministry of Supply had concluded that Britain needed a National Mathematical Laboratory to co-ordinate machine-aided computation.
A Mathematics Division was set up at the NPL, on 19 February 1946 Alan Turing presented a paper outlining his design for an electronic stored-program computer to be known as the Automatic Computing Engine. This was one of several projects set up in the years following the Second World War with the aim of constructing a stored-program computer. At about the same time, EDVAC was under development at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering, the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory was working on EDSAC; the NPL did not have the expertise to build a machine like ACE, so they contacted Tommy Flowers at the General Post Office's Dollis Hill Research Laboratory. Flowers, the designer of Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic computer, was committed elsewhere and was unable to take part in the project, although his team did build some mercury delay lines for ACE; the Telecommunications Research Establishment was approached for assistance, as was Maurice Wilkes at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory.
The government department respon
The Electronic delay storage automatic calculator was an early British computer. Inspired by John von Neumann's seminal First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, the machine was constructed by Maurice Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in England. EDSAC was the second electronic digital stored-program computer; the project was supported by J. Lyons & Co. Ltd. a British firm, who were rewarded with the first commercially applied computer, LEO I, based on the EDSAC design. Work on EDSAC started during 1947, it ran its first programs on 6 May 1949, when it calculated a table of square numbers and a list of prime numbers. EDSAC 1 was shut down on 11 July 1958, having been superseded by EDSAC 2, which remained in use until 1965; as soon as EDSAC was operational, it began serving the University's research needs. It used mercury delay lines for memory, derated vacuum tubes for logic. Power consumption was 11 kW of electricity. Cycle time was 1.5 ms for 6 ms for multiplication.
Input was via five-hole punched tape and output was via a teleprinter. Registers were limited to an accumulator and a multiplier register. In 1953, David Wheeler, returning from a stay at the University of Illinois, designed an index register as an extension to the original EDSAC hardware. A magnetic tape drive was never worked sufficiently well to be of real use; until 1952, the available main memory was only 512 18-bit words, there was no backing store. The delay lines were arranged in two batteries providing 512 words each; the second battery came into operation in 1952. The full 1024-word delay line store was not available until 1955 or early 1956, limiting programs to about 800 words until then. John Lindley mentioned "the incredible difficulty we had to produce a single correct piece of paper tape with the crude and unreliable home-made punching and verifying gear available in the late 50s"; the EDSAC's main memory consisted of 1024 locations, though only 512 locations were installed. Each contained 18 bits, but the topmost bit was always unavailable due to timing problems, so only 17 bits were used.
An instruction consisted of a five-bit instruction code, one spare bit, a ten bit operand, a length bit to control whether the instruction used a 17-bit or a 35-bit operand. All instruction codes were by design represented by one mnemonic letter, so that the Add instruction, for example, used the EDSAC character code for the letter A. Internally, the EDSAC used two's complement, binary numbers. Numbers were either 17 bits or 35 bits long. Unusually, the multiplier was designed to treat numbers as fixed-point fractions in the range −1 ≤ x < 1, i.e. the binary point was to the right of the sign. The accumulator could hold 71 bits, including the sign, allowing two long numbers to be multiplied without losing any precision; the instructions available were: Add Subtract Multiply-and-add AND-and-add Shift Left Arithmetic shift Right Load multiplier register Store accumulator Conditional Goto Read Input tape Print character Round accumulator No-op Stop. There was no way to directly load a number into the accumulator.
There was no unconditional jump instruction, nor was there a procedure call instruction - it had not yet been invented. Maurice Wilkes discussed relative addressing modes for the EDSAC in a paper published in 1953, he was making the proposals to facilitate the use of subroutines. The initial orders were hard-wired on a set of uniselector switches and loaded into the low words of memory at startup. By May 1949, the initial orders provided a primitive relocating assembler taking advantage of the mnemonic design described above, all in 31 words; this was the world's first assembler, arguably the start of the global software industry. There is a simulation of EDSAC available and a full description of the initial orders and first programs; the first calculation done by EDSAC was a square number program run on 6 May 1949. The program was written by Beatrice Worsley; the machine was used by other members of the University to solve real problems, many early techniques were developed that are now included in operating systems.
Users prepared their programs by punching them onto a paper tape. They soon became good at being able to read back the codes; when a program was ready it was hung on a length of line strung up near the paper tape reader. The machine operators, who were present during the day, selected the next tape from the line and loaded it into EDSAC; this is of course well known today as job queues. If it printed something the tape and the printout were returned to the user, otherwise they were informed at which memory location it had stopped. Debuggers were some time away, but a CRT screen could be set to display the contents of a particular piece of memory; this was used to see. A loudspeaker was connected to the accumulator's sign bit. After office hours certain "Authorised Users" were allowed to run the machine for themselves, which went on late into the night until a valve blew – which happened according to one such user; the early programmers had to make use of techniques