Computer multitasking

In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks over a certain period of time. New tasks can interrupt started ones before they finish, instead of waiting for them to end; as a result, a computer executes segments of multiple tasks in an interleaved manner, while the tasks share common processing resources such as central processing units and main memory. Multitasking automatically interrupts the running program, saving its state and loading the saved state of another program and transferring control to it; this "context switch" may be initiated at fixed time intervals, or the running program may be coded to signal to the supervisory software when it can be interrupted. Multitasking does not require parallel execution of multiple tasks at the same time. On multiprocessor computers, multitasking allows many more tasks to be run than there are CPUs. Multitasking is a common feature of computer operating systems, it allows more efficient use of the computer hardware. In a time-sharing system, multiple human operators use the same processor as if it was dedicated to their use, while behind the scenes the computer is serving many users by multitasking their individual programs.

In multiprogramming systems, a task runs until it must wait for an external event or until the operating system's scheduler forcibly swaps the running task out of the CPU. Real-time systems such as those designed to control industrial robots, require timely processing. Multitasking operating systems include measures to change the priority of individual tasks, so that important jobs receive more processor time than those considered less significant. Depending on the operating system, a task might be as large as an entire application program, or might be made up of smaller threads that carry out portions of the overall program. A processor intended for use with multitasking operating systems may include special hardware to securely support multiple tasks, such as memory protection, protection rings that ensure the supervisory software cannot be damaged or subverted by user-mode program errors; the term "multitasking" has become an international term, as the same word is used in many other languages such as German, Dutch and Norwegian.

In the early days of computing, CPU time was expensive, peripherals were slow. When the computer ran a program that needed access to a peripheral, the central processing unit would have to stop executing program instructions while the peripheral processed the data; this was very inefficient. The first computer using a multiprogramming system was the British Leo III owned by J. Co.. During batch processing, several different programs were loaded in the computer memory, the first one began to run; when the first program reached an instruction waiting for a peripheral, the context of this program was stored away, the second program in memory was given a chance to run. The process continued; the use of multiprogramming was enhanced by the arrival of virtual memory and virtual machine technology, which enabled individual programs to make use of memory and operating system resources as if other concurrently running programs were, for all practical purposes, non-existent and invisible to them. Multiprogramming doesn't give any guarantee.

Indeed, the first program may well run for hours without needing access to a peripheral. As there were no users waiting at an interactive terminal, this was no problem: users handed in a deck of punched cards to an operator, came back a few hours for printed results. Multiprogramming reduced wait times when multiple batches were being processed. Early multitasking systems used applications; this approach, supported by many computer operating systems, is known today as cooperative multitasking. Although it is now used in larger systems except for specific applications such as CICS or the JES2 subsystem, cooperative multitasking was once the only scheduling scheme employed by Microsoft Windows and Classic Mac OS to enable multiple applications to run simultaneously. Cooperative multitasking is still used today on RISC OS systems; as a cooperatively multitasked system relies on each process giving up time to other processes on the system, one poorly designed program can consume all of the CPU time for itself, either by performing extensive calculations or by busy waiting.

In a server environment, this is a hazard. Preemptive multitasking allows the computer system to more reliably guarantee to each process a regular "slice" of operating time, it allows the system to deal with important external events like incoming data, which might require the immediate attention of one or another process. Operating systems were developed to take advantage of these hardware capabilities and run multiple processes preemptively. Preemptive multitasking was implemented in the PDP-6 Monitor and MULTICS in 1964, in OS/360 MFT in 1967, in Unix in 1969, was available in some operating systems for computers as small as DEC's PDP-8.

Boat Rocker Media

Boat Rocker Media is a Canadian entertainment company, based in Toronto. The company owns Boat Rocker Studios, its majority shareholder is Fairfax Financial Holdings Ltd. Boat Rocker Media is led by co-executive chairs David Fortier and Ivan Schneeberg, co-founders of Temple Street, Boat Rocker Media CEO John Young. With the formation of Boat Rocker Media in early 2016, Fairfax Financial placed Temple Street Productions under Boat Rocker Studios. Temple Street Distribution was renamed to Boat Rocker Rights. Boat Rocker Venture division was created for startup investments and strategy development, was led by senior VP Michel Pratte. Boat Rocker purchased a minority interest in Industrial Brothers, an animation company in Toronto. Soon after the reorganization, Boat Rocker opened Boat Rocker Animation; the rationale behind the creation of Boat Rocker Media was that the Temple Street brand seemed too narrow for the expansion and acquisitions planned and the new structure was expected to be easier to understand when pursuing additional capital but planned through an initial public offering.

Boat Rocker Rights' first outside distribution deal was with the pick-up of international rights to Rotfield Productions' Xploration Station block programs in late February 2016. In June 2016, the unit acquired Mountain Road Productions library distribution rights plus a first look deal with the company. In 2016, Boat Rocker Media purchased Radical Sheep Productions, which continued operating as Boat Rocker's family and children's media unit, In early August 2016, Boat Rocker purchased Jam Filled Entertainment, to continuing operating with current management and name. Boat Rocker through Jam Filled purchased Arc Productions' main assets on August 22, 2016 and reopened Arc's Toronto office. In January 2018, Boat Rocker acquired Fremantle's Kids and Family Entertainment division. In November 2018, Boat Rocker acquired Matador Content, producers of the Paramount Network show Lip Sync Battle and its spinoff Lip Sync Battle Shorties on sister network Nickelodeon. In March 2019, Boat Rocker bought a stake in Untitled Entertainment, a talent management and production company.

In September 2019, Boat Rocker acquired Platform One Media, a LA based television production and sales company backed by Liberty Media and TPG Capital. Boat Rocker Brands Boat Rocker Rights distribution and acquisition Boat Rocker Venture Boat Rocker Studio Temple Street Productions Boat Rocker Digital Boat Rocker Animation Industrial Brothers Radical Sheep Productions, family content unit Jam Filled Entertainment

Tereshko Parkhomenko

Terentiy Makarovych Parkhomenko was one of the most respected kobzars of the late 19th and early 20th century. He was born 10 September 1872 in the village of Voloskivtsi, Sosnytsia county, in the Chernigov Governorate of the Russian Empire, he became blind at the age of 11 after a grave illness. He learned to play the bandura from the kobzar Andriy Haydenko and became a sought out performer after his performance at the XIIth Archeological Conference, he had a tenor voice and a loud bandura and played songs with a patriotic content that were performed by other kobzars. This was the first stage performance of the kobzars organized by Hnat Khotkevych; the performance included the performances of six kobzars, including four from Kharkiv, one from Poltava province and one from Chernihiv province. After both the Kharkiv bandurists played and the Mykhailo Kravchenko played it was time for Tereshko to demonstrate his art. "So, the way you play". And for some reason he repeated the statement, and he hit the strings!

His bandura was large, loud. His manner of playing was specific: his left hand played the basses, the right using a specific device: the fingers hit in one direction and the other.. His voice - a high clear tenor. A song no-one had heard before about "Morozenko". Everything added up to a victory for Tereshko; the Kharkiv kobzars sat quiet. The first place of Tereshko was a given fact, his song about Morozenko became the most popular song. In his essay "Some facts about the kobzars and lirnyks" Khotkevych wrote: "About the kobzars from Chernihiv province I would like to say a bit more because this is a new type of bandurist which are establishing themselves and have a great future; this is Terentiy Makarovych Parkhomenko. He is 30 years old and studied under Andriy Hojdenko, however he did not learn any dumy from him nor from his friends. "No matter how much Horilka I gave them, nothing came out of it" - he said. In the meantime Terentiy wanted to learn to perform dumy - something spoke to his soul.

I have not seen such a bandurists who listens with such intent to the performance of dumy and historic songs like this Parkhomenko. And his energies did not fall on barren ground: after meeting some Ukrainian intellectuals, he asked that they show him some dumy, he purchased books and song books, he has a literate guide boy for the reason, that he have the potential to learn dumy and old songs. "I didn't just come to the conference to perform - he said to me - but to learn more songs". And now he has nine dumy in his repertoire, many historic songs - one of which - About Morozenko - you will hear tonight, but taking the melodies of his songs from the intelligentsia which can read and write. Terentiy does not go blindly creating arrangement which are foreign, but gives each song and individuality, returning forgotten recordings, so that the song does not have a bookish character. In such a way we can see that the intelligentsia is able to give back to the people their lost culture, although it does not look after this culture well, at least some aspects have been conserved.

God grant Terentiy the energy to learn all. His is the future." Terentiy knows 25 psalms, folk songs and humorous songs are so numerous in his repertoire..... Terentiy plays on the bandura well, I want you to pay particular attention to the manner of playing the instrument; the matter lies in the fact that his ability to play the bandura has undergone an evolution, in my opinion Terentiy's manner of playing is old..." The successful performance of the kobzars at the XIIth Archeological conference, showed a new direction in the development of kobzar art - the potential to perform this art on the stage. This new found potential was exploited by the kobzars that took part in the conference. Reminiscing the performance of the kobzars after the conference Khotkevych wrote: "the most visible career was made by T. Parkhomenko. A tall with lank appearance he had a nice tenor voice, he was able to use his talents: performing solo and in groups. In the periodic press there are numerous mentions about his performances in Kremenchuk, Uman', Vinnytsia, Mohyla-Podilsk and other towns.

The magazine "Ridniy krai" write about Parkhomenko's concert in 1908 that "it was a unique in its type: there performed blind kobzars without any intelligentsia influence. The organizer of the concert was a kobzar himself - Terentiy Parkhomenko; as an artist, Parkhomenko was able to become popular in a short time. - They had cigarette packets with his portrait on them. Despite the popularity of Parkhomenko, there were anti-Parkhomenko writings in the press; the editor of the magazine "Ridniy krai" - Olena Pchilka - the mother of Lesia Ukrainka after hearing the performance of the kobzar at the Archeological conference in 1905 in Katerynoslav wrote:..." The Chernihivite Parkhomenko - is of middle age, - this is a new kobzar a concert performer who has now gotten used to performing on stage, he is dress in a theatrical manner. He knows the words of dumy from books, does not understand the melodies - he sings anything a dance melody, he sang for us Morozenko." A similar article was published by Pchilka in a review of a concert by five kobzars in Kiev on 21 October 1908 - Parkhomenko - she wrote - "He can give to a sad duma a happy accompaniment.

This cuts the ear, only because no-one understands our dumy do people accept this." Pchilka wrote that Parkhomenko's voice was not go