A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
The sandyback stingaree or great stingaree is a little-known species of stingray in the family Urolophidae, endemic to southeastern Australia. It is found offshore around the edge of the continental shelf, at a depth of 65–265 m. A large species reaching 89 cm long, the sandyback stingaree has a diamond-shaped pectoral fin disc wider than long with a dorsal pattern of numerous fine lighter marks on a yellowish to brownish background, its short tail terminates in a deep, leaf-shaped caudal fin, bears a sizable dorsal fin just in front of the stinging spine. A bottom-dwelling predator taking crustaceans, the sandyback stingaree is aplacental viviparous: females supply their unborn young with histotroph, bearing up to five pups every other year following a 14–19 month gestation period. Significant numbers of this species are taken incidentally by commercial fisheries off New South Wales where overall stingaree populations have declined as a result. With fishing pressure still intense in the area, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed the sandyback stingaree as Vulnerable.
Australian naturalist William John Macleay described the sandyback stingaree in an 1884 issue of Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, based on specimens collected near Port Jackson in New South Wales. Within the genus, it seems to be most related to the patchwork stingaree and the butterfly stingaree; the sandyback stingaree is patchily distributed off southeastern Australia, from Beachport in South Australia to Tasmania, to Stradbroke Island off Queensland. This benthic ray inhabits areas with fine sediment on the outer continental shelf and upper continental slope, ventures inshore, it has been reported from between 265 m deep. The sandyback stingaree has a diamond-shaped pectoral fin disc much wider than long, with rounded outer corners and nearly straight leading margins converging at an obtuse angle; the snout is fleshy and protruding at the tip. The small eyes are followed by comma-shaped spiracles with angular to rounded posterior rims; the posterior rim of the nostrils sometimes bear a ridge, between the nostrils is a skirt-shaped curtain of skin with a finely fringed trailing margin.
The mouth is large and contains small teeth with oval bases, as well as 14–16 papillae on the floor and a narrow patch of papillae on the lower jaw. The five pairs of gill slits are short; the pelvic fins are small, with rounded margins. The tail is short, measuring 62–73% as long as the disc, flattened with a skin fold running along each side; the upper surface of the tail bears a serrated stinging spine, preceded by a large dorsal fin. The caudal fin is lance-like and deep; the skin is devoid of dermal denticles. This species is yellowish to brownish above; the dorsal and caudal fins are darker in juveniles, may be mottled in adults. The underside is plain white, with black blotches beneath the tail in some individuals; the sandyback stingaree is the largest member of its family off southern Australia, growing to 89 cm long. Ecologically, the sandyback stingaree is the temperate counterpart of the tropical patchwork stingaree, it preys on crustaceans. Females have been known to use their stings to discourage unwanted suitors.
Reproduction is aplacental viviparous with the developing embryos sustained by maternally produced histotroph like in other stingrays. Females bear litters of 1–5 pups every other year, after a gestation period lasting 14–19 months. Newborn rays measure about 17 cm long, its large adult size suggests a slow growth rate. A known parasite of this species is the monogenean Calicotyle urolophi. Along with the greenback stingaree, the sandyback stingaree contributes to the stingaree bycatch of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery operating off New South Wales, it faces less fishing pressure off western Tasmania. This ray is edible but not marketed, may be persecuted by fishery workers as its sting makes it hard to handle. Though specific data is lacking, trawl surveys have shown that stingaree catches from the New South Wales upper continental slope declined over 65% between 1976–77 and 1996–77. Given that SESSF activity within its range remains high, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed the sandyback stingaree as Vulnerable.
Dominique Hoppe is the current President of the Assemblée des francophones fonctionnaires des organisations internationales. Prior to his appointment to the AFFOI, Hoppe was Administrator at the European Patent Office, President of the AFIF-PB and President of the Superior Council of the international civil servants in the Netherlands. In December 2011 he was elected - together with Abdou Diouf – francophone of the year in the framework the world forum of the French language. In 2014 he received the Gusi Peace Prize - considered as the equivalent of the Nobel Peace Prize in Asia - for Peacebuilding thru development of political & diplomatic networks & activities supporting human rights & fundamental freedoms. In 2015 he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, his candidacy was supported by both the OPCW and the CPI. Dominique Hoppe was born in 1959 in Longwy, he studied at the Lycée Alfred Mézières, went to the Nancy-Université and graduated from the Institut d'études politiques de Paris. He graduated from the Stanford University and the Harvard Business School.
In 1984, he started his career as international civil servant at the European Patent Office. After an internal career at EPO, he became Vice President of the AFIF-PB in 2000 and President in 2006, he was nominated President of the AFFOI in 2007 and President of the Superior council of international civil servants in 2008. Under his presidency the AFFOI has published its Manifesto for the support of linguistic and conceptual diversity within international organisations,. In October 2012 he was invited as an expert at the Summit of Kinshasa where he presented a plan for diversity, supported by many heads of international organizations including Irina Bokova, Director-general of UNESCO, Angel Gurria, Secretary general of the OECD, Pascal Lamy, Director general of WTO, Ahmed Uzumcu, Director general of OPCW, Michel Jarraud, Secretary general of WWO, Philippe Couvreur, Secretary general of ICJ and Benoit Battistelli, President of EPO; this plan opened new ways to defend diversity within multilateral environments.
In 2011 he mentioned for the first time the principal of "Anthropocracy" which he further defined in 2013. In October 2013 he launched the ACFOI and the AJFOI that became the two operators of the AFFOI under the umbrella of a broader body: AFFOImonde. In June 2012 he made the closing speech of the 10th anniversary of the entry into force of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; this speech has been described as both inspirational and visionary by Song Sang-hyun President of the ICC. In 2013 he was associated -during the acceptance speech given by the Director general of the OPCW - to the Nobel peace prize received by the organisation. In 2016, worried by the increasing desire of self governance of international institutions, he included "Sovereignty of States in both the governance and the management of International organizations" as a priority on the roadmap of the AFFOI, he is member of Mensa since 1994. He gives conferences and courses on Management of multicultural environments at Harvard Business School and Sciences Po Paris and on the need of linguistic and conceptual diversity in the functioning of international organisations to a broad range of multilateral institutions.
Dominique Hoppe writes articles in the French press. Dominique Hoppe is Vice President of DLF, governed by the French academy and board member of several human rights related groups. In 2014 he co-created - with the painter Christian Wind - the artistic movement "Vent et Esppoir". Both artists adhere to this anti-elitist idea. Inspired by the spirit of the Cobra movement, they decided to combine their talents, to mix, to cross and use the synergistic effect to explore slopes inaccessible to separated arts; the artist doesn’t work towards a goal but to thrive. One comes back to oneself to better open to others. Perfection is no longer a goal but a possibility; the multidimensional representation of artistic expression resulting from this collaboration not only increases the flavor of the works, it overcomes the artistic hermeticism that too prevents free access to a non-expert public. Wind and Hoppe becomes a political gesture, an attempt to democratize art. In 2016 he published the book "Poètes du monde pour la langue française et la Francophonie" written by numerous poets coming from 53 different countries.